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* 



THE SURVEY 



Vol. XXXV 
October, 1915 — March, 1916 



with index- 



New York 
SURVEY ASSOCIA1 

105 East 



W 1 UKK 

SSOCIATES, Inc. ^t^ 

T 22D STREEI ' ^}t-f 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. DE FOREST Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL.... Washington 
ROBERT S. BREWSTER. .. .New York 

RICHARD C. CABOT Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND Boulder 

SAMUEL S. FELS Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKEL New York 

JOHN M. GLENN New York 

C. M. GOETHE Sacramento 

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York 



WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 

JOSEPH LEE Boston 

JULIAN W. MACK Chicago 

V. EVERIT MACY New York 

CHARLES D. NORTON New York 

SIMON N. PATTEN Philadelphia 

JULIUS ROSENWALD: Chicago 

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago 

LILLIAN D. WALD New York 

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn 

FRANK TUCKER, Treas New York 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec. .New York 



THE STAFF 

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

EDWARD T. DEVINE 

GRAHAM TAYLOR 

JANE ADDAMS 



ARTHUR P. KELLOGG 

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR 

JAMES P. HEATON 

JOHN A. FITCH 

DAVID C. DAVIS 

WINTHROP D. LANE 

GRACE M. JOHNSTON 

MARY CHAMBERLAIN 

GERTRUDE SEYMOUR 

FLETCHER D. DODGE 



) 



35 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

BERNARD FLEXNER 
HENRY W. THURSTON 

PHILIP JACOBS 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY 

JOHN IHLDER 

PORTER R, LEE 

VIDA D. SCUDDER 

SHELBY M. HARRISON 

ALICE HAMILTON 

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN 

I. M. RUBINOAV 



A JOURNAL of SOCIAL EXPLORATION 



Index 



volume xxxv 
October, 1915 — March, 1916 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and 
in a few eases under titles. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are 
entered under their subjects. The precise wording of titles has not been 
retained where abbreviation or paraphrase has seemed more desirable. 



Abbott, Grace, 534. 

Aberdeen, Countess of, 573. 

Academic freedom (E. T. Devine), 561. 

See also Nearing, Scott. 
Accidents. 

Seamen, fatal, 640. 

Trespassing on railroad tracks, 640. 

See also Industrial accidents. 
Acolyte, The little (poem), 161. 
Actors' Fund of America, 593. 
Adam Memorial Hospital, 451. 
Adamson, Robert, 446. 
Addams, Jane, 61. 

Conference of neutrals, 495. 

Peace views, 505. 

Woman suffrage, 85. 

Women, war and suffrage, 148. 
Administration, 397. 

Institute for efficiency in, 741. 
Adoption by advertisement, 285. 
Advocate of Peace, 265. 
Aery, Wm. Anthony. An educational statesman (R. C. 

Ogden), 112. 
Aked, Rev. Chas. F., portrait, 585. 
Alabama. 

Education in, 619. 

Legislative results, 62. 
Alcohol. 

Chicago dry Sunday, 80. 

Chicago's dry-wet issue, 197. 

Italy, 126. 

Minneapolis, 26. 

Moderate drinking, 467. 

Montclair, N. J., 157; (cartoon), 159. 

New Bedford campaign, 102. 

Silhouette arguments, 66, 67. 

Syphilis and (exhibit), 454. 

Thompson, Vance, on moderate drinking, 467. 
Alcoholism, 555. 

Aldis, Mary. Petticoats (quotation), 86. 
Aldridge, Henry R., 215. 
Aliens. 

Arizona's law, 155. 

East Youngstown fire, 477. 

Graduate nurses and alien contract labor, 315, 334. 

Labor cartoon, 155. 

Public works and, 284. 
Allahabady lepers, 80. 
Allen, Wm. H., 284. 

Higher education surveys, with letters from the staff 
of the University of Wisconsin, 602-606. 

University of Wisconsin survey reviewed, 349-351; 354- 
361. 
Allentown, Pa., 343. 
Almy, Frederic. Not alms (Christmas giving in Buffalo; 

letter), 646. 
Alpha Zeta Pi, 620. 

'Am I My Brother's Keeper?' (picture), 693. 
Amalgamated Clo'hing Workers. See under Strikes. 
America. See United States. 
America First campaign, 99. 
American Association for Labor Legislation, 287. 

Annual meeting, 490. 
American Association of University Professors, first pub- 
lic meeting, 485. 
American Civic Association, eleventh annual meeting, 490. 
American Economic Association, meeting, 488. 



American Federation of Labor, conference at San Fran- 
cisco, 306. 

American Federalionist, 288. 

American Home Economics Association, annual meeting, 
54. 

American language, 620. 

American Medicine gold medal, 113. 

American Political Science Association, meeting, 489. 

American Public Health Association, Rochester confer- 
ence, report, 53. 

American School Peace League prizes, 174. 

American Social Hygiene Association. See under Social 
hygiene. 

American Sociological Society, 225. 
Tenth annual meeting, 488. 

American Telephone and Telegraph Co., 109. 

Americanization. 

National Americanization Committee's campaign, 99. 
Philadelphia conference, 534. 

Anatomy most melancholy, an (annual reports), 509. 

Anderson, E. R., 197. 

Anderson, Molly W. Hymn of child welfare, 699. 

Annin, Robt. E., Jr. Nine men and a city acre, 345. 

Annual reports. 
Letter on, 646. 
Reflections on, 509. 

Anthracite companies. See Coal companies. 
Anthrax, 628. 

Anti-Militarism Committee, organization, statement, pro- 
gram, 370. 
Antin, Mary, 534. 
Anli-Preparedness Committee, 632. 

Anti-Tuberculosis Association. See under Tuberculosis. 
Anti-vivisection. Sec Vivisection. 
Apartment house for working girls, 638. 
A. P. K. Preparedness (poem), 177. 
Applegate, F. G., Jr., 233. 
Arabian children, 341. 
Arbitration, 398. 
Arbitration, international, 707. 
Argentine National Child Welfare Congress, 124 
Arizona. 

Anti-alien law, 284. 

Anti-alien law unconstitutional, 155. 

Woman suffrage, 96. 
Arkansas, notes of a traveler, 618. 
Armenian poems, 257-262, 276. 
Armenian Sunday, 174. 
Armenians. 

Annihilation threatened, 3. 

Appeal to America for help, 57. 

Poems, illustrations, etc., 257-262, 276. 

Students (group), 261. 
Armstrong, Dr. and Mrs. Donald B., 714. 
Army, U. S. 

Democratic (letter), 646. 

Syphilis, 452. 
Army for a democracy, 435. 
Arnold, Alfred G., 411. 
Arson and citizenship, 477. 

Asheville, N. C, Civic Betterment League, 346. 
Ashland, Oregon, 204. 

Ashtabula, O., proportional representation, 159. 
Ashworth, John H., 116. 
Asilomar Conference Grounds, 482. 

Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. 741. 
Athens, Ohio, playground, 642. 
Athletics, 243. 
Atlanta. Ga.. negro orphan asylum, 517. 



Ill 



IV 



Index 



Autolysin, 284, 300, 520. 

Avery, Samuel P., medallion by Brenner. 18. 

Ayres, Leonard P.. 340. 

B 
Babies. 

English appeal to save, 177. 

Saving the sight of, 43. 

See also Infant mortality. 
Babuska, 339. 
Baby, defective, 227, 265. 
Baby week, 474. 

Poster, 653. 

Ten million reasons for (with cuts), 698, 699. 
Bachman, Frank P., 115. 
Baird, G. M. P., 3. 
Baker, Newton D., 103, 225. 

Luncheon at end of mayorship, 501. 

Sketch (with portrait), 716. 

Statement favoring Brandeis, 684. 
Balch, Emily G., 61. 

Third row (letter), 440. 

Time to make peace, 24. 
Baldwin, Esther E. The town that did not stay content. 

139. 
Ballot. See Woman Suffrage. 
Balofsky case, 612. 
Baltimore. 

Chart of social work and needs, 62. 

Children's Playground Association report, 50. 

Health folder, 71. 

Ice-skating rink, 617. 

Nearing lectures announced, 35. 

Peace and patriotism (two meetings), 314. 

Prostitution, 229. 

Prostitution (Vice Commission report), 746. 

Social Service Co-operation courses, 35, 49. 

Women's Civic League, 621. 
Baltimore (periodical), 55. 
Banking. See Morris plan. 

Barclay, C. de Lamy. Letter on health of travelers, 364. 
Barleycorn, John, in crayon, 102. 
Barnett, Canon and Mrs. Samuel A., 302. 
Baroda, 113. 
Barren Island, 628. 
Bathing, street car card, 474. 
Bayne, Mary, 233. 
Beckett. Mrs. A. L., 178. 
Bedinger, Geo. R., 224. 
Beebe, Dr. S. P., 284. 
"Beeters", 655-6C0, 687, 688. 
Beggars in Newark, N. J. (letter), 470. 
Belgian Maternity Home, 229. 
Belgian orphans, 456. 
Belgium. 

Brangwyn's illustrations, 210. 

Watchers (cartoon), 35. 
Bellairs, Mrs. Carolyn, 229. 
Beman, Lamar T., 590. 

Sketch and portrait, 498. 
Benedict, Crystal Eastman. 

Interview with Aletta Jacobs, 46. 

Platform of real preparedness, 160 
Bengough, John, cartoons, 102. 
Benjamin, Paul H. 

Disgorging the saloon, 26. 

Industrial education convention, 591. 

Quoted on Hennepin county (Minn.) prohibition cam- 
paign, 82. 
Berg, David E., 606. 
Berkeley, Cal., city plan, 757. 
Besant, Annie, 599. 
Beth-Israel Hospital, 575. 
Betts, Frederick W., 447. 

Bicknell, Ernest P., 4, 311. ' , 

Bicknell, Mrs. E. P. Refugee children in France, 455. 
Billings, Dr. Frank, 652. 
Billings, Harriet M. The Mill (poem), 576. 
Binet scale, 117. 
Birmingham, Ala. 

Budget — way out of debt, 79. 
Department store clerks, 118. 
Birth certificates. 

Need of simplifying, 202. 
Value, 520. 



Birth control, 364. 

Catholic church and, 671. 

Commentary on the propaganda (J. A. Field), 599. 

Emma Goldman's oral propaganda, 708. 

Holland movement. 142. 

Letter from L. A. Walker, 765. 

Letter of thanks for Father Ryan's article, 735. 

Plea on the stage, 199. 

Sanger indictment quashed, 628. - 

Sanger trial notice, 446. 
Birth of a Nation, 694. 
Birthday party (drawing), 641. 
Bishop, Ernest G. Damaged Goods (letter), 440 
Blackie, Canada, 235. 
Blackwell, Alice Stone. 

Song of hands (poem from the Spanish), 722. 

Songs of exile (Armenian), 257-262. 276. 
Blackwell, Elizabeth, 22. 
Blackwell, Emily, M.D. 

Appreciation, 22. 

Dedication of ward, 621. 
Blarcom. See Van Blarcom. 
Blindness. 

Binet test for children, 114. 

National Committee for the Prevention of, 650. 

National Committee for the Prevention of, meeting. 
193. 

Pity the blind (cartoon), 445. 

See also Babies. 
Bloomfield, Meyer, 170. 
Blue, Dr. Rupert, 113. 

Portrait, 461. 
Bogalusa, La., 621. 
Bohemians, 624, 625. 
Bolduan, Dr. Charles, 71. 
Bollinger baby, 227, 265. 
Bombay. 

Health exhibit, 113. 

Social Service League, 76. 

Y. W. C. A., 483. 
Bonfoot, H. Letter to The Survey, 118. 
Hook reviews. 

American Xegro, as a Dependent Defective and Delin- 
quent (McCord), 52. 

America's Greatest Problem (Shufeldt), 216. 

Baby's First Two Years (Smith), 522. 

Black and White in the Southern States (Evans), 644 

Case for Town Planning, The (Aldridge), 215. 

Childhood in the Moslem World (Zwemer), 341. 

Civilization and Climate (Huntington), 589. 

Closed Doors, Studies of Deaf and Blind Children 
(Montague), 303. 

Community Snrvey in Relation to Church Efficiency 
(Carroll), 643. 

Cry for Justice (Sinclair), 302. 

Current Economic Problems (Hamilton), 466. 

Dear Enemy (Webster), 645. 

Drink and Be Sober (Thompson), 467. 

Education for Industrial Workers (Schneider), 115. 

Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 (Woodson), 521 

Education Through Play (Curtis), 217. 

Eugenics: A Science and an Ideal (Schuster), 117 

Feeblemindedness, its Causes and Consequences (God- 
dard, 521. 

Great Society, The (Wallas), 302. 

Habits that Handicap (Towns), 439. 

Handbook of Chic Improvement (James), 522. 

Helper and American Trade Unions, The (Ashworthi. 
116. 

House on Henry Street (Wald), 437. 

How Farmers Co-operate and Double Profits (Poe). 
116. 

Immigration (Recly), 216. 

Iowa histories, 51. 

Japanese Problem in the United States (Millis), 115. 

Laws Relating to Sexual Immorality in New York City 
(Spingarn), 589. 

Learning by Doing (Swift), 303. 

Lives Worth Living (Peabody), 217. 

Manual for Health Officers (MacNutt), 115. 

Minimum Rates in the Tailoring Trade (Tawney), 165 

Mothers' Pensions (Bullock), 216. 

Old Age Pensions (Hoare), 438. 

Outdoor relief, six books reviewed bv Porter R I.ec 
729. 



Index 



Painless childbirth (Tracy and Boyd), 466. 

Pathological Lying, Accusation and Swindling ( Mealy). 
303. 

Play in Education (Lee), 168. 

Playing the Lone Game (Galbreath), 590. 

Population: A Study in Malthusianism (Thompson), 
169. 

Portland Survey (Cubberley), 115. 

Practicable Socialism (Barnett), 302. 

Problems of Community Life (Eldridge), 466. 

Problems in Elementary School Administration (Bach- 
man), 115. 

Profitable Vocations for Boys (Weaver and Byler), 52. 

Prohibition of the Liquor Traffic (Beman), 590. 

Readings on the Relation of Government to Property 
and Industry (Orth), 644. 

Readings in Vocational Guidance (Bloomfield), 170. 

Schools of Tomorrow (Dewey), 438. 

Short Ballot (Bullock), 216. 

Social Evangelism (Ward), 643. 

Social Teachings of Christ Jesus (Jennings), 643. 

Socialised Germany (Howe), 643. 

Story of a Pioneer (Shaw), 303. 

Story of the Bible (Stock), 522. 

Syphilis as a Modern Problem (Pusey), 645. 

Three R's of Rescue Mission Work (Roberts), 522. 

Twilight Sleep (Hellman), 466. 

Way to Win (Fisher and others), 643. 

Wealth and Income of the People of the United States 
(King), 116. 

What Every Mother Should Know (Kerley), 51. 
Books received, 52, 117, 170, 217, 304, 439, 467, 522, 590, 645. 
Borger, Dr. W. A., 528. 
Boston. 

Alcohol campaign, Silhouette poster, 66, 67. 

Associated Charities and Unemployment, 162. 

Associated Charities, bequest to, 290. 300. 

Children's Friend Society, 285. 

Dawes hotel, 724. 

Juvenile court, 723. 

League for Preventive Work, 453. 

"Little Wanderers" new home, 49. 

Public Christmas, 206. 

Statue of Anne Hutchinson, 281. 

Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 736. 

Y. W. C. A., 535. 
Bowen, Mrs. J. T., 195. 
Bowen, Louise de Koven. "Prisoners Base" in Pittsburgh, 

763. 
Boy Scouts, 225. 

Militarism and, 342. 

Not anti-military, 124. 
Boyd, Mary, 466. 
Boys. 

Community and, 507, 524. 

Preparing for a career, book on, 52. 
Bradlaugh, Chas., 599. 
Bradley, Richard, 519. 

Bragaw, John C. Letter on Caswell Training School, 173. 
Brandeis, Louis D., 597, 712. 

Good result from discussion of his nomination (Edi- 
torial), 681. 

Nominated for Supreme Court, 531, 559. 

Portrait, 213, 531. 

Social Workers in Boston favor appointment to Su- 
preme Court, 623. 

Statement at Washington from Newton D. Baker and 
many others, 684. 
Brandreth, Paulina. Dare we judge (poem), 516. 
Brangwyn, Wm. Francis, 210. 
Braucher, Howard S. 

My neighbor and I, 342. 

Review of Lee's Play in Education, 168. 
Brazil, 718, 719. 

Bread and bakery products wrapped in paper, 737. 
Breckinridge, Mrs. Henry W. Letter on John Martin, 765. 
Breckinridge. Sophonisba P. 

Haiti survey (letter), 647. 

The unshackeled spirit (B. T. Washington), 222. 
Brenner, Victor. 

Cut of his plaque "The Torch-bearer of Education," 
349. 

Sketch, portrait and cuts of his plaques and medallions. 
15-22. 
Breshkovsky, Catherine. 339. 



Brewster, Wm. Nesbitt. Silver lining of the war cloud, 64. 

Bridgeport, Conn., 237-242, 267. 

Briggs, John E., 51. 

Brittain, Horace L., 605. 

"Bromide Smith." Letter on peace and war, 497. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bureau of Charities street car card on bathing, 474. 

Factory fire, 157. 
Brooklyn Navy Yard explosion, 473. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., spitting cards, 473. 
Brooks, Harlow. Review of Towns's Habits that Handi- 
cap, 439. 
Brooks, John Graham, portrait and note, 213. 212. 
Brotherhood, 313, 335. 
Brown, Rome G, 150. 
Bruere, Martha B., 407. 
Brunner, Edmund de S., 713. 

Country church of the Pennsylvania German, 513. 
Brushing hats and coats on trains (letter), 364. 
Bryn Mawr, fire prevention study by graduates, 533. 
Bryson, Lyman. The flood (poem), 751. 
Bubble fountain, 50. 

Buchanan, Ella. Militarism (statuary group), 314. 
Buck. See Burk. 

Budget, state (N. Y.) control, 446. 
Bufano, Beneanimo, 233. 
Buffalo. 

Charity Organization Society's appeal, 174. 

Elections, 138. 

Y. W. C. A. swimming pool, 483. 
Bull, Nina. Merry Christmas, 190. 
Bullock, Edna D., 216. 
Burd, Eliza Howard, 123. 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, examination for agents, 366. 
Bureau of Mines, work of salvage and invention (G. R. 

Taylor), 547-553. 
Bureau of Public Health and Hygiene, 371. 
Bureau of Social Service Information. 97. 
Burk, Frederic, 634. 
Burr, Walter, 646. 

Army for a democracy in the 20th century, 435. 
Burton, Theo. E., 362. 
Business men on war prevention. 473. 
Business school, Columbia University. 593. 
"Business war," women and, 523. 
Butler, Amos W., 420. 
Byers, Joseph P., 101. 
Byler, j. Frank, 52. 



Cable, Benjamin Stickney, death. 47. 

Cabot, Chas. M., 27, 225. 

Cabot, Frederick Pickering, sketch (with portrait), 723. 

Cafeteria in Y. W. C. A., 483. 

Caged — a question of man or beast (cuts from Chicago 

Tribune), 108. 
California. 

Child welfare work, 700. 

Kindergartens, 620. 

League of Municipalities, 54. 

Woman suffrage, 87. 
Call of the League (Tony Marino), 557. 
Camp Fire Girls, Morristown, N. J., 756. 
Camp for motorists, 204. 
Canada Blackie, 235. 

Canary in mine rescue work (with cut), 549. 
Cancer. 

Autolysin treatment, 284, 300, 520. 

Missouri University in the field against, 114. 

What we know, 188. 
Candy workers, 36. 
Capital punishment, 50. 

Capitalism, non-resident taxation in Minnesota, 63. 
Capper, Arthur. Woman suffrage, 84. 
Cards, Christmas, New Year's, etc., 707. 
Carlisle Indian School Association, 482. 
Carlson, Gov., 740. 
Carlton, Frank T. Political weakness of American labor 

organization, 759. 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Year Book 

reviewed, 235, 264, 265. 
Carnegie peace foundation, 371. 
Carney's Point. See Penns Grove. 
Caroline Rest, 527. 
Carpenter, Edward, 682. 683. 



VI 



I n d e 



Carroll. Charles E.. 643. 

Carson, Robert N., 123. 

Carter, Ray F. Letter of appreciation to The Survey, 55. 
Cat fur, 628. 

Catholic Church and birth restriction, 671. 
Censorship. See Drama. 
Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., 576. 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, 47::. 
Chamberlain, Mary. The Weavers (play), 372. 
Chambers, Christine, poster, 609. 
Chapin, Dr. C. V., 70. 

Charities, Chicago, West Side Charities Building, 347. 
Charities and Correction. 
Illinois, 172. 

Indiana State Conference, progress of 100 years, 420. 
Iowa conference, 308. 
Massachusetts, 171. 
Missouri conference, 308. 
New York conference, 362. 

New York State Board to be investigated, 200. 
New York State Board's responsibility for bad con- 
ditions in children's institutions, 570. 
Ohio conference, 307. 
Pennsylvania, 171. 
South Carolina, 54. 
Vermont, first state conference, 591. 
West Virginia's first state conference, 363. 
See also National Conference of Charities and Correc- 
tion. 
Charity. 

As a luxury (letter), 173. 
Organized, 174. 

Organized, at work (Philadelphia Society exhibit), 
608-609. 
Charity visitors' salaries, 725. 
Charlotte, N. C, 591. 
Chicago. 

Board of Education, public-spirited member, 47. 
Boys' Court, 764. 
Bureau of Public Welfare, 195. 
Civic issues in the primaries, 713. 
Clothing strike, 58. 
Clothing workers' strike ended, 419. 
Commission to investigate crime, 38, 174. 
Community Christmas tree, 206. 

Community program for juvenile delinquency, 507, 524. 
Congress and civic plan, 641. 
Dawes hotel, 724. 
Defamers of the schools, 266. 
Defective baby, 227, 265. 
Dry Sunday, 80. 

Health Department bulletin (diagram), 739. 
Industrial club, 313. 
National Safety Council, 443. 
Physicians' Club, 652. 
Social service directory, 203. 
Sunday-closing law complications, 197. 
Tag day, 454. 
Teachers' Federation, 1. 
Tuberculosis sanitarium, 198. 
West Side Charities Building, 347. 
Women offenders, 723. 
Women's city platform, 742. 
Chicago and North Western Railway Co., bulletin (with 

cuts), 640. 
Chicago Arts Institute. 225. 
Chicago Association of Commerce, 362. 
Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, extension 

courses, 725. 
Chicago Tribune, jail pictures, 108. 
Chicago Tribune on women and "business war," 523. 
Child, Prof. Chas. M., ti:.:?. 
Child labor. 

Boy cotton picker in the South, verses and cut, 1. 

Congress, 218. 

Manly report, 329. 

Manufacturers' News and O. R. Lovejoy on, 502. 

Massachusetts C. L. committee, 1916 program, 469. 

National Child Labor Committee conference at Ashe- 

ville, N. C, and results, 596. 
Owen-Keating bill, 502. 531, 
Postcard, 281. 
South against, 596. 
Tariff against (letter), 407. 
See also "Beeters." 



Child Labor Day, 454. 

Child study at the Little Wanderers' Home, Boston, 49. 

Child welfare. 

All America conference, 124. 
California work, 700. 
Chicago program for, 507, 524. 
Hymn of, 699. 
Kansas cities, 203. 
Moslem, 341. 

New York (City) Board of, applications, 55. 
See also Baby Week. 
Childhood in the Moslem World, 341. 
Children. 

County survey by, 755. 
Death of a child (poem), 476. 
Equal rights in all states, 651. 
How to grow, 51. 

Institutions in New York, conditions. 570. 
Joy Zone, 164, 165. 
Missouri Code Commission, 118. 
New York death rates, 405. 
Pittsburgh and Chicago arrests, 763. 
Children's courts. 

District of Columbia, 739. 

Massachusetts plan for revising juvenile conn law, 

723. 
New (cuts), 486, 487. 

Probation or prisons for boys? (ludge Fry's case), 
624. 
"Children's National Tuberculosis Society," 36. 
Children's orchestra, 203. 
Children's Playhouse, Columbus, Ohio, 615. 
Children's ward (poem), 476. 
Children's Week. See Baby Week. 
China. 

Shanghai Y. W. C. A, 483. 
Social service beginnings, 347. 
Christian work in Latin America, 717. 
Christmas. 

Buffalo gifts, 646. 

Children out of the reach of, 341. 

Community movement, 205. 

Madison Square pantomime, 371. 

Merry Christmas! (commercialization), 190. 

Morning in Europe (cartoon), 340. 

Sales girls (cut from the Ten Hour Law Bureau), 

312. 
Shop early idea, 294, 295. 
Shopping late (cartoon), 57. 
Trees (illustrations), 205-207. 
Christmas cards, old, 707, 765. 

Church (country) of the Pennsylvania German. 513. 
Church and community, books on, 643. 
Church and Country Life, Conference on. 362. 
Church Peace Union, 371. 
Cincinnati. 

Associated Charities playlet, 421. 
Children's Home Study in infant mortality, 766. 
Conference of Association of Urban Universities, 306. 
Group of a class in citizenship, 518. 
Municipal picnic on Labor Day, 111. 
Voting booths turned into hospitals. 642. 
Cities. 

Cleaning, 346. 
Housing conditions, 57. 
Little dialogues, 48. 

See also Health departments; Municipalities. 
Citizenship in Cincinnati, group of students of 10 nationali- 
ties, 518. 
City bosses, 501. 

City employees, increasing the efficiency of, 453. 
City farming, 345. 
City planning. 

Achievements, 215. 
Lawrence. Mass., 642. 
Lectures by T. B. Williams, 617. 
New York, 752. 

Oakland and Berkeley. Cal . 757. 
Sacramento, 756. 
St. Louis, 642 
Supreme Court on, 654. 
Civic Association. See American Civic Association. 
Civic Betterment League of Asheville. N. C. 346. 
Civic Club of Pittsburgh. 346. 



Index 



vn 



Civic Federation. See National Civic Federation. 
Civics. 

Chicago issues in the primaries, 713. 

Enterprise of Chicago Industrial Club, 313. 

In a nutshell, 522. 
Civil Service, 396. 
Civil Service commissions, personality as a test of fitness 

for positions, 2. 
Claghorn, Kate Holladay. 

Immigration's ebbing tide, 524. 

Review of Millis's The Japanese Problem in the 
United States, 115. 
Clark, Walter E. Review of King's Wealth and Income 

of the People of the United States, 116. 
Clarke, Mary. See Mary Clarke Memorial. 
Cleghorn, Sarah N. 

High finance (poem), 252. 

Portrait of a physician (poem), 25. 

Surgeon conscience (poem), 190. 

The rest (poem), 480. 

War and vivisection (letter and ed. comments), (548. 
Cleveland, O. 

Baker luncheon, 501. 

Blind children, 114. 

Cripples' survey, 724. 

Davis (H. L.), as new mayor, 502. 

Immigration Bureau trouble, 449. 

Juvenile Court payments, 593. 

Mayoralty, 103. 

Movie-izing philanthropies, 421. 

Relief agencies, 730. 

School head, 474. 

School Survey (weekly), 340. 

Soliciting scheme, 36. 

Tuberculous children, 767. 

Wages and bonds (letter), 225. 

Y. W. C. A., 483. 
Cleveland Foundation, 340. 

Survey of Cleveland's Relief Agencies, 729, 730. 
Cleveland Plain Dealer, 625. 

Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers' protocol ended, 712. 
Clopper, Edward N. "Beeters," 655-660, 687, 688. 
Closed shop. See Open shop. 
Clothing. See Strikes. 
Coal companies' publicity campaign in regard to miners' 

demands, 567. 
Cofer, Dr. L. E., sketch and portrait, 498. 
Coffee. Rabbi Rudolph I.. 97. 
Cohen, Julius FL, 712. 
Cohen, Matt S., 640. 
Cohen, Nathan, 593. 

Death, 766. 
Collective bargaining, 398. 
College teaching, 284. 
Collier, John. 

Censorship; and the National Board, 9. 

Comstock, Anthony, 127. 

Film library, 663. 

Theater of tomorrow, 381-385, 411. 
Collier, Paul, 760. 
Colloquy of the oceans, 313. 
Colorado. 

Arrest of Clark and Hawkins, 4. 

"Beeters," 655. 

Coal fields commission, 444. 

Coal fields hospital (letter), 648. 

Lawson and indictments, 81. 

Miners acquitted, 740. 

Rest day for steel workers, 760. 

Smelting strike at Leadville, 740. 

Tuberculosis subsidies, 711. 

Woman suffrage, 86. 

See also Rockefeller. 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Co., 72, 648, 760. 
Columbia, S. C, 201. 
Columbus, O., children's playhouse, 615. 
Commissioner of correction. See under New York (City). 
Commons, John R., 317, 395. 

See also Industrial Relations Commission. 
Community centers. 

Call for workers' conference, 736. 

Schools as, 490. 
Community fireplace, 756. 
Community relationships, 381. 
Community survey, 643. 



Compensation. 

Federal inadequacy, 473. 

New Jersey act, amending, 760. 

New Jersey law as it is and as it should be. 450. 

New legislation, 423. 

Oklahoma, 55. 
Comstock, Anthony (with portrait), 127. 
Conferences. 

Calendar, 98, 196, 338, 499, 500, 621, 737. 

See also names of States and of various bodies. 
Congregational Summer Conference Association. 518. 
Congress, U. S. 

Attention for social legislation, 218. 

Chicago plan and, 641. 

Going to sea (cartoon), 200. 

Labor bills still in committees, 623. 

Publicity, etc., 612. 
Congressional Record, 353. 
Connecticut Research Association, report, 628. 
Conrow, W. S., 234, 235. 
Conscience, surgeon (poem), 190. 
Conscription, 626. 
Conservation. See Reforestation. 
Constantinople, French hospital, 690. 
Consumers' League. 

Late shopping, cartoon, 57. 

Shop early gains, 294, 295. 
Consumers' League movement, twenty-five years of, 212 
Conventions, holiday, 485. 
Cook, Dr. Frederick, 583; 
Cook, Wm. A., 202. 
Cooking, pamphlet of recipes, etc., 501. 
Cooley, Rev. H. R., 498. 
Cooper Union, Ukrainians, 121. 
Co-operation. 

Social service, 347. 

See also Rural co-operation. 
Co-operative dairy and fruit enterprise, 76. 
Copenhagen, group of peace delegates, 579. 
Cost of living. 

Miners and operators, 567. 

Muckers, 5. 
Cothren, Marion B. Tenth annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Sociological Society, 488. 
Cotton, boy picker of, 1. 
Cotton mills, so-called, 502. 

Country, study of women and rural life in Wisconsin, 616. 
Country church. See under Church. 
County survey by school children, 755. 
Courts. 

Appeal to, 396. 

Chart of work of New York City magistrates. Hi™ 

New York (letter), 441. 

Prejudiced judges, 762. 
Covington, Va., Industrial School boys (cut), 447. 
Coyotes, 689. 

Crane, Caroline Bartlett, 682. 
Crane, Chas. R„ 611. 
Creche, the, 661. 
Credalists, 515. 

Cressy, Herbert. The nurse (poem), 126. 
Crime. 

Causes of, 620. 

Chicago's commission to investigate, 38, 174. 
Criminals. 

Children as, 739. 

Manufacturing, 108. 
Cripples, Cleveland survey of, 724. 
Cripples' Holiday Shop, 453. 
Cross, Dr. J. G., 475. 

Cross, Wm. T. Jail and the misdemeanant, 93. 
Cruise, Edith M. Massillon social service league (letter), 

441. 
Cubberley, Elwood P., 115. 
Cullen. Judge, 81. 

Cunningham, Hetty S. Correction as to Dr. Grentel (let- 
ter), 442. 
Curtis, Geo. W., medallion by Brenner, 18. 
Curtis, Henry S., 217. 
Cushier, Elizabeth M. Emily Blackwell — an appreciation, 

22. 

D 
Dallin, Cyrus E., 281. 

Damaged Goods (play), Los Angeles. 440. 
Dare we judge (poem), 516. 



vm 



Index 



Davies, Mary Carolyn. 

Peak, the (poem), 38. 

Why? (poem), 104. 
Davis, Harry L., attack on civil service as mayor of Cleve- 
land, 502. 
Davis, Katherine B. 

First report as commissioner of correction, 36. 

Parole commission head, 415. 

Portrait, 415. 
Davis, Wm. Stearns, 497, 592. 

Letter on preparedness (with editorial comment), 440. 
Dawes hotels, Boston and Chicago, 724. 
Dayton, Ohio, municipal conferences, 305. 
Dayton, Judge A. D., charges against, 762. 
Dayton, Helena Smith, caricature statuette of a male 

voter, 42. 
Dead letter office for misdirected men, 208. 
Death, sudden, 652. 

Death penalty. See Capital punishment. 
Death rate. 

New York children of native and of foreign parentage, 
405. 

War, 147. 
Debaters, "ponies" for, 216. 
Defective baby, 227, 265. 

Defense, national. See Peace; Preparedness; War. 
Delaware, whipping, 405, 518. 
De Leon, Solon. Letter on John Martin, 765. 
Democracy, army for, 435. 
Denmark, Ford peace expedition in, 583. 
Dentists, 316. 

Denver, Colo., tuberculosis subsidies, 711. 
Department stores, minimum wage in Massachusetts, 35. 
Deuel, Magistrate, 441. 
Devine, Edward T. 

Academic freedom, 561. 

Harm of low wages, 29. 

Pan-American Scientific Congress, 485. 

Pauperism, 553-556. 

Preparedness and social and industrial justice, 732. 

Profession in the making (social work), 408. 

Relief corps for Russian prison camps, 595. ? 

Through good will to peace, 335. 
Dewey. Evelyn, 438. 
• Dewey, John, 438. 
Dialogues, city. See Little dialogues of a big city. 
Diamond factory fire. See under Fires. 
Diarbekir. gateway, 257. 
Diedling. Dr. R. F., 739. 

Diet, recipes, etc., in Health Department pamphlet, 501. 
Dietaries, democratic, 407. 
Diminutive Philanthropist (journal), 593. 
Directory, social service, 203. 
Dirt not disease, 70. 

District of Columbia. Children's Court, 739. 
Division Street. 627. 
Documents, public, 352. 
Dodd, Alvin E. Review of Weaver and Byler's Profitable 

Vocations for Boys, 52. 
Doherty, Wm. J., 570. 
Dollman, J. C, 693. 
Dolls at the Joy Zone, 164, 165. 
Domestic worker (letter), 646. 
Dorn, Dudley. Domestic workers (letter), 646. 
Double standard, 639. 
Downes. Maynard, 452. 
Drama. 

Censorship; and the National Board (Collier), 9. 

Comstock, Anthony, 127. 

Film library (Collier), 663. 

Theater of tomorrow (Collier), 381-385, 411. 
Dreamer (verses on Henry Ford), 282. 
Dress and waist industry, new agency in, 694. 
Dress and Waist Manufacturers' Association, 597. 
Drew, Walter. Open and closed shop in the structural iron 

industry, 702, 705 (editorial comment). 
Drinking, moderate, 467. 

See also Alcohol. 
Dripps, Robt. D., 47, 498. 
Drug habit, 439. 
Drugless therapy, 316. 
Drummond, Michael J., death, 592. 
Duffv-Powers Co.. 501. 
Duke, Dr. J. W.. 726. 
Dunbar. Paul L. Poem on B. T. Washington, 508. 



Dunkard Church, 514. 

Dunne, Governor, 50. 

Dunwoody, Wm. H., 503. 

Du Pont powder works at Penns Grove, 539. 

Dutchess County, N. Y. 

Outdoor relief, 731. 

See also under New York (State). 
Dwight, Helen C. Immigrant madonna (verses), 



281. 



East Youngstown, Ohio. 

Arson and citizenship, 477. 

Steel companies indicted for alleged restraint of wages, 
711. 
Eastland disaster. 

Federal court on, 653. 

Grand Rapids hearing, 598. 

Held to account, 45. 

Redfield, Wm. C, letter from, 55. 
Eastman. Max. What shall we do with patriotism? 403. 
Easton, Christopher. Persistent delusions (letter), 470. 
Eckhart, Eunice, 47. 
Eckstein, Henry J., 348. 

Economic Association. See American Economic Associa- 
tion. 
Economic theorizing and scientific progress, 577. 
Edgmiatsin, 262. 
Edlund, Roscoe C, 528. 

Edmundson. Antonette. The little acolyte (poem), 161. 
Education. 

Alabama conditions, 619. 

Annual report of federal commissioner. 49. 

Industry and, 422. 

Maryland conditions, 619. 

Social, 336. 

Surveys of higher, 602. 

Torch-bearer (cut of Brenner's plaque), 349. 

See also Industrial education; Public schools; Wiscon- 
sin, University of. 
Egyptian ophthalmia, 712. 
Eight-hour day. See Hours of Labor. 
Eight week club, 482. 
Eleanor Clubs, 766. 
Eldridge, Seba. 466. 
Election results, Nov. 2, 158. 
Eliot, Charles W., 102. 
Eliot, Thomas D. Letter on Erving Winslow's article on 

"Philanthropic Individualism." 173. 
Elliott. John, 476. 
Ellis, Chas. E., 123. 
Emerson. Harrington, 675. 
Emerson, Dr. Haven, 126. 
Emerson, R. W., medallion by Brenner. 16. 
Employment, 366. 

See also Unemployment. 
Enforcement (of factory inspection law). 191. 
England, appeal to save the babies, 177. 
English language campaign. 99. 
Epileptics. Indiana Village, 373. 
Erectors. See National Erectors. 
Ericsson, Ellie, portrait. 586. 
Erstwhile Susan (play), 713. 

Etcher of Henry Street (Abraham Phillips), 135-138, 146. 
Eugenical News (journal), 593. 
Eugenics. 

Main facts, 117. 

Registry. 593. 
Europe, population increase. I4ti 
Evans, Maurice S., 644. 

Evarts, Wm. M., medallion by Brenner, 16. 
Exits or sprinklers (letter), 441. 
Extension teaching in Massachusetts, 348. 
Eye strain, 124. 

Eyesight. See Babies; Blindness. 
Ezdorf. Dr. R. H. von, 416. 



Fabian plan, 183, 185. 
Facial wounds, 528. 
Factories. 

Closing by Fire Commissioner Adamson, 446. 

England and the war, 451. 

Fire hazards in New York Citv. 181. 

Fire law (letter), 364. 

Inspection. 191. 283. 



Index 



IX 



Fairhope, Ala., 365. 

Fairs, interstate, 343. 

Family, lack of interest in, 682. 

Family life, 629. 

Farm colonies (New York) for vagrants and ineberiates, 

625. 
Farm Credits. See Marketing and Farm Credits. 
Farm women, 616. 
Farmers. 

Co-operation, 116. 

See also Tenant farmers. 
Farms for post-bellum Jewish immigrants, 312. 
Farms in Indiana for defectives and delinquents, 373. 
Farrar, Attorney General of Colorado, 4. 
Fatigue, 678. 
Favill, Dr. Henry B., 649, 652. 

Appreciation, by Graham Taylor, 704. 

Editorial note, 705. 
Feagin, Wm. F., 619. 
Feebleminded, the, 555. 

Boston league to prevent, 453. 

Field Workers' Committee, 766. 

First hand data on, 521. 

Indiana farm colonies, 373. 

North Carolina, 173. 

Reforestation by boys, 286. 
Fellow, H. C. Verses on child labor in the South, 1. 
Fellowship of Reconciliation, 311. 
Feminism. See Women. 
Feminism: Its Fallacies and Follies, 629. 
Feminist. Letter on John Martin, 765. 
Fernberger, Samuel W. International peace (letter). 649. 
Field, Anne P. L. Banked fires (poem), 234. 
Field, Jas. A. Publicity by prosecution (birth control), 

599. 
Fields, Mrs. Jas. T., bequest, 290, 300. 
Fighting instinct, 243-248. 
Filene, Edward A., 362, 473. 
Filipinos, 624, 625. 
Film library, 663. 
Finance, high (poem), 252. 

Fire drills, none for children with heart disease, 519. 
Fire escapes (letter from I. G Hoagland and comment), 

441. 
Fire prevention, 441. 

Bryn Mawr college graduates' study in Pennsylvania, 
533. 
Fires. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., factory, 157. 

Brooklyn lesson (editorial), 191. 

Brooklyn (Williamsburg) coroner's jury findings, 283. 

Brooklyn (Williamsburg) sequel, 446. 

Brooklyn (Williamsburg) warning, 181. 

East Youngstown, 477. 

Letter from I. G. Hoagland, 765. 

Peabody, Mass., school, 157. 

Poem on factory fire, 192. 

Sprinklers and exits (editorial), 762. 
Fisher, Fred B., 643. 

Fisher, Stokely S. Ministry of the mother (poem), 410. 
Fiske, G. Walter, 362. 
Fitch, John A. 

Annual meeting of the American Association for Labor 
Legislation, 490. 

Arson and citizenship (East Youngstown fire), 477. 

Commons report, 395-400. 

Introductory review of reports of Industrial Relations 
Commission, 317. 

Keir Hardie, his leadership and death, 27. 

On the attraction of gravitation, 758. 

Rockefeller plan, 147. 

Tactics of violence (review of Grant report), 432. 
Flexner, Hortense. Children's ward (poem), 476. 
Flint, Chas. W. Review of Iowa histories, 51. 
Flood, the (poem), 751. 
Flood, Jeremiah J., 197, 283. 
Floods in New Orleans, 365. 
Florida cities and vagrants, 766. 
Fly poison, 708. 
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley. 

Contest with Paterson, 283. 

The Weavers (letter), 648. 
Food and feeding. 

Liftman pamphlet, 501. 

See also Pure food law. 



Food supply and population, 169. 

Forbes, Mrs. W. A. Letter favoring preparedness and 

discontinuing The Survey, 497. 
Ford, Henry. 

Cartoons; verse; passengers on his peace ship, 282. 

Editorial on, 301. 

Grenfell not with (letter), 497. 

Peace ship, 227, 228, 263, 457. 

Portrait, 580. 

See also Lattimore, F. L. 
Ford, James. Review of Poe's How Farmers Co-operate 

and Double Profits, 116. 
Ford, Louise F. Obituary notice, 527. 
Fountain, bubble, 50. 
France. 

Cottage hospital, 201. 

Harvesting by women and children, 37. 

Refugee children, 455. 
Frank, Walter. Letter on old Christmas cards, etc., 707. 
Frankfurter, Felix, 761, 762. 

Franklin, Jean Dwight. Verses to J. A. Riis, 339. 
Fraser, Lovat, on the war, 611. 
Frederick, J. M. H, 474. 
Free speech. 

How one town learned a lesson in, 106. 

Noonan, T. J., on W. M. Short's article; reply by 
W. M. Short, 225. 

Sanger case, 446. 
Freedom. 

Academic. See Academic freedom. 

Plea for submerged peoples, 624. 
Fresh air (baby poster), 653. 
Frey, John P., 42:;. 

Portrait, 675. 
Friends, Religious Society of, 736. 
Fry, Sherman E., 624. 
Fuld, Leonhard F„ 453. 

Fuller, Mary Breese. A prophecy and its fulfillment, 105. 
Futures, dealing in (North Carolina boy), 418. 



Gabriel, M. Simbad, 3. 

Galbreath, Thos. C, 590. 

Galsworthy, John, 682. 

Gambling in San Francisco, 79. 

Gantt, H. L., 675. 

Garden acre, Jamaica Plain, 345. 

Garden Theater, 372, 384, 385. 

Garment workers' protocol ended, 712. 

Garrison, Lindley M., preparedness views, 505. 

Garrison, Wm. L., Jr. The toe of the Puritan stocking 

(taxation), 475. 
Gary, 111., pictures of the school system, 88, 89. 
Gary, Judge E. H., 638. 
George Peabody College for Teachers, 307. 
Georgia. 

Public health nursing, 202. 

Public service commission, 109. 
German measles, 593. 
Germans in New York City, 334. 
Germany. 

Contradictions, 643. 

Winslow, Erving, on, 117. 
Gill, Isabelle K., 453. 
Gingerbread House, 757. 
Girl's. 

Internationalism in Boston Y. W. C. A.. 535. 

Orphan, 123. 
Glenn, Helen, 528. 
Glenn, John M. (Chicago), 502. 
Goddard, Hen. H., 521. 
Goldberger, Dr. Jos., 462. 

Goldman, Emma, oral propaganda of contraceptive meth- 
ods, 708. 
Goldmark, Josephine, 761. 

Portrait, 214. 

Review of Tawney's Minimum Rates in the Tailoring 
Trade, 465. 

Tenement house work and the courts, 612. 
Goldmark, Pauline, portrait, 214. 
Goldwater, Dr. S. S., 126. 
Gotnpers, Samuel. 

Letters between trade union leaders on war and inter- 
nationalism, 288. 

Preparedness views, 506. 



n 



e x 



Gonorrhoea, 253. 

See also Venereal diseases. 
Good Samaritan (twentieth century version), 610. 
Gordnier, Thos. H. Letter on race suicide, 646. 
Gordon, Ernest, interview with, 568. 
Gordon, F. G. R. Letter on The Weavers, 470. 
Gorgas, Wm. C, 475, 528. 
Gould, Joseph F. 

Review of Hamilton's Current Economic Problems, 
466. 

Review of Healy's Pathological Lying, etc., 303. 

Review of Shufeldt's America's Greatest Problem, 216. 

Review of Woodson's Education of the Negro, 521. 
Government. 

Institute for efficiency in, 741. 

Property and, 644. 

See also World government. 
Grand juries and causes of crime, 620. 
Granny Gray and the Happy Hogartys (playlet), 421. 
Grant, Luke, 432, 702, 705. 
Graphic representation standards, 617. 
Greene, Elizabeth, 113. 
Great Britain. 

Industrial situation as seen by Miss Sloan, 692. 

Need of physicians, 520. 
Great Lakes, 2 poems of the, 734. 
Greek temple of medicine, 519. 
Greenwich, Conn., health report, 628. 
Greenwich Village, poverty, 730. 
Grenfell, Wilfred T., 442. 

Not with Ford (letter), 497. 
Griffin, Walter B., 617. 
Grippe epidemic, 444. 
Grouitch, Madame, 334. 
Grundmann, Dr., 520. 
Guilfoy, Dr. Wm., 405. 
Gunn. Dr. Selskar M., 114. 
Gunsaulus, F. W., 225. 
Gutenberg. 663. 

H 

Hague, The. 

Group of Ford peace delegates, 580, 581. 

See also Woman's Peace Congress. 
Haig, Robt. M., 366. 

Haines, M. Rainsford. Pity! (poem), 110. 
Haiselden, Dr., 227. 
Haiti, 493. 

Survey (letter), 647. 
H albert, L. A. Continuous accounting vs. surveys (letter), 

707. 
Hale, Robert L. Review of Orth's Readings on the Relation 

of Government to Property and Industry, 644. 
Hallinan, Chas. T. Putting pins in preparedness, 632. 
Hamilton, Dr. Alice. 

Bollinger case, 265. 

Is science for or against human welfare? 560. 

On conference of American Public Health Association, 
53. 

Race suicide in Europe, 407. 

Reply to letter of Gilbert Murray, 173. 

What we know about cancer, 188. 
Hamilton, W. H., 466. 
Hampton Institute, Ogden Memorial, 112. 
Hands, a song of, 722. 
Hardie, Keir, death and leadership, 27. 
Hare-Spence system. See Proportional representation. 
Harper, Sam'l H, views on Russia, 611. 
Harpoot, 258. 

Harris, Abraham W., 102, 193. 

Harris, Eugene A. Mexican migrants (letter), 735. 
Harris, Dr. Louis I., 727. 
Harrisburg, Pa., merger of societies, 348. 
Harrison, Shelby M. Review of Eldridge's Problems of 

Community Life, 466. 
Harry, Lucy, 233. 

Hart, Schaffner and Marx, 58, 366. 

Hartman, Edward T. Review of Howe's Socialized Ger- 
many, 643. 
Harvard University, recreation courses, 50. 
Harvesting in France, 37. 
Hauptmann, Gerhart, 372, 384, 385. 
Hay, John, medallion by Brenner, 17. 
Haynes, Rowland, 592. 
Headlee, Frances K. Minimum wage in Washington, 449. 



Health. 

Chicago bulletin (diagram), 739. 

"Drugless therapy" offered by Chicago department of 
health, 316. 

See also Public health. 
Health departments of cities, survey of, 574. 
Health exhibit in Bombay, 113. 
Health insurance. See under Insurance. 
Healy, William and Mary, 303. 
Heart disease in children, 519. 
Heaton, Jas. P. Municipal research, ten years of the 

pioneer New York Bureau, 230. 
Hebrew Infant Asylum, 691. 

Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society, 415. 421. 
Hegermann, Werner, 757. 
Heliotherapy, 451. 
Hellman, A. M., 466. 
Helme, Mrs. George A. Letter on copies of The Survey 

and Christmas cards, 765. 
Helper, the, 116. 
Henry Street Settlement, 437. 

Etchings and sketches of A. Phillips, 135-138. 

Wild birds announcement, 179. 
Herbert, Magistrate, 441. 
Hershfield, Isidore, 99, 415, 421. 
Hetherington, Clark W., 617. 
Hewetson, Dr. John, tablet by Brenner, 15. 
Hibbing, Minn., 63. 

Hillman, Ada B. A democratic army (letter), 646. 
Hillstrom, Joseph, execution, 200. 
Hillyer, Judge, 81. 
Hinckley, Thos. L., 605. 
Hindman, Kentucky, 726. 
Hindus, 624. 
Hine, Lewis W., 655. 

Photograph of children of the Joy Zone, 164, 165; 
History, harnessing it for service, 51. 
Hitchcock, C. N., 606. 

Hoag, C. G. On Ashtabula proportional system, 159 
Hoagland, I. G. Exits or sprinklers (letters and com- 
ment), 441, 762, 765. 
Hoagland, Susan W. Birth control (letter), 735. 
Hoare, H. J., 438. 

Hobbs, Margarett A. Baedeker for unemployment, 287 
Hodgkin, Henry T., 311. 

Hodgson, Elizabeth. What ails the teachers? 249. 
Hoffman, Frederick L., 640. 
Hogartys. See Granny Gray. 
Holland, Ford peace party in, 584. 

Hollander, Jacob H. On the study of facts for econo- 
mists, 577. 
Holmes, John Haynes, 647. 

Viewpoints (preparedness), 221. 
Home-building, state, 228. 
Home sanitation and school progress, 520. 
Homeless men, 208. 
Honeycombed, 559. 

Honor system, safeguarding (Juliet). 420. 
Hooker, Edith Houghton. 

Creche, The (Life's clinic, III). 661. 

Life's clinic, 253. 

Race suicide (Life's clinic, II), 394. 

Scapegoat, the (Life's clinic, I), 254. 
Hookworm. 

Place in history (letter), 497. 

Rockefeller Foundation report, 316 
Hopwood, Erie C, 363. 
Horack, Frank E., 51. 
Horton, Loton, 122. 
Hospital care, haphazard, 519. 
Hospitals. 

Adam Memorial, Perrysburg, 451. 

Barnes, St. Louis, 113. 

Beth-Israel convalescent home, 575. 

Cincinnati voting booths, 642. 

Civic value of records, 113. 

Cottage, France, 201. 

Early Greek (cut), 519. 

Egypt. 712. 

Facial wounds in the war. 528 

Fine new county for tuberculosis, 180. 

General memorial, 284 

London, 229. 

Rice, 575. 

Venereal needed (letter), 54. 

See also Sickness ; Tuberculosis. 



Index 



xi 



Hotel men against vice, 504. 
Houghton, Michigan (poem), 372. 
Hours of labor. 

Eight-hour day for railroads, 445. 

Eight-hour day for 10,000 Standard Oil workmen, 59. 

Eight-hour demands on 528 railroads, 714. 

Oregon law, 761, 762. 
House, Roy Temple. Man with the gun (poem), 69. 
Housing. 

British reform, 533. 

Cities ignorant of conditions, 57. 

Massachusetts Homestead Commission, 228. 

National Association pamphlet, 57._ 

National Conference in Minneapolis, 100. 

Pittsburgh pamphlet, 617. 

Prizes for plans for immigrants, 756. 
Howard, Carrington. Adoption by advertisement, 285. 
Howe, Frederic C, 501, 624, 643. 
Hoxie, Robt. F. Portrait, 675. 

Scientific management and social welfare, 673-680, 685, 
686. 
Hoyt, Judge F. C, portrait, 486, 487. 
Hudson Guild, 476. 
Humanism. See Martin, John. 
Hunt, Jean Lee. Review of Swift's Learning by Doing, 

303. 
Huntington, C. P., medallion by Brenner, 17. 
Huntington, Ellsworth, 589. 
Hutchinson, Anne, 281. 

Preliminary committee on statue, 366. 
Huyck, Edmund Niles. Sickness (poem), 633. 
Hyde, Henry M., 108. 
Hygiene. 

International Congress medallion by Brenner, 16, 17. 

Italy, 126. 

I 

Ice-skating rink, municipal, 617. 
Tdaho woman suffrage, 95. 
Ihlder, John, 592. 
Illinois. 

Conference of Charities and Correction, 172. 

Penitentiary warden, 50. 

State prison (Joliet) honor system, 420. 

Unemployment study, 198. 

Woman suffrage. 85. 
Illinois, University of, 617. 
Illinois Federation of Labor, 639. 
Illiteracy. 

Kentucky, 429. 

Maryland, 559. 

See also Immigration. 
Immigrant in America, prize contest, 232, 233. 
Immigrant led by America, reverse of Carl Schurz plaque 

by Brenner, 17. 
Immigrant madonna, 281. 
Immigrants. 

Congressional bills for, 220. 

Farms for Jewish, 312. 

Prizes for plans for housing, 756. 

St. Louis work for, 740. 
Immigration, 682. 

Ebbing tide, 524. 

Literacy test before Congress, 651. 

Nurse ruling, 315, 334. 

Philadelphia conference, 534. 

"Pony" on, 216. 

Russian case, 125. 

U. S. Department of Labor inquiry office, 499. 
Immorality among the unsuspected, 746. 
India, vaccination day in (cut), 70. 
Indian children at the Joy Zone, 164, 165. 
Indiana. 

Farm colonies, 373. 

State Board of Health cartoon, 694. 
Indiana Village for Epileptics, 373. 
Indianapolis neighborly week, 166. 
Industrial accidents, typhoid, 690. 
Industrial Board, Commission. See under New York 

(State). 
Industrial education. 

Federal plan for, 692. 

National Society for the promotion of, convention at 
Minneapolis, 591, 503. 



Industrial farm colonies. Sec Farm colonies. 

Industrial hazards, 300. 

Industrial hygiene, 682. 

Industrial legislation. Congressional, 219. 

Industrial measures before Congress, 623. 

Industrial Relations Commission. 

Commons report, 317, 318, 319. 

Commons report, editorial review, 401, 406. 

Commons report, summary and conclusion (Fitch), 
395-400. 

Pollow-up committee, 155. 

Grant report reviewed by J. A. Fitch, 432. 

Introductory review of the various reports, 317. 

Manly report, editorial review, 320. 

Manly report, summary and conclusions, 323, 326-333. 

Persistent delusions (letter), 470. 

Printed reports and other material, 494. 
Industrial Relations Committee, Organization, 155. 
Industrial representation. See Rockefeller. 
Industrial School, Covington, Va., 447. 
Industrial subjugation of woman, 629. 
Industrial unrest, 317, 394, 432. 

r. W. W. 

Hillstrom affair, 200. 
Missouri river town, 106. 
See also Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley. 
Industry. 

Double standard, 639. 
Educated men in, 422. 
Silver lining of the war cloud, 64. 

Socially organized, 336. 

Upside-down world, 758. 
See also under Women. 
Inebriates. See Farm Colonies. 
Infant mortality. 

Children's Home, Cincinnati, study, 766. 

Decrease in United States, 343. 

March baby week, 474. 

Pittsburgh interludes in Baby Week, 3. 

St. Louis, 767. 
Infectious diseases. 

Effect of trench fighting on, 520. 

Handbook of rules and laws, 593. 
Insanity. 

Alcohol as a cause, 454. 

Incipient, 100. 

Indiana farm colonies, 373. 

Rockefeller gift, 650. 
Institute for Government Research, 741. 
Institute for Public Service, 284. 
Insurance. 

Federal commission proposed, 714. 

Health, 174, 344, 624. 

Health, Massachusetts hearing on compulsory bill, 691. 

Health, opposition divided, 742. 

Sickness, 682. 

State savings bank in Massachusetts, 708. 

Unemployment, 624. 

See also Social insurance. 
Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations, 286. 
Intercollegiate Socialist Society. See under Socialism. 
International arbitration, 707. 
International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace. 

Letter from Aletta H. Jacobs, 647. 

Manifesto, 60, 61. 
International law court (cartoon), 505. 
International peace (letter), 649. 

International Peace Congress at San Francisco and Berk- 
eley, 103. 
Internationalism. 

Better than preparedness, 636. 

Boston Y. W. C. A.. 535. 
Investigations, 397. 
Iowa. 

Conference of Charities and Correction, 308. 

Congress of mothers, 309. 

Histories, 51. 
Ireland, health work in, 573. 
Irwin. Robert, 114. 

Isles of Shoals for summer meetings, 518. 
Isolated communities, industrial conditions in, 333. 
Italy, hygiene in war time, 126. 
Ithaca, health survey reports, 97. 



Xll 



e x 



Jacksonville, Fla., conference of mayors, 534. 
Jacobi, Dr. Abraham, 519. 
Jacobs, Aletta H., 61. 

Interviews with, 46. 

Letter on the International Committee of Women for 
Permanent Peace, 647. 

Voluntary maternity, 142. 
Jails. 

Itinerant, 178. 

Misdemeanant and, 93. 

Night in a, 108. 
Jamaica Plain Neighborhood House, garden acre, 345. 
James, Harlean. Peace and Patriotism (two Baltimore 

meetings), 314. 
James, Herman G., 522. 
Janney, Dr. O. Edw., 229. 
Japanese. 

Children at Joy Zone, 164. 

In the United States, 115. 

Labor leaders in America, 1. 
Jennings, W. Beatty, 643. 
Jensen, Jens, 617. 
Jewish Charities, Federation, 286. 
Jewish Farmers of America, 312. 
Jewish Immigrant Bulletin, 766. 
Jewish Relief Day, 523. 
Jews. 

Bringing word from the war-lost, 415, 421. 

Immigrant, 766. 

Organization to find wandering, 99. 

Polish relief, 421. 

President's proclamation for relief, 499. 

Refugees at Seattle, 474. 

Relief Day (editorial), 523. 

Relief for starving, 445. 

See also Hebrew. 
Jitney diplomacy. See Lattimore, F. L. 
Johns Hopkins courses for social workers, 49. 
Johnson, Alexander. 

Binet scale (letter), 117. 

Notes of an Arkansas traveler, 618. 

Review of Shaw's Story of a Pioneer, 304. 
Johnson, Emily S. Discovering Pennsylvania (woman 

suffrage), 39. 
Johnson, Fred R. Unemployment from the angle of case 

work, 162. 
Johnson. Geo. E., 50. 

Tin- fighting instinct, its place in life, 243-248. 
Johnson, Marietta L. Letter on health of school children, 

364. 
Johnson, Tom L., 501. 
Johnston, Grace M. Community Christmas movement 

after three years' growth, 205. 
Joliet. See under Illinois. 
Jones, Rev. Jenkin Lloyd, portrait, 587. 
Jones, Myrta L., portrait, 214. 
Jordan, David Starr, 103. 
Journal of Negro History, 741. 

Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 300. 
ludges. See Magistrates. 
Just, Dr. E. E.. 627. 
Justice. 

Manly report on, 326. 

Social and industrial in relation to preparedness (De- 
vine), 732. 
Justice (play), 682. 

Juvenile courts See Children's courts. 
Juvenile delinquency in Chicago, 507, 524. 

K 
Kansas. 

( hies compete in child welfare. 203. 

Rural Christmas tree, 207. 

Woman suffrage, 84, 95. 
Kansas City, 193. 
Kansas City Post, 118. 

Kaplan, H. Tariff against child labor (letter). 497. 
Keating, Edward. 502. 

Keller, Helen, as a speaker in public (with cut). 370. 
Kelley, Florence. 

Newton D. Raker. 716. 

Portrait. 213. 



Twenty-five years of the Consumers* League move- 
ment, 212. 
Kellogg, Arthur P. Review of Montague's Closed Doors, 

etc., 303. 
Kellogg, Paul. Two new worlds and a sculptor's clay 

(Brenner), 19. 
Kent bill, 567. 
Kentucky, trachoma in, 726. 
Kentucky Federation of Labor, 640. 
Kerley, Chas. G., 51. 
Kern-McGillicuddy bill, 473. 
Kindergartens in California, 620. 
King, Clyde Lyndon. 

Meeting of the American Political Science Association, 
489. 

Valuation conference, 305. 
King, Willford Isbell, 116. 
Kingsbury, John A. New York State Board of Charities 

investigation, 571. 
Kingsley House. See under Pittsburgh. 
Kirby, Dr., 54. 
Kirchwey, Geo. W., 557, 560. 

Wardenship of Sing Sing, 417. 
Kitchens, "Do care" and "Don't care," 343. 
Klopp, Henry I., 343. 

Koch. Felix J. Picnicking in an empty reservoir, 111. 
Koren, John, 172. 
Kronburger, Peter. Wages, profit, and war (letter), 707. 



Labor. 

Cartoon, 155. 

Congressional committees slow about bills, 623. 

Dangers in scientific management, 679. 

Immigration and, 125. 

Japanese leaders in America, 1. 

Kentucky Federation of Labor, 640. 

Migratory, 329. 

Opposition to New York constitution, 81. 

Preparedness attitude, 506. 

Settlement of claims, 330. 

War in Europe and trade union sentiment, 288. 

See also Aliens ; Trade Unions ; Unemployment. 
Labor agitator (play of The Weavers). 372. 
Labor Day, Cincinnati picnic, 111. 
Labor Forum, 370. 
Labor legislation. 

State and nation in 1915, 760. 

See also American Association for Labor Legislation. 
Labor organization, political weakness of. 759. 
Lady of the London Tube, 229. 
Lafferty the policeman, 476. 
Lake Erie, on (poem). 734. 

Lancet (London) on war and factories in England, 451. 
Land question, 332. 
Landscape architecture, 617. 

Lane, H. C. International arbitration (letter). 707. 
Lane, Winthrop D. 

Children's institutions, conditions in New York. 570. 

Indiana's farm colonies for defectives and delinquents, 
373-380. 

Review of Bloomfield's Readings in Vocational Guid- 
ance, 170. 

Review of books on school problems, 115. 

Sing Sing stabbings, 496. 

Under cover of respectability, 746. 
Lantern bearers. See Drama. 
Laplanders at the Joy Zone, 164. 
Laredo. Texas, 528. 
La Salle. 111.. 499. 
Lasker. B 

Achievements in town planning, 215. 

Rural co-operation in war times, 715. 
Latin America, social service plans for, 717. 
Lattimore, Florence L. 

Aboard the Oscar II, 457. 

Ford peace expedition in Sweden and Denmark, etc.. 
579. 588. 
I.avinder. Dr. C H.. 201. 
Lawrence. Mass., city planning, 642. 
Lawrence textile industry, 470. 
Lawson, John R. 

Release. SI. 

Rockefeller industrial representation plan. 144 
Lawson. Senator (N. Y. State), 597. 



n 



d e 



xm 



Leadville, Colo., 740. 
League of Peace and Freedom, 682. 
League to Enforce Peace, 183, 736. 
Lee, Joseph, 50, 168. 

Russian prohibition (letter), 649. 
Lee, Porter R. Review of six books on outdoor relief, 

729. 
Legien, C, 288. 
Legislation. 

Alabama results, 62. 

Congress, social, 218. 

Iowa; histories of, 51. 

Minnesota, 348. 
Leola, Pa., 514. 

Leonard, Oscar. Prayer for relief workers, 446. 
Leonard, Wm. E., 735. 

Migratory tenants of the Southwest, 511. 
Lepers, 464. 

Lepers in India, gift for war relief, 80. 
Leprosy, what is known about it, 114. 
Lewis, David L., 502. 
Life, human, 227. 

Science for or against, 560. 

What do we know of life (poem), 516. 

See also Longevity. 
Life Extension Institute, announcement, 621. 
Life's clinic, 253, 254, 394, 661. 
Liftman, Matilda S., 501. 

Lillian Home. See under Pittsburgh: Kingsley House. 
Lima, Peru, 576. 

Lincoln, Neb., Y. W. C. A., 483. 
Lincoln, Abraham, medallion by Brenner, 16. 
Lindsey, Judge B. B., 174. 

Liquor question. See Alcohol ; Prohibition ; Temperance. 
Literacy test. See under Immigration. 
Lithuanians, 624. 
Little, R. H., 608-609. 
Little Country Theater, 412. 
Little dialogues of a big city, 48. 
Little Wanderers' Home, 49. 
Livingstone, Collin H., 225. 
Loan sharks, Portland, Ore., 641. 
Lochner, Louis P., 265. 

Peace challenging preparedness, 103. 

Portrait, 585. 
Lockstep schooling, 634. 
Lodging-house, municipal, 208. 
Loeb, Solomon, medallion by Brenner, 18. 
Loebl, Louis, 449. 
London, Meyer, 714. 
London settlement house appeal, 174. 
London Underground Co., 229. 
Lone Game (film), 366. 
Long Island, ancient, 291-293. 
Longevity, 652. 

Longman, R. A. Infant mortality (letter). 7(;r>. 
Loomis, Frank D., 420. 
Lord God of time (poem), 339. 
Loretto, Mount (children's institution), 570. 
Lorimer, Wm., 405. 
Los Angeles. 

Brownson House lectures, 649. 

Damaged goods (play), 440. 

Junior Y. W. C. A., 484. 

Tuberculosis nurses, 114. 

Y. W. C. A., 484. 
Love, fighting war with, 311. 
Lovejoy, Owen R., 502. 

Lovell. Bertha C. The social vision (poem), 223. 
Lowell, Josephine Shaw, portrait, 212. 
Lynch. James M., 191, 369, 493, 597. 
Lynchings, 1915, increase, 453. 
Lyng, Clayton T. Letter on John Martin, 765. 
Lyon. E. P.. 369, 493, 597. 
Lyon, F. Emory. Safeguarding the honor system, 420. 

M 

McAdoo, Judge Wm. Chart showing work of city magis- 
trates, 167. 

McAneny, George, 469. 

McCall, Sam'l W., social program in his inaugural ad- 
dress, 623, 624. 

McCampbell, Dr. Eugene F., 224. 

McChestney, Elsie, 441. 



McClory, Jos. E., 703. 
McCord, Chas. H., 52. 
McCorkle, Rev. Daniel S., 592. 

Sunrise, Wyo. (letter), 648. 
McDowell, Malcolm, 224. 

McElwain, H. D. Letter on John Martin, 765. 
Macfie, Dr. Ronald, 626. 
Mack, Julian W., 597. 
MacKaye, Percy, 508. 
McKeever, Wm. A., 203. 
MacLean, Annie Marion. Fifty years of the Y. W. C. A., 

481. 
McLean, Francis H., 729, 730. 
Macmillan, Chrystal, 61. 
MacNutt, J. Scott, 115. 
McVey, Frank L. Report of 3d National Conference on 

Marketing and Farm Credits, 468. 
Macy, R. II., & Co., 646. 
Madison, Wis. 

Public Christmas tree, 207. 

See also Wisconsin, University of. 
Madison Square. 

Christmas pantomime, 371. 

Christmas tree, 205. 

New Year's Eve, 339. 
Magistrates. 

New York State meeting, 591. 

See also Courts.. 
Malaria, 462. 
Malthus, 599. 

Man with the gun (poem), 69. 
Manifesto (women's peace), 60, 61. 
Manly, Basil M., 155, 317. 

See also Industrial Relations Commission. 
Mann, Prestonia, 629. 
Manning, Victor R. How a loan shark fight educated a 

city, 641. 
Mantell, Robert, 384. 
Manufacturers' News, 502, 758. 

Marino, Tony; story of his return to Sing Sing, 557. 
Marketing and Farm Credits, 3d National Conference, 

Chicago, 468. 
Marriage. See Martin, John. 
Marshall, Harold. Letter on W. S. Davis. 497. 
Marshall, Robert B., 391, 393. 
Martin, Dr. F. A., 114. 
Martin, John. " 

Industrial subjugation of woman, 629. 

Letters criticizing, 707, 735, 765. 

Married woman in industry, 695. 

Mother in industry, 720. 

Symposium announced in rebuttal of his articles, 761. 

Woman's work before marriage, 668. 

Woman's work in the autumn of life, 750. 
Mary Clarke Memorial, 484. 
Maryland. 

Attack on illiteracy, 559. 

Education, study of conditions, 619. 
Masque. See Shakespeare. 
Massachusetts. 

Child labor program, 469. 

Children's court law, 723. 

Extension teaching, 348. 

Health insurance hearing, 691. 

Homestead amendment and commission, 228. 

Minimum wage in department stores, 35. 

Old age pensions, 197. 

Social legislation program of Gov. McCall, 623, 624. 

State conference of charities, 171. 

State savings bank insurance, 708. 

Taxing incomes, 475. 
Massillon, Ohio, social service league, 441. 
Mastin, Florence Ripley. To the dreamer (verses), 282. 
Maternity. See Birth control. 
Mather. Samuel, 316. 
Mather, Stephen T., 390. 
Matscheck, Walter, 606, 610. 
Matthews, Wm. H. The muckers, 5. 
Mayer, Dora, 576. 

Mayors' conference, Jacksonville, 534. 
Mead, Geo. H. 

Allen survey of the University of Wisconsin re- 
viewed, 349-351; 354-361. 

Editorial on, 613. 

Rejoinder to Allen on higher education surveys, 607. 



XIV 



I n d e 



Mead, Lucia Ames. America's danger and opportunity, 

90-92. 
Meade, John P., 197. 

Means. Esther B. The unfit and the unfulfilled. 163. 
Medal of American Medicine, 113. 
Medallions, Brenner, 15-22. 
Mediation, 398. 
Medical verse, 681. 
Medical Review of Reviews, 199. 
Mehta, Dr. Sumant B., 113. 
Mental hygiene. 

Pennsylvania, community work, 343. 

Rockefeller Foundation gift, 650. 
Merriam, Charles E., 38, 713, 714, 742. 
Mesaba Ore, 63. 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 714. 
Mexican migrants (letter), 735. 
Mexico. 

Starvation in, 324-325. 

Typhus, 652. 
Migratory tenants of the Southwest, 511. 
Militarism. 

Boy Scouts and, 342. 

Statuary group by Ella Buchanan, 314. 

See also Anti-Militarism Committee. 
Milk wagon drivers' strike, 121. 
Mill. The (poem), 576. 
Millar, Rufus W., 59. 
Miller, H. A. Congress of the submerged (Ukrainians), 

224. 
Miller. W'ilhelm, 617. 
Millis, H. A., 115. 
Milwaukee. 

Medical advice free, 114. 

Truancy, 637. 
Miner, W. H., 225. 
Miners. 

Colorado acquittal, 740. 

See also United Mine Workers. 
Mines. 

Anthracite coal, 567. 

Cerro de Pasco, 576. 

See also Bureau of Mines. 
Minimum wage. 

Australasia's experience. 760. 

Consumers' League and, 118. 

Department stores in Massachusetts, 35. 
GAL 12— 8254 

Earning (J. A. Ryan), 150. 

Tailoring trade. 4<;.V 

Washington, 449. 
Ministry of the mother (poem), 410. 
Minneapolis. 

Disgorging the saloon (Benjamin), 26. 

Fair play, 757. 

Housing conference, 100. 

Prohibition campaign. 82. 

Social service lectures, 366. 

Vocational schools survey and report, 503. 
Minnesota. 

Committee on social legislation, 348. 

Hennepin County prohibition campaign, 82. 

Public Health conference, 171. 

Taxation (Harrison bill), 63. 
Misdemeanants. 

Indiana farm colonies, 373. 

Jail and, 93. 
Missouri. 

Children's Code Commission, 118. 

Conference of Social Welfare, 308. 

Outdoor relief, 729. 
Missouri, University of, 114, 620. 
Missouri Valley Public Health Association, 193. 
Moffett. E. A. Prohibition the job-maker (letter), 365. 
Montague, Margaret P., 303. 
Montana, woman suffrage, 96. 
Montclair. N. J., prohibition, 157 (cartoon), 159. 
Moonlight schools, 429. 

Moore, Krnest C. Reviews of Dewey's Schools of To- 
morrow, 438. 
Moran, Frederick A., 763. 
More, Sir Thomas, 105. 
Moree, Edward A„ 736. 

Morgenthau, Henry, as ambassador to Turkey (with por- 
trait), 689. 



Morgenthau, Mrs., 690. 
Morphinism, 439. 
Morris, Arthur J., 177. 
Morris plan, 283. 

Courts and, 568 . 

Injunction sought, 177. 
Morristown, N. J., community fireplace, 756. 
Morse, Frances R. Mrs. Field's bequest, 290, 300. 
Mosher, Alfrieda M. Who goes there?— A Friend, 535- 

538. 
Moskowitz, Henry, 2. 

Mosquitoes, interstate campaign against, 416. 
Mother, ministry of the (poem), 410. 
Mother in industry (J. Martin), 720. 
Mothers, Iowa congress of, 309. 
Mothers' pensions. See Widows' pensions. 
Motion pictures. 

Cleveland philanthropies, 421. 

Film library (Collier), 663. 

Morals in a small town, 662. 

See also Drama. 
Moton, Robert Russa, appointment to Tuskegee, portrait, 

369. 
Motor tourists' camp, 204. 
Mouth Hygiene Association, National, 316. 
Moyer, Dr., 348. 
Muckers, the, 5. 

Mulford, M. Letter of protest against John Martin's arti- 
cles on woman, 707. 
Mullanphy Board, 740. 

Mulry, Thos. M., obituary notice (with portrait), 714. 
Munday, Chas. B., 405. 

Municipal government conferences at Dayton, 305. 
Municipal lodging-house, 208. 
Municipal research, ten years of the pioneer New York 

Bureau, 230. 
Municipal toboggan slide, 727. 
Municipalities, league of California, 54. 
Munson, Dr., 70. 
Murder, attempted, 741. 

Murphev. E. R. A democratic army (letter), 646. 
Murphy" Dr. John B., 652. 
Murray. Gilbert. Letter on Dr. Alice Hamilton's article 

"At the War Capitals," 173. 
Mussey. Mabel H. B. Review of Sinclair's The Cry for 

Justice, 302. 
Mutual Welfare League, outside branch meeting at Car- 
negie Hall Fell. 14. 595. 

N 
Nashville. Tenn. 

Conference of teachers, 307 

Y. W. C. A., of Roger Williams University, 482. 
Nasmyth, Geo. W. Toward world government, 183. 
Nassau, Mabel Louise, 729. 730. 
Nathan, Maud. 294. 

Portrait, 213. 
National Child Labor Committee. See under Child labor. 
National Civic Federation, preparedness views, 506. 
National Conference of Charities and Correction. 

Business committees for 1916, 366. 

Medallion for 25th by Brenner. 16, 17. 

Preliminary program, 766. 
National defense. See Peace; Preparedness; War. 
National Erectors Association, 702, 705. 
National parks. See Parks. 

National Safety Council, fourth annual congress, 122. 
National Temperance Union. Sec under Temperance. 
National Voters' League. See Voters' leagues. 
National Woman's Peace Party S<v Woman's Peace 

Party 
Nature, a song to (group of sculpture by Brenner). 21. 
Nearing, Scott, 369, 488, 499. 

Baltimore lectures announced. 35. 

Dismissed, 131. 

Toledo University, 172. 

Witmer's book announced 
Neff. Joseph. 343. 
Negroes. 

African on, 644. 

Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 
741. 

McCord's The American Negro, 52. 

Orphan asylum at Atlanta, Ga.. 517. 

Roger Williams LJniversity, Y. W. C. A.. 482. 



d e 



xv 



Segregation ordinance adopted in St. Louis, 694. 

Segregation vote in St. Louis, 627. 

Shufeldt's America's Greatest Problem, 216. 

Spingarn medal, 627. 

Uncolored history of, 521. 
Neighbor, my (Christmas card), 342. 
Neighborhood Playhouse, 179, 641. 
Neighborliness encouraged by Negro orphan asylum at 

Atlanta, Ga., 517. 
Neighborly Week, Indianapolis, 166. 
Nell, Tony, 233. 
Nestor, Agnes, 118. 
Neutrals. 

Cartoon from New York Sun, 505. 

Conference of, 186. 

Conference of (J. Addams), 495. 
New Bedford poster campaign against alcohol, 102. 
New Castle, Del., 518. 

New England Home for Little Wanderers, 49. 
New Jersey. 

Amending compensation act, 760. 

Compensation law as it is and as it should be, 450. 

Elections, 158. 

Health department and smells, 55. 
New Orleans flood relief, 365. 
New Year's Eve, 339. 
New York (City). 

Building up a city plan block by block, 752. 

Charity organization report on low wages, 445. 

Children's court (cuts), 486, 487. 

Children's ins^ tution, conditions, 570. 

Commission o- Building Districts and Restrictions, 
752. 

Commissioner Davis' first annual report, 36. 

Farm colony for inebriates, 626. 

Greenwich and Chelsea sections, 76. 

Greenwich Village poverty, 730. 

Health Department and Dr. Goldwater, 126. 

Health Department work of half a century, 728. 

Madison Square singing, 339. 

Municipal Lodging-house, 208. 

New York Central tracks, 532. 

Occupational disease clinic, 727. 

Parole Commission, 415. 

Police work in arresting unemployment, 166. 

School conditions, 124. 

Subway workers; accident, 5, 7. 

Taxation problems, 231. 

View from Woman's City Club, 616. 

See also Municipal research; Quarantine; Shakespeare. 
New York (State). 

Appropriation bill omissions, 682. 

Charities Aid Association report on sickness in 
Dutchess County, 65-69. 

Conference of Probation Officers, 309. 

Constitution, labor opposition, 81. 

Elections, 158. 

Farm colony for vagrants, 625. 

Industrial Commission, 369. 

Industrial Commission (Board), neglect, 283. 

Industrial Commission, Governor's action on, 597. 
. Industrial Commission, Governor's uncertainty, 493. 

Insanity prevention, 100. 

New county hospitals, 180. 

Public health nursing, 202. 

See also under Charities and Correction. 
New York Central R. R. tracks, 532. 
New York Public Library, seal by Brenner, 16. 
New York School of Philanthropy, 386. 

Lectures, 593. 
New York State Board of Charities. See under Charities. 
New York Tribune, 230. 
Newark, N. J. 

Beggars (letter), 470. 

City Plan Commission report, 617. 

Poet wanted for 250th anniversary, 621. 
Newburgh, N. Y., community Christmas tree, 206. 
Newspapers, 363. 

Advertisements, objectionable, 285. 
Noel. See Christmas. 
Nolen, John, 756. 

Noonan, Thos. J. Free speech (letter), 225. 
North Carolina. 

Feebleminded school, 173. 

Mountaineer boy plants beans, 418. 



Social service conference, 591. 
North Dakota, letters to A. G. Arvold, 411. 
Norton, Dr. Rupert, tablet by Brenner, 15. 
Norway, group of peace delegates, 582. 
Nurse, The (poem), 126. 
Nurses' Settlement, Henry Street, 135. 
Nursing. 

Alien contract labor and, 315, 334. 

Course of field nursing in Chicago, 114. 

Public health, two new societies, 202. 



O 



Oakland, Cal., city plan, 757. 

Occupational disease, New York clinic, 727. 

Oceans, colloquy of the, 313. 

O'Connell, Dr. J. J., 424. 

Ogden (Robert Curtis) Memorial at Hampton Institute, 

112. 
Oglesby, 111., 499. 
Ohio. 

Nurses, 315. 

Social agencies, 307. 
Oklahoma, compensation, 55. 
Old age pensions. See under Pensions. 
Olson, F. L., 606. 

Ontario, anti-tuberculosis work, 452. 
Open shop operation in the structural iron industry, 702, 

705. 
Ophthalmia, Egyptian, 712. 
Ophthalmia neonatorum, See Babies. 
Oral hygiene, 316. 
Oregon. 

Advertising sex medicines, 179. 

Hours of labor law, 761, 762. 

Municipal activities, 204. 

School districts, 2. 

Sex education, 416. 

Woman suffrage, 95. 
Organization, world. See World government. 
Organized charity. See under Charitv. 
Ormond Market, 573. 
Orphan girls, 123. 

War, 455. 

See also Child welfare. 
Orphans' Home, negro, 517. 
Orth, Samuel P., 644. 
Osborne, Thos. Mott, 235, 443, 557, 559. 

Leave of absence from Sing Sing (portrait; state- 
ment), 417. 

More's Utopia and, 105. 

Perjury indictment dismissed, 739. 
Oscar II (ship,) 227, 228, 457. 
Osier, Sir William, 147. 
Outdoor relief, six books reviewed, 729. 
Ovington, Mary White. Review of Evans's Black and 

White in the Southern States, 644. 
Owen-Keating bill, 502, 531, 593. 



Pacifism, 626. 

Pacifism and non-resistance (letter), 647. 

Pacifists, English, 118. 

"Pacifists fight," 636. 

Packard, Esther, 638. 

Palm, Pa., 513. 

Palmstierna, Ellen, 583. 

Pamphlets, recent, 77, 97, 119, 175, 366, 471, 499, 528, 594, 

650, 708, 767. 
Panama Canal, 528. 

Panama Congress on Christian Work, 717. 
Panama-Pacific Exposition. 

Children of the Joy Zone (photographs), 164, 165, 

Colloquy of the oceans, 313. 

Gambling, 79. 

Religious exhibit, 36. 
Pan-American Scientific Congress, 114, 485. 
Pan-American Union of Women, 491. 
Parenthood, vigor at initial moment, 761. 
Parks, national, 390-393. 
Parole Commission (New York City), 415. 
Patent medicine fortunes in England, 97. 
Paterson, N. T., Miss Flynn's contest, 283. 
Paterson, R. G., 315. 
Patriotism, what shall we do with it? 403. 



XVI 



Index 



Patten, Simon N. Review of Huntington's Civilisation 

and Climate, 589. 
Patterson, Chas. H. Letter on New Orleans flood relief, 

365. 
Paulding, J. K. Pacifism and non-resistance (letter), 647. 
Pauperism (E. T. Devine), 553-556. 
Peabody, Mass., fire in St. John's Parochial School, 157. 
Peabody, Emily C, 217. 
Peace. 

Baltimore meeting, 314. 

Bibliography, 186, 187. 

Carnegie Endowment criticized, 235, 264, 265. 

Church Peace Union, 371. 

Colloquy of the oceans, 313. 

Ford's ship, 227, 263. 

Friends, Religious Society of, 736. 

International (letter), 649. 

Shall we arm for? (O. G. Villard), 296-299. 

Stress (cuts of athletics), 246, 247. 

Through good will (E. T. Devine), 335. 

Time to make (Balch), 24. 

Towards Ultimate Harmony, 682. 

Wilson's message, 281. 

Winslow, Erving (letter from), 441. 

See also American School Peace League ; International 
Committee of Women for Permanent Peace; In- 
ternational Peace Congress; Mead, Lucia Ames; 
Preparedness; Woman's Peace Congress; World 
government. 
Peace rumors (cartoon), 227. 
Peace ship (Ford's), letter by Florence L. Lattimore, 457, 

579. 
Peace ship, the (poem), 342. 
Peak, the (poem), 38. 
Peck, Esther, 641. 
Pellagra. 

Light on (Columbia meeting of National Association), 
201. 

Louisiana hospital, 621. 
Pendleton, Helen B. Letter on hookworm's place in his- 
tory, 497. 
Penns Grove, 38, 178, 539-546, 563. 
Pennsylvania. 

Conference on Social Welfare (Charities and Correc- 
tions), 171. 

Discovering (woman suffrage movement), 39. 

Fire prevention study in industrial establishments, 533. 

German country church, 513. 

Mental hygiene, 343. 
Pennsylvania. University of. 

Nearing case, 35, 131. 

Reorganization of teaching, 369. 
Pennsylvania Dutch, 713. 

Pennsylvania Railroad folder on health of passengers, 113. 
Pension funds for public service employes. 109. 
Pensions. 

Old age in England, 438. 

Old age, in Massachusetts, 197. 

Social workers', 290, 300. 

See also Widows' pensions. 
People, preparedness and the, 743. 
Perkins. Marion, 172. 
Perry, Dr. J. C, 363. 
Personality, test for public service, 2. 
Peru, American absentee capital in, 576. 
Peru, 111., 499. 
Pestalozzi, H. R.. attendance work in Milwaukee (with 

portrait), 637. 
Peters, John P. Letter on The Unborn, 364. 
Petticoats (quotation from a book for children), 86. 
Philadelphia. 

Community Christmas tree, 207. 

Girls' institutions, 123. 

•Society for Organizing charity exhibit, 608-609. 
Philanthropic individualism, 173. 
Philipp, Gov., extract from an address, 351. 
Philippines. See Filipinos. 
Phillips, Abraham, etchings and sketches reproduced, 135- 

138, 146. 
Phonography class in 1889 (cut), 481. 
Physical training in the Y. W. C. A., 483. 
Physician, portrait of a (poem), 25. 
Physicians, Great Britain's need of, 520. 
Physicians' Club of Chicago, 652. 
Pickering, Ruth. After a factory fire (poem), 192. 



Picnicking in an empty reservoir, 111. 
Pittsburgh. 

Baby week, 3. 

Brenner's group for Schenley Park, 21. 

Charity visitors' salaries, 725. 

Civic Club's birthday, 346. 

Housing pamphlets, 617. 

Kingsley House guest of 87 (cut), 420. 

Social service workers, 97. 

Study of children's arrests, 763. 
Pity! (poem), 110. 
Plague. See Quarantine; Rats. 
Plague at Naples (cut after Sarada), 426. 
Plantiff, Gaston, portrait, 585. 
Plaques, Brenner, 15-22. 
Play. 

Education Through Play, 217. 

Lee's (Joseph) book on, 168. 

Space for at Hebrew Infant Asylum, 691. 

See also Playgrounds : Recreation. 
Play festivals, 204. 
Playgrounds. 

Athens, Ohio, 642. 

Baltimore Children's Playground Association report, 
50. 

National parks, 390-393. 

West Chester's story, 139. 
Playhouse, children's, Columbus, Ohio. 615. 
Plecker, Dr. W. A., 202. 
"Plucking the goose" as town policy, 63. 
Pneumonia increase, 474. 
Poe, Clarence, 116. 
Poems. 

After a factory fire, 192. 

Armenian songs of exile. 257-262. 276. 

Banked fires (Mrs. Field). 234. 

Boy cotton picker, 1. 

Children's ward, 476. 

Dare we judge?, 516. 

Flood, the, 751. 

Great Lakes (2 poems), 734. 

High finance, 252. 

Houghton, Michigan, 372. 

Hymn of child welfare, 699. 

Little acolyte, the, 161. 

Lord God of time, 339. 

Man with the gun, 69. 

Mill, the, 576. 

Ministry of the mother, 410. 

Nurse, the, 126. 

Peace ship, 342. 

Peak, the, 38. 

Pity! 110. 

Portrait of a physician. 25. 

Preparedness, 177. 

Rest, the, 480. 

Sickness, 633. 

Social vision, 223. 

Song of hands (from the Spanish), 722. 

Surgeon conscience, 190. 

Washington (Booker T.), 508. 

Why? 104. 
Poisoning from flv-killers. 708. 
Poland. 

Jewish relief. 421. 

Letters to. 528. 
Police. 

Arresting distress in New York City, 166. 

Industrial. 331. 
Polish social workers. 470, 621. 
Political economy. See Economic theorizing. 
Political Science. See American Political Science Associa- 
tion. 
Poolroom (cartoon), 507. 
Population. 

European increase, 146. 

Food supplv and, 169. 
Porter, H. F. J., 157. 

Letter on fire law and factories, 364. 
Portland. Ore.. Remedial Loan Association. 641. 
Portmanteau Theater, 371, 383. 
Portrait of a physician (poem), 25. 
Post. Alice Thacher. Pan-American Union of Women, 

491. 
Postal savings, 366. 






Index 



xvii 



Posters. 

Anti-prohibition in Minnesota, 82. 

Prizes for Woman's Peace Party, 621. 

Pryse's Belgian, 229. 
Pottenger, Francis, 451. 
Potter, Zenas L., 363. 

Bridgeport, 237-242, 267. 

Penns Grove, 539-546, 563. 

Review of Ashworth's The Helper and American 
Trade Unions, 116. 
Poverty. 

Sickness as a cause, 348. 

Vocational guidance to prevent, 348. 
Powder factories, 539. 
Powder mill, community cost, 38. 
Poynter, Beulah, 199. 

Prairie Spirit in Landscape Architecture, 617. 
Pray, K. L. M., personal, 47. 
Prayer for relief workers, 446. 
Prejudice, 762. 
Preparedness, 91, 362, 758. 

Alliances for peace and war at Washington. 505. 

Army for a democracy, 435. 

Baltimore meeting, 314. 

Committee to fight huge war budget, 370. 

Congressional committees, hearings, 632. 

Davis, Wm. S. (letter from, and editorial comment), 
440. 

Debate between pacifists and militarists, 221. 

Going to sea (cartoon), 200. 

Tn 1621 (cartoon), 199. 

Internal, 99. 

Internationalism better than, 636. 

Labor attitude, 506. 

Newspaper cartoon, 156. 

Pease challenging. 103. 

People and, 743. 

Platform of real, 160. 

Poem, 177. 

Putnam, Mrs. Wm. Lowell, on position of The Survey, 
735. 

Social and industrial justice in connection with (De- 
vine), 732. 

Swenson, D. F.. letter from, 592. 

Times that try (letter), 497.' 

Wilson's message, 281. 

See also Peace; Unpreparedness. 
Prevention of blindness. See under Blindness. 
Price, Geo. M. Fire! the warning from Williamsburg, 181. 
Price, James R. Letter on Sunday delivery, 646. 
Price, Willard. Opening a new door for Latin America, 

717. 
Price's (Mrs.) Canning Compound, 598. 
Prison Association. American. Congress at Oakland, 101. 
Prison Association of New York, resolution on Osborne, 

417. 
Prison exhibit, 503. 
Prisoners. 

Corresponding with, 364. 

See also Misdemeanants; Mutual Welfare League. 
Prisons. 

Banked fires (poem by Mrs. Field), 234. 

Illinois state penitentiary warden, 50. 

Legislation in Congress, 218. 

See also Tails ; Parole Commission. 
"Probably guilty," 741. 
Probation. 

New York officers conference, 309. 

Prisons or probation for boys? 624 
Professor, dismissing the, 131. 

Professors. See American Association of University Pro- 
fessors. 
Prohibition. 

Era of. 555. 

Job-maker (letter), 173. 

"Tob-maker" (letter and reply), 365. 

Minneapolis and Hennepin County, Minn., 82. 

Montclair, N. J., 157 (cartoon), 159. 

National, 220. _ 

Posters of Unitarian Temperance Society, 499. 

Pros and cons, 590. 

Russian (letter), 649. 

Russian doctors on, 568. 

Seattle, passing of the saloon, 448. 

South Carolina. 76. 



States adopting, 448. 

•The Other Side" of Prohibition, 366. 
Proportional representation in Ashtabula, Ohio, 159. 
Prosser, Chas. A., 591. 
Prostitutes in theaters in old times, 440. 
Prostitution. 

Baltimore, 229. 

Chicago improved conditions, 532. 

Hotel men against, 504. 

New York improved conditions, 532. 

San Francisco, 418. 

Segregation, Syracuse, and Billy Sunday, 447 

Protocol. See Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers. 

Pryse, Spencer, 229. 

Public documents. See Documents. 

Public health. 

Bulletins, various kinds, 71. 

Congress, 219. 

Connecticut Research Association, 628. 

National needs, 462. 

Native and foreign parentage, 405. 

North Carolina teaching, 118. 

Ontario, 452. 

Publicity agent, 70. 

School children, 364. 

Syracuse University courses, 55. 

Tasmania, 452. 

See also American Public Health Association; Bureau 
of Public Health and Hygiene ; Missouri Valley 
P. H. Association; Nursing; Quarantine. 
Public health organizations, pamphlet, 114. 
Public Health Service, U. S., 113. 

Coyotes and rabbits on trial, 689. 

Hindman Hospital, Kentucky, 726. 

National yard sticks for health (G. R. Taylor), 461. 

Subsidies for tuberculosis hospitals, 567. 
Public schools. 

As community centers, 490. 

Bells ring for 22 million pupils, 49. 

Books on school problems, 115. 

Cleveland, 474. 

Cleveland survey, 340. 

Conception of a superintendent, 146. 

Gary, pictures, 88, 89. 

Health of children, 364. 

Kentucky moonlight, 429. 

Lockstep schooling, 634. 

Massachusetts, safety from fire, 366. 

Pretty pictures vs. realism, 693. 

Study of Gary plan by Woman's Municipal League of 
New York, 118. 

Study of laws and regulations, 202. 

War and, 220. 

See also Education ; Schoolhouses. 
Public service. 

Institute for, 284. 

See also Pension funds. 
Public Service, 284. 

Public Service Forum (Tacoma journal), 616. 
Public spirit in Chicago Board of Education member, 47. 
Public works, aliens and, 284. 
Publications, U. S. government, 352. 
Publicity by prosecution (birth control). 599. 
Puget Sound Electric Railway, 616. 
Pullman Company, 330. 
Pure food law. Supreme Court and, 598. 
Pusey, Wm. A., 645. 
Putnam, Elizabeth [Mrs. W. L.l. Letter criticizing The 

Survey on preparedness, 735. 

Q 

Quack medicines in Oregon, 179. 
Quarantine. 

Cofer, Dr. L. E., 498. 

Federal administration of port of New York, 494. 

New Orleans experience and New York possibilities, 

761. 
Political opposition to federal quarantine at New 

York, 653. 
State and federal control of port of New York, 424- 
428, 442. 
Queen. Stuart A.. 101. 



XV111 



Index 



R 
Rabbits, 689. 

Rabies in western states, 689. 
Race suicide. 

European, 407. 

Letter on, 646. 

Surgical story, 394. 
Railroads. 

Brushing hats and coats on trains (letter), 364. 

Eight-hour day, 445. 

Eight-hour demands, 714. 

Health of travelers. 113. 

Manly report, 330. 

New York Central tracks in Manhattan, 532. 

Trespassing accidents, 640. 
Rats, report on Public Health Service control of, 569. 
Raynor, Dr., 726. 
Recreation. 

Fighting instinct, 243. 

Harvard courses, 50. 
Recreational survey, 617. 
Red Cross, 174. 

Bureau of information, 366. 

Mexico work (cuts), 324-325. 

Reorganization of American, Dec. 8, 1915, 311. 

Serbian babies, 334. 

Taft, Wm. H., and, 180. 
Red Cross seals. 

Minnesota, 316. 

Motion picture film to help sale, 366. 

Prizes for 1916 design, 366. 

Sale in 1915, 708. 
Redrield, Wm. C. Letter on Eastland disaster. 55. 
Reely, Mary K., 216. 

Houghton, Michigan (poem), 372. 

Two poems of the Great Lakes, 734. 
Reforestation, 286. 
Reicher, Emanuel, 372, 384, 385. 
Relief. See Outdoor relief. 
Relief workers, prayer for, 446. 
Religion, social, 336. 

Religious work at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, 36. 
Remedial Loan Association. See Loan sharks. 
Remington Arms Co., 238. 
Reports. See Annual reports. 
Republicans or Socialism, 351. 
Rescue mission work, 522. 
Research, need of, 577. 
Respectability, under cover of, 746. 
Rest, the (poem), 480. 
Rice, Mrs. Isaac L., 575. 
Rich, Margaret E., 172. 

Richardson, Clement. Spirit of Tuskegee (Dr. Washing- 
ton's death), 255. 
Richmond, Ind., 379. 
Rightor, C. E., 605. 

Riis, Jacob A., song dedicated to. 339. 
Riley, John B., 417, 528. 

Dismissal (editorial), 559. 

Resignation asked, 443. 
Rio de Janeiro children, 718, 719. 
Ripich, Louis, 449. 

Riverside, Cal., community Christmas tree, 206. 
Riverside Park tracks, 532. 
Robbins, Alice E. Lafferty the cop and the tall skinny 

guy, 476. 
Roberts. Edith. Letter on Christmas cards, 765. 
Roberts. Tsaac, 76. 
Roberts, Philip I., 522. 
Robertson, Ina Law, death, 766. 
Robinson, Chas. M. Review of James's Handbook of Civic 

Improi'ement, 522. 
Rochester, N. Y., Saturday closing, 501. 
Rochester. Anna, personal, 47. 
Rock of Ages (war debt cartoon), 569. 
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 55, 760. 

Industrial representation, 143. 

Visit to Colorado mines, 4. 
Rockefeller Foundation. 

Hookworm report. 316, 497. 

War relief, 4. 
Rockefeller industrial representation plan, 72-75. 

Rockefeller, J. D., Jr.. Lawson, T. R., and Williams, 
J. E., on, 143, 147. 
Roentgen-ray poetry, 682. 



Rogers, Albert, 59. 

Rogers, A. C. Review of Goddard's Feeblemindedness, 521. 

Rogers, A. R„ 608-609. 

Rogers, Dr. Graham, 628. 

Rollier's sunlight treatment, 451. 

Rome (N .Y.) State Custodial Asylum, 286. 

Rongy, A. S. Review of two books on twilight sleep. 466. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 534. 

Medallion by Brenner, 17. 
Rosenberg, Dr. E. A., 124. 
Rosenwald, Julius, birthday gift of West Side Charities 

Building (and other gifts), 347. 
Ross, Prof. Edw. A., 225. 

Ross, Mary E. County survey by school children, 755. 
Roth, Louis. Pension funds for public service emploves. 

109. 
Routzahn, Mary Swain, 3. 
Rubberoid village, 545. 

Rubinow, I. M. Review of Hoare's Old Age Pensions. 438 
Rucker, Wm. C, 569. 
Rural church. See under Church. 
Rural co-operation in war times, 715. 
Rural life. See Country. 
Rural schools. See Teachers. 
Russell, Bertrand, 682, 683. 

Russell Sage Foundation, bibliography of surveys, 613. 
Russia's part in the war, 611. 
Russian doctors on prohibition, 568. 
Russian prison camps, American relief corps. 595. 
Russian prohibition (letter), 649. 
Ryan. C. A., 528. 
Ryan, John A., 735. 

Catholic Church and birth restriction, 671. 

Earning the minimum wage, 150. 



Sachs, Theodore B., note and portrait, 198. 
Sacramento city plan adopted, 756. 

Safety First Federation of America, primer of safety 423 
Safety movement. 

Spread of, 122. 

See also National Safety Council. 
Sahlbom, Dr. Maima, 583. 
St. Clair Flats (poem), 734. 

St. John. Guy B.. religious exhibit at San Francisco. 
St. Joseph, 193. 
St. Louis. 

Baby death rate, 767. 

Bread and bakery products. 737. 

Central Social Council, 94. 

City plan efforts, 642. 

Civic League's summary of welfare movements. 118. 

Immigrant work, 740. 

Negro segregation, 694. 

Negro segregation vote, 627. 

School centers, 756. 
St. Louis Community Trust, 736. 
Salaries of visitors, 725. 
Salem county, N. J., 38. 
Salesmanship, dickering ability, 627. 

Salmon, Thos. W. Venereal hospital needed (letter). ">4 
Saloon. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Sanatoriums, ancient Greek. 519. 
San Francisco. 

Children's court, 487. 

Conference of American Federation of Labor. 306. 

Orphan asylum, 701. 

Plans for cities on the Bay, 757. 

Red Light Abatement Law and Law Enforcement 
League, 418. 

State Normal School data on individual instruction. 
634. 

Tuberculosis, 344. 

See also Panama-Pacific Exposition 
Sanger. Margaret A. 

Indictment quashed. 628. 

Trial prospect, 446. 
Saranac Lake Health Department. 727. 
Saturday closing in Rochester. N. Y., 501 
Scapegoat, the, 254. 
Schapiro, T. Salwyn. Review of Wald's House on Henry 

Street', 437. 
Schmidt, Matthew A.. 449. 
Schneider. Franz. Jr.. 97. 574 



Index 



xix 



Schneider, Herman, 115. 
School age, 100. 

School centers in St. Louis, 756. 
School desks, 124. 
School hygiene, 520. 
School of Organic Education, 365. 
Schoolhouses. 

Fire hazards, 157. 

Government bulletin on sanitation. 202. 
Schoolmasters, prophet among, 438. 
Schools. See Public schools ; Teachers. 
Schrader, George H. F., 527. 
Schuster, Edgar, 117. 

Schvan, August. Principles of world citizenship, 597. 
Schweinitz, Dr. Geo. E. de, 193. 
Schweinitz, Karl de. Anatomy most melancholy (annual 

reports), 509. 
Schwenkf elder church (cut), 513. 
Schwimmer, Rosika, 61, 227. 

Portrait, 581. 
Science — for or against human welfare? 560. 
Scientific Congress. See Pan-American Scientific Con- 
gress. 
Scientific management, 342. 

Editor's note on Hoxie report, 675. 

Labor view of, 423. 

Social welfare and (Hoxie), 673-680, 685. 686. 
Scott, James Brown, 265. 

Scudder, Vida D. Towards Ultimate Harmony, 682. 
Seal of New York Public Library, Brenner, 16. 
Seamen, accidents to, 640. 
Seamen's law, 490. 
Searchlight on Congress, 612. 
Sears, Amelia, 195. 
Sears, Walter Lincoln, death, 527. 
Seattle. 

Children's court, 486. 

Jewish refugees, 474. 

Prohibition in effect, 448. 
Security League, 506. 
Segregation. See Negroes. 
Serbian babies, 334. 

Seton, Ernest Thompson, resigns as chief scout. 342. 
Settlements. 

Directory, 366. 

Hudson Guild, 476. 
Sex. 

Medicines, 179. 

Oregon education, 416. 

See also Social hygiene. 
Sexual immorality, laws in New York City, 589. 
Seymour, Gertrude. Guard at the port of New York 

(quarantine), 424. 
Shakespeare, 384. 

New York masque for tercentenary, 508. 
Shanghai, tuberculosis calendar, 125. 
Shaw, Anna H., 304. 

Sheffield Farms-Slawson-Decker Co., 121. 
Shibusarva, Baron, 313. 

Shop early gains for shop girls (advertisements), 294, 295. 
Short, Wallace M. 

How one town learned a lesson in free speech, 106. 

Reply to letter of T. J. Noonan, 225. 
Short ballot, "pony" on, 216. 
Short-story writing, class in, 118. 
Shufeldt, R. W., 216. 
Sickness (poem), 633. 

Sickness survey of Dutchess County, N. Y., 65-69. 
Sight. See Babies ; Blindness. 
Sigsbee, Mary Ellen, 281. 
Simonds, O. C, 617. 
Simpson, Mrs. Adjutant, 36. 
Sinclair, Upton, 302. 
Singapore Y. W. C. A., 483. 
Sing Sing. 

Mourners (cartoon), 626. 

Osborne, Whitman and Riley (editorial). 559. 

Prison exhibit, 503. 

Return of Tony Marino, 557. 

Stabbings, 496. 

Suitable for ruins, 503. 

Whitman's opinion of, 626. 

See also Kirchwey, Geo. W. ; Osborne. T. M. 
"Slainte" (health work in Ireland), 573. 
Slavery and war, 64. 
Sleszvnski. T. Polish social workers (letter), 470 



Slingerland, Win. H. Child welfare work in California, 

700. 
Sloan, Isabel, on the industrial situation in England, 692. 
Slovaks, 624. 

Smashing the looking-glass, 602. 
Smells from New Jersey on Riverside Drive, 55. 
Smith, Mrs. Edith E., study of women and rural life, 616. 
Smith, I'rances A., 469. 

Smith, Herbert H. Letter on annual reports, 646. 
Smith. J. Russell. Dismissing the professor (case of Scott 

Nearing), 131. 
Smith, Richard M., 522. 
Smith, Samuel E., 379. 
Snedden, David, 736. 
Sneezing, 371. 
Snow, Wm. F. Review of Pusey's Syphilis as a Modern 

Problem, 645. 
Social agencies, reports of, 509. 
Social center, Illinois, 499. 
Social center movement, 195. 
Social council, central, St. Louis, 94. 
Social hygiene. 

American Social Hygiene Association, annual meeting, 
Boston, 102. 

American Social Hygiene Association, midwest con- 
ference, 193. 

Baltimore, 229. 

Oregon sex education, 416. 
Social insurance, 174, 490, 555. 

Prize awarded for last pamphlet, 714. 

Massachusetts, 624. 
Social justice. See Justice. 
Social legislation. See Legislation. 
Social sciences, fraternity to promote, 620. 
Social service. 

China, beginnings, 347. 

Directory (Chicago) published as a public document, 
203. 

Latin America plans, 717. 

Massillon, Ohio, 441. 
Social Service Exchange (N. Y.), 347. 
Social Service Quarterly (Bombay), 76. 113. 
Social Service Review, 97. 
Social vision (poem), 223. 

Social welfare and scientific management, 673-680, 685, 686 
Social work. 

''Baedeker" for institutions in and near New York, 118. 

Baltimore chart, 62. 

Equipment for, 286. 
Social workers. 

Clearing houses, 347. 

Johns Hopkins courses, 49. 

Need of research, 577. 

Pensions in Boston, 290. 300. 

Poem for, 223. 

Profession in the making (Devine), 408. 

Summary of report on positions in New York City, 
386-389. 
Socialism. 

Intercollegiate Socialist Society, 7th annual conven- 
tion, 468. 

Philipp (Gov.) on, 351. 
Socialist Press Club, 624. 
Socialists. 624, 625. 

Sociological Society. See American Sociological Society. 
Soldiers, prostitution, 177. 

Solomon, Walter Leo. Little dialogues of a big city, 48. 
South, the. 

Cotton picking by child labor, 1. 

Tramps, 534. 
South America. Sec Latin America. 
South Carolina. 

Prohibition, 76. 

State conferences, 54. 
Southern Sociological Congress, announcement, 766. 
Southwest, tenant farmers of, 511. 
Specialization, 680. 
Speedometer, charity, 608-609. 
Spencer, Anna Garlin. Carnegie Endowment Year Book 

reviewed, 235, 265. 
Spine, curvature of. 124. 
Spingarn, Arthur B., 589. 
Spingarn medal. 627. 
Spitting, 473. 

Spot Light (pamphlet), 528. 
Spotted fever. 463. , 



XX 



Index 



Sprague, Geo. L., personal, 47. 
Springfield, 111. 

Charities, 730. 

Survey aftermath, 725. 
Sprinklers, 441. 

Editorial on Hoagland letter, 762. 

Exits or (letter from I. G. Hoagland), 765. 
Standard of living. See Cost of living. 
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey, 59. 
Standards in graphic representation, 617. 
Star Island Corporation, 518. 
Stateswoman, unofficial, 437. 
Steamship lines (map), 428. 
Stein, David, 177. 
Stein vs. Morris, 283. 
Sternberg, Gen. Geo. Miller, death, 195. 
Stewart, Cora Wilson. Moonlight schools in Kentucky, 

429. 
Stewart. Dorothy. Poster, 608. 
Stiles. Dorothy H. Fighting the scourge on Troublesome, 

726. 
Stock, Eugene, 522. 

Stockholm, group of peace delegates, 583. 
Stoer, Bertha, 315. 
Stonaker, C. L. 

Jersey beggars (letter), 470. 

Letter on O. S. Storrs, 172. 
Storey, Walter, 608-609. 
Storrs, O. S.. 172. 

Street cleaning prize for essays on, 593. 
Street railway, public forum conducted by, 616 
Strikes. 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers, Chicago, 58. 

Chicago clothing workers (end), 419. 

Division street salesmen, 627. 

Dress and waist makers, 597. 

East Youngstown, 477. 

East Youngstown, indictments against steel compan- 
ies, 711. 

Leadville smelter, Colo., 740. 

Milk wagon drivers, 121. 
Strong, Anna Louise. Prohibition in Seattle, 448. 
Strong, Chas. H., 200, 570. 

Structural iron industry, open and closed shop, 702, 705. 
Student health, 71. 

Submarine explosion (Brooklyn), 473. 
Submerged. 

Congress of (letter), 224. 

Peoples, 121. 

Plea for 407 Va millions, 624. 
Subsidies, federal, for tuberculosis hospitals, 567. 
Subway. Sec under New York (City). 
Sudden death, 652. 
Suffrage. See Woman suffrage. 
Sugar beets. See "Beeters." 
Suicide, 741. 

Sullivan, J. Clarence, notice and portrait, 615. 
Sunday, Billy, on segregation of prostitutes, 447. 
Sunday closing. 

Chicago, 197. 

See also Alcohol. 
Sunday delivery, 646. 

Sunlight — both healing and harming. 451. 
Sunrise, Wyo., error as to hospital corrected (letter), 648. 
Sunshine, 405. 
Supreme Court, U. S., Brandeis nominated, 531, 559. 

See also Brandeis. 
Survey, The. 

Appeal for and acknowledgment of contributions, sup- 
plement of Feb. 5 issue. 

Appreciative letter from R. F. Carter, 55. 

English playwright's letter, extract, 118. 

Free copies, 765. 

Leap Year cartoon, 567. 

Letter from a German discontinuing subscription, 118. 

Letters pro and con, 497. 

Poll of subscribers on votes by women, 83-87, 95-96. 

Putnam, Mrs. Wm. Lowell, on preparedness (letter), 
735. 
Surveys. 

Bibliography, new edition, 613. 

Continuous accounting and, 707. 

Higher education, 602. 

Recreational, Madison. Wis.. 617. 
Suspended sentence. 441. 



Suzuki, Bunji, 1. 

Swasey, Ambrose, plaque by Brenner, 18. 

Sweden, Ford peace expedition in, 579. 

Swedish international (Schvan), 597. 

Swenson, David F. Letter on preparedness, 592. 

Swift, Edgar J., 303. 

Swimming pools in the Y. W. C. A., 483. 

Syphilis, 54. 

Alcohol and (exhibit), 454. 

Army, 452. 

Domestic workers (letter), 646. 

Society and, 645. 

See also Venereal diseases. 
Syracuse, N. Y., prostitution and Billy Sunday, 447. 
Syrian children, 341. 



Tacoma. 

Public Service Forum, 616. 

Y. W. C. A., summer camp, 482. 
Taft, Anna B., death, 527. 
Taft, Jessie, 469. 
Taft, Wm. H., 180, 311, 736. 

Blindness committee, 193. 
Tag day in Chicago, 454. 
Talkington, Chas. E., 376. 
Tarcali, Andrew, 237. 
Tasmania, health report, 452. 
Tawney, R. H., 465. 
Taxation. 

Massachusetts provisions, 475. 

Minnesota towns, 63. 

New York (City) problems, 231. 

New York (City) problems, error corrected. 366. 
Taylor, Florence I., personal, 47. 
Taylor, Frederick W, 675. 
Taylor, Graham, 55, 725. 

Held to account for the Eastland, 45. 

Physician-citizen (H. B. Favill), 704. 

Review of books on church and community, 643. 

Strike that brought solidarity (Chicago clothing work- 
ers), 419. 

World salvage, 525. 

Young, Ella Flagg, and Chicago schools, 266 
Taylor, Graham Romeyn. 

How shall we save New York? 752. 

National yard sticks for health, 461. 

Nation's playgrounds, 390-393. 

Underground America (Bureau of Mines), 547-553. 

Washington at work : the print shop, 352, 353. 
Tchaykovsky, Dr. Barbara, 177. 
Teachers. 

Trade unions, 1. 

Training for rural schools, conference, 307. 

What ails? 249. 
Teachers' Federation. See under Chicago. 
Teeth, care of, 316. 
Telegraph workers. 330. 
Telephone workers, 330. 
Temperance education movement (National Temperance 

Union), 59. 
Tenancy. 332. 

Tenant farmers of the Southwest, 511. 
Tenement home work and the courts, 612. 
Tent houses, 482. 
Tetanus. 462, 464. 
Textile industry, 470. 
Thanksgiving. 

Boy Scouts, 225. 

Turkey cartoon, 197. 
Theater. 

Prostitutes in old times, 440. 

See also Drama. 
Third row, 440. 
Thompson, Vance, 467. 
Thompson, Warren S., 169. 
Thompson, Wm. O. 

Preparedness and the people, 743. 

Sketch, 743. 
Thompson Trust, 519. 
Thomson. John Edgar, 123. 
Thread of life, medallion by Brenner. 16, 17 
Thrift in schools, 174. 
Ticks. 463, 
Tillamook. Oreg.. 2. 



I n d e x 



XXI 



Tilton, Elizabeth, 102. 

Interview with Ernest Gordon, 568. 

"Pacifists fight," 636. 

Prohibition a job-maker (letter), 173. 

Prohibition the job-maker (reply to letter), 365. 

Review of Beman's Prohibition, etc., 590. 

Review of Thompson's Drink and Be Sober, 467. 
Toboggan slide, municipal, 727. 
Torch bearer of education, plaque by Brenner, 16. 
Toronto's Forest School (cut), 451. 
"Touching" street scene (cartoon), 94. 
Towel, the family, 726. 
Toivn (Baltimore paper), 621. 
Town planning. See City planning. 
Towns, taxation in Minnesota, 63. 
Towns, Chas. B., 439. 
Trachoma, 463. 

Egypt, 713. 

Kentucky mountains (Dorothy H. Stiles), 726. 
Tracy, Marguerite, 466. 
Trade unions, 399. 

Factory inspection and fires, 191. 

Helper's place, 116. • 

Manly report, 319, 333. 

Teachers and, 1. 

Weakness of American, 759. 
Tramps, South calling a halt on, 534. 
Trask, Mr. and Mrs. Spencer, plaques by Brenner, 18. 
Travelers, health, 113. 
Travis, Dr. Katharine, 593. 
Tree of Light, 205, 207. 
Tree planting, 286. 

Trench fighting, effect on infectious diseases, 520 
Trenches (cartoon), 546. 
Trenton, N. J., fair exhibits, 343. 
Truancy, Milwaukee work, 637. 
Trudeau, Dr. E. L. 

School in honor of, 316. 

Sketch with portrait, 289. 
Tuberculosis. 

Chicago sanitarium, 198. 

"Children's National Tuberculosis Society," 36. 

China, calendar, 125. 

Cleveland children, 767. 

Colorado challenges federal subsidies, 711. 

Congress and, 219. 

Federal subsidies, 567. 

Four sectional conferences under National Anti- 
Tuberculosis Assoc, 194. 

Handbook wanted, 593. 

Ireland, 573. 

Los Angeles nurses, 114. 

Medallion by Brenner, 17. 

New county hospitals in New York, 180. 

Ontario work, 452. 

Playing the Lone Game, 590. 

San Francisco, 344. 

School for graduate study in honor of Dr. Trudeau, 
316. 

Street car card on bathing, 474. 
Tuberculosis Week, 520. 

Features, 202. 
Tucker, Catharine, 469. 
Tucker, Donald. First public meeting of the Professors' 

Union, 485. 
Tucker, Dr. H. C, 719. 
Turkey. See Armenians; Morgenthau. 
Turkey cartoon, 197. 
Turner, Mary Borden, 201. 
Tuskegee. 

How it took Dr. Washington's death, 255. 

See also Moton, R. R. 
Twilight sleep, two books on, 466. 
Typhoid, when an industrial accident, 690. 
Typhus. 

Mexico. 652. 

Texas, 528. 

U 
Ukrainians, 224, 624, 625. 

First congress of, 121. 
Unborn, The (play), 199, 364. 
Uncle Sam, 625. 

Underground America, 547-553. 
Underbill, Ruth M. Ancient Long Island, 291-293. 
Unemployment. 



Committee (new) of Mayor Mitchel on. 638. 

Employable unemployed. 593. 

From the angle of case work, 162. 

Illinois study, 198. 

Manly report, 326, 332. 

Massachusetts discussion, 171. 

New York City improvement, 174. 

Pacific coast and Rocky mountain, 179. 

Picture of ('Am I My Brother's Keeper?"), 693. 

Police work in New York City, 166. 

Prohibition and, 365. 

Report by American Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion, etc., 287. 
Unemployment insurance. See Insurance. 
Unfit, the, and the unfulfilled, 163. 
Union Metallic Cartridge Co., 238. 
Unitarian Association, 518. 
Unitarian Temperance Society, 499. 
United Hebrew Charities, vocational guidance department, 

348. 
United Mine Workers. 

Demands, 567. 

Judge Dayton, 762. 

Wage contracts, 578. 
United States. 

Danger and opportunity (paper by Lucia Ames 
Mead), 90-92. 

Delinquent debtors, 179. 

Spirit of (Uncle Sam), 625. 
United States Steel Corporation, 711. 
Universal Savings Corporation, 177. 
Universities. 

See Urban Universities. 
University professors. See American Association of Uni- 
versity Professors. 
Unpreparedness. 

Newspaper cartoons, 92. 

See also Preparedness. 
Unrest, industrial, probing the causes, 317, 395, 432. 
Upson, L. D., 605. 

Urban Universities, Association of, conference, 306. 
Utah. 

Hillstrom execution, 200. 

Woman suffrage, 96. 
Utopia (Sing Sing under T. M. Osborne), 105. 

V 

Vaccination day in India, 70. 

Vagrants. See Farm colonies. 

Vaile, Gertrude, on tuberculosis subsidies, 711. 

Valentine. Robt. G. 

On efficiency and consent, 342. 

Portrait, 675. 
Valenzuela, Jesus E., 722. 
Valuation, Conference on, 305. 
Van (city), 260, 261. 
Van Blarcom, Carolyn C, 650. 

Saving the sight of babies, 43. 
Van Kleeck, Mary. Social workers (summary of report 

on New York positions), 386-389. 
Vassar, public health interest, 201. 
Vedder, Dr. E. B., 452, 646. 
Venereal diseases, 102. 

Life's clinic, 253. 

Measures for prophylaxis in Germany, 71. 
Venereal hospital needed (letter), 54. 
Vermont Charities and Correction conference, 591. 
Vice among the respectable, 746. 
Vice districts. See Prostitution. 
Villard, Oswald Garrison. Shall we arm for peace, 296- 

299. 
Violence, tactics of. 432. 
Vivisection. 

Value, 147. 

War and (letter and ed. comment), 648. 
Vocational education. See Industrial education. 
Vocational guidance. 

Bloomfield's book, 170. 

United Hebrew Charities, 348. 
Vodka abolition, 568, 649. 
Voluntary maternity. See Birth control 
Volunteer Service, committee on. 118. 
Voters' leagues, 612. 
Votes. See Woman suffrage. 
Voting booths, Cincinnati, 642. 



XX11 



Index 



w 

Wages. 

Double standard, 639. 

Harm of low (Devine), 29. 

New York, 445. 

Steel companies indicted for alleged restraint, 711. 

United Mine Workers, 567, 578. 

War and (letter), 707. 
Wagner, Mrs. Elin, 583. 
VVainwright, J. Mayhew, 597. 
Wald, Lillian D., 135, 437. 
Wales, Grace, 583. 
Walker, John H., 639. 

Walker, Louis A. Letter on birth control, 765. 
Walker, Stuart, 371, 383. 
Wallas, Graham, 302. 
Walsh, Frank P., 118, 155, 470. 
Walters, Evan J., 233. 
Walton, J. Barnard. Letter commending The Survey, 

497. 
War. 

Cartoon (a drive is on), 311. 

Cartoon, "O Lord, we Thank Thee," 180. 

Economic costs, 488. 

Fighting war with love, 311. 

Man with the gun (poem), 69. 

Schools and, 220. 

Science and, 560. 

Vivisection and (letter), 648. 

Wages, profit and (letter), 707. 

Women, suffrage and (J. Addams), 148. 

See also Fighting instinct. 
War (college paper), 528. 
War debt (cartoon), 569. 
War in Europe. 

American conditions after, 362. 

Civilization, cartoon, 58. 

Death-rate, 147. 

Ebb and flow of battle (scene in Poland), 101. 

Factories in England, 451. 

Fraser, Lovat, on, 611. 

Labor's internationalism, 288. 

Newer theories of, 697. 

Population dwindling (cartoon), 79. 

Race suicide, 407. 

Rural co-operation, 715. 

Saving the wreckage, 525. 

Silver lining, 64. 

See also Peace. 
War orders in a rural town, 38. 
War orphans in France, 455. 
War prevention, commercial bodies on, 473. 
War relief, 4. 

War relief fund delinquents, 179. 
War-boom towns. 

Bridgeport, 237-342, 267. 

Penns Grove, 539-546, 563. 
Ward, Edward J., 195. 
Ward, Henry F., 643. 
Ware, Edward T. Thy neighbor (Atlanta Negro orphan 

asylum), 517. 
Warfield, George, 729. 
Wartime, effect on boys, 507, 524. 
Washington (State). 

Minimum wage, 449. 

Woman suffrage, 96. 
Washington, D. C. 

Bureau of Mines, 547. 

Print shop, 352, 353. 

Public Health Service, 461. 
Washington, Booker T. 

Appreciation, 222. 

Effect of death on Tuskegee, 255. 

Memorial meeting, New York. 650. 

Poem on (Dunbar), 508. 

Successor, 369. 
Washington Irving High School, 693. 
Watrous, Ricbard B. Eleventh annual meeting of the 

American Civic Association, 490. 
Watson, Amey E. Review of Schuster's Eugenics, 117. 
Watson, Frank D. Review of Thompson's Population, 169. 
Wayne Farms, 379. 
Wealth. 

Distribution of. :S23. 331. 

People of the United States. 116, 



Weaver, E. W., 52. 

Weavers, The (play), 372, 470. 

Letter from Miss Flynn, 648. 
Weber, Joseph J. Report of a survey of sickness in 

Dutchess County, N. Y., 65-69. 
Webster, Jean, 645. 
Weeks, Asland D. 

Challenge to industry, 422. 

Letter correcting error, 593: 
Weil, Dr. Richard, 284, 300. 
Weinmanism, 603. 
Welborn, J. F., 444. 
Welch, Wm. H., plaque by Brenner, 18. 
Weller, Chas. F. 

Children's Playhouse, Columbus, Ohio, 615. 

Review of Curtis's Education Through Play, 217. 
West, George, 432. 
West, James E., 342. 
West Chester's playgrounds, 139. 
West Point, syphilis at, 452. 

West Virginia, official conduct of Judge Dayton, 762. 
Westcott, Ella B., 345. 

Western Economic Society, tenth conference, 362. 
Wharton School of Finance and Commerce. See Pennsyl- 
vania, University of. 
Wheelbarrow, man with the (cut), 577. 
Wheeler, Edward J. Colloquy of the oceans, 313. 
Whipping-post in Delaware, 405, 518. 
Whistler, Jos. McNeill, portrait by Brenner, 22. 
White. Gaylord S. Conference on the Church and Country 

Life, 362. 
White, Wm. P. Wages and bonds (letter), 225. 
Whitin, Frederick H. Review of Spingarn's Lazvs Relat- 
ing to Sexual Immorality in New York City, 589. 
Whiting, Wm. Alberti, 593. 

Dead letter office for misdirected men, 208. 
Whitman. Chas. S., 443. 

Dismissal of John B. Riley (editorial), 559. 

Industrial Commission, 597. 

Industrial Commission hesitation, 493. 

Quarantine recommendations, 494. 

Sing Sing changes, 417. 
Whitney, Anne, 281. 
Whitney, Mrs. Harry Payne, 232. 
Who goes there? — A friend, 535-538.- 
Why? (poem), 104. 
Wiard, Louis, 369, 493, 597. 
. Widows' pensions. 

First in New York State. 312. 

New York City money, 725. 

"Pony" on, 216. 

Report of the New York State Commission on Relief 
for Widowed Mothers, 730. 
Wile, Frances W. Peace Ship (poem), 342. 
Wilkes Barre, Pa.. Y. W. C. A., 483. 
Williams, Frank B., 617. 

Supreme Court on city planning, 654. 
Williams, J. E. Rockefeller industrial representation plan. 

145. 
Williams. Mornay. Good Samaritan (twentieth century 

version), 610. 
Wilson, Pres. 

Message, plan for peace and preparedness, 281. 

Preparedness views, 505. 
Winfield, Kansas, 203. 
Winslow, Prof. C. E. A., 97, 628. 
Winslow, Erving, 173, 497. 

Germany (letter), 117. 

Letter on peace organizations, 441. 
Winslow Dairy and Fruit Farms Co., 76. 
Winter Garden. 3S4, 385. 
Wirt, Wm., portrait, 89. 
Wisconsin. 

Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 458, 

City and farm women, study by Mrs. E. E. Smith. 616. 

Compensation law covering typhoid, 690. 

Sauk county plan for children, 755. 

School age pushed up, 100. 
Wisconsin, University of, 195. 

Allen survey reviewed (Mead). 349-351; 354-361. 

Editorial on Survey of, 613. 

Plaque by Brenner, 16. 

Rejoinder to Allen (Mead 1 ). 007. 

Replies to Mead's review, ami general consideration 
of surveys ( Allen V 603 



Index 



xxm 



Witmer, Lightner, 35. 
Witt, Peter, 103. 
Woman Suffrage. 

Caricature statuette of male voter, 42. 

Election results, Nov. 2, 158. 

Pennsylvania, 39. 

Poll of Survey subscribers, 83-87, 95-96. 

Poster, baby (Cut), 41. 

War, woman, and (J. Addams), 148. 
Woman's City Club (N. Y.), 616. 
Woman's Municipal League of New York city, 118. 
Woman's Peace Congress, 46, 60, 61. 
Woman's Peace Party, 227. 

First annual meeting of National Woman's Peace 
Party, 492. 

Prizes for posters, 621. 

Recommendations, 232. 

Training School, 76. 

Washington meeting and resume of developments since 
May, 1914, 443. 
Women. 

Business war and, 523. 

Chicago city platform, 742. 

Chicago offenders, 723. 

In industry, 329. 

Industrial subjugation (J. Martin), 629. 

Married woman in industry (J. Martin), 695. 

Mother in industry (J. Martin), 720. 

Protest against John Martin's articles on woman 
(letter), 707. 

War, Suffrage and (J. Addams), 148. 

Work before marriage (Martin), 668. 

Work in the autumn of life (J. Martin), 750. 

See also International Committee of Women, for Per 

manent Peace ; Pan-American Union of Women. 
Wood, Arthur E. Review of three volumes of Debaters 

Handbook Series, 216. 
Wood, Dr. Francis Carter, 520. 
Woodford County, 111., 482. 
Woods, Arthur, 533. 



Woods, Robt. A. Review of books on social reconstruc- 
tion, 302. 

Woodson, Carter G., 521, 741. 

Woodward, Rev. Daniel, 97. 

Woolley, Celia Parker. Review of McCord's American 
Negro, etc., 52. 

Working girls, homes for, 638. 

Workmen's compensation. See Compensation. 

World citizenship, what it implies (Schvan's principles), 
597. 

World government, ten constructive proposals, 183-187. 

World salvage, 525. 

Worthington, Mary Grace, 118. 

World series — 1915 (cartoon), 59. 

Wounded, specializing in care of, 528. 

Wright Brothers, Brenner's medal, 22. 

Wyoming, woman suffrage, 96. 



Varros, Victor S. Newer theories of the war, 697. 
Yorkville Neighborhood Association, 519. 
Yoshimatsu, S., 1. 

Young, Allyn A. Meeting of American Economic Associa- 
tion, 488. 
Young, Major Charles, 627. 
Young, Ella Flagg, 266. 

Golden jubilee of school service, 363. 

Note and portrait, 198. 
Young, Mahonri, 577. 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

Y. W. C. A., 484. 

See also East Youngstown. 
Y. W. C. A. 

Apartment house report, 638. 

Boston, internationalism, 535. 

Fifty years of the, 481. 



Zabriskie, Principal, 693. 
Zimmer, Michael, 50, 420. 
Zruemer, Samuel M., 341. 








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Vol. XXXV, No. i 



THE COMMON WELFARE 



Contents 



October 2, 1915 



JAPANESE LABOR LEADERS IN AMERICA 

"SOMEWHBRE IN THE SOUTH" 

SHALL SCHOOL TEACHERS JOIN LABOR UNIONS? 

THE REVIVAL OF BARNUM'S GREAT "WHAT IS IT?" 

PERSONALITY AS A TEST FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 

ANNIHILATION OF ALL ARMENIANS THREATENED 

AN INTERLUDE ON INFANT MORTALITY 

LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN COLORADO 

EUROPEAN STATES RECOGNIZE WAR RELIEF DUTY 

DOWNING DEMONS, McLandburgh Wilson in the New York Sun 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

THE MUCKERS William H. Matthews 

THE LANTERN BEARERS V.-Censorship; and the National Board . John Collier 

TWO NEW WORLDS AND A SCULPTOR'S CLAY Paul U. Kellogg 

EMILY BLACKWELL-an Appreciation Elizabeth M. Cushier, M. D. 

THE TIME TO MAKE PEACE Emily Greene Balch 

PORTRAIT OF A PHYSICIAN, a poem Sarah N. Cleghorn 

DISGORGING THE SALOON Paul H. Benjamin 

EDITORIALS ... 



KEIR HARDIE 
CHARLES M. CABOT . 
THE HARM OF LOW WAGES 



John A. Fitch 



Edward T. Devine 



9 
19 
22 
24 
25 
26 

27 
27 
27 
29 



National Council 



ROBERT W. de FOREST, Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS. Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL, Washington 

ROBERT S. BREWSTER, New York 

CHARLES M. CABOT, Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS, St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE, New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo. 

LEE K. F'RANKEL. New York 

JOHN M. GLENN, New York 

WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York 

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 



WILLIAM J. KERBY. Washington 
JOSEPH LEE. Boston 
JULIAN W. MACK. Washington 
V. EVERIT MACY. New York 
CHARLES D. NORTON, New York 
SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia 
JULIUS ROSENWALD, Chicago 
GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago 
FRANK TUCKER, New York 
LILLIAN D. WALD. New York 
ALFRED T. WHITE, Brooklyn 



The Survey Associates. Inc.. is an adventure in co-operative journalism ; incorporated 
under the laws of the state of New York. November. 1912. as a membership organization 
without shares or stockholders. Membership is open to readers who become contributors of 
$10 or more a year. It is this widespread, convinced backing and personal interest which 
has made The Survey a living thing. 

The Survey Is a weekly iournal of constructive philanthropy, founded in the 90's by the 
Charity Organization Society of the City of New York. The first weekly issue of each month 
appears as an enlarged magazine number. 

From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an 
educational enterprise, to be employed and developed beyond the limits of advertising and com- 
mercial receipts. 



Pri 



ce 



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COPYRIGHT, 1915, BY SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC. 
ENTERED AS SECOND CLASB MATTER MARCH 25, 1909 AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. V., UNDER THE A«T »F MARCH 9, 1879. 



The GIST of IT— 

PROFESSOR BALCH believes the psy- 
chological moment to talk peace is close 
upon us. Both sides want it and are ready 
to go beyond their advertised intentions. 
And both have substantial conquests of 
territory as basis for a dicker. Page 24. 

'J 1 WO Japanese labor leaders, who have 
come over to study American methods 
of organizing labor, are advocates of peace. 
Page 1. 

^J E W York's subway, "the greatest city 
railroad system in the world," is being 
blasted through the rock of Manhattan 
Island by laborers who are paid less than 
their widows would receive from a relief 
society should they die. Page 5. 

K EIR HARDIE dead— a glimpse of his 
human leadership. Page 27. 

VICTOR BRENNER is the man who 
made the penny famous. An immigrant 
who has entered into two new worlds — 
America and sculpture — it was character- 
istic of his sharing of the common life that 
he chose to put his likeness of Lincoln not 
on coins of high degree but in place of the 
cigar-store Indian on the copper cent that 
jingles in everyman's pocket. Page 19. 

THE whole Armenian nation may be 
wiped out as one of the by-products of 
war. Page 3. 

\\Z" HAT attitude the public shall take to- 
ward the unionizing of public servants 
has come to sharp issue between the 
Chicago school teachers and the Board of 
Education. The board prohibited the teach- 
ers from taking out union cards. The 
teachers have held the board up on an in- 
junction. Page 1. 

p ERSONALITY and experience are reck- 
oned important factors in civil service 
examinations nowadays. Tests based on 
them tend to put round men into round 
holes. A New York report contends that 
government is blazing the way for business 
in building up a technique of employment. 
Page 2. 

J^ELIEF work in Europe has grown too 
big for private effort. Only govern- 
ment action can meet the need now. 
Page 4. 

'J"' HE old choice, "You can like it or lump 
it," is characteristic of the whole busi- 
ness of making, distributing, showing and 
seeing motion-pictures. While it lasts — 
and it's a temporary condition — the volun- 
tary National Board of Censorship is a 
good thing, says John Collier. But censor- 
ship, by and large, is a poor thing, particu- 
larly for the theater. What the people 
need is not protection, but life, "and it may 
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JULIA C. LATHROP. Vice-President 



THIRTEENTH YEAR OPENS OCTOBER 4, 1915 

GENERAL TRAINING COURSE 

Fitting for the several kindred lines of social work. 

First Year Courses: Introduction to Social Work, Survey of the Field, Local 
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Social Reform Movement, Public Care of Children, Wards of the State, 
Social Legislation, Immigration and Methods of Social Investigation. 

Course for Playground Workers 

Technical Classes at Hull-House ; practice work in settlements and pub- 
lic recreation centers; courses in social work at the School. 



For further information address 
THE REGISTRAR. 2559 Michigan Avenue, CHICAGO 



BIND 

YOUR 

ISSUES 



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THE SURVEY stamped in gold letters both on the back and on the 
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may easily be removed and reinserted. 

At the end of each six months an index will be sent to you and the vol- 
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Price Postpaid $1. 

THE SURVEY - - 105 East 22d Street, New York 



THE NORMAL LIFE BY EDWARD T. DEVINE 

BY MAIL OF THE SURVEY $1.07 





C09CA20 




JAPANESE LABOR LEADERS IN 
AMERICA 

Two Japanese labor men, Bunji 
Suzuki and S. Yoshimatsu, who for 
years have been trying to organize the 
workers of Japan along American lines, 
are in the United States studying the 
methods of American labor unions. Ar- 
riving in San Francisco in the middle of 
the summer, they have spent their time 
thus far on the Pacific coast. The Labor 
Council of San Francisco recently gave 
them a reception and they are to attend 
the convention of the California State 
Federation of Labor in October and the 
general meeting of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor in San Francisco the 
month following. 

Suzuki and Yoshimatsu have come as 
a result of arrangements made a year 
ago by Sidney L. Gulick, representative 
on international relations of the Fed- 
eral Council of Churches of Christ in 
America, and Paul Scharrenberg, a San 
Francisco labor leader, editor of the 
Coast Seaman's Journal and representa- 
tive of a trade that is essentially inter- 
national. 

Some opposition has appeared to the 
mission of the Japanese leaders. The 
arrangement has been denounced by 
some labor men who declare it to be 
an attempt to move workingmen in the 
United States in support of Asiatic im- 
migration. Others point out that the 
very absence of a widespread labor 
movement in Japan is a strong reason 
for helping the Japanese leaders. They 
believe that the organization of Japan- 
ese workmen will lead to the raising of 
the standard of living and the ameliora- 
ting of conditions in that country — in 
short will relieve the very situation that 
has in part caused emigration to the 
United States. 

"We are learning in Japan," said 
Suzuki recently, "that the laborers of 
the world have the same interests and 
the same enemies. We are learning that 
a worker is a human laborer — a world 
laborer — exposed to the same enemies. 
I believe that the laborers of the world 
must so understand each other across 
the boundaries of race and nation that 

Volume XXXV, No. I. 



at the first blast of the trumpet we shall 
not be driven as sheep to the slaughter, 
but shall stand as a rock, firm in our 
confidence in one another, as an immov- 
able guard of eternal peace." 




"SOMHWHEKE IN THE SuUTH" 

HT HIS midwinter photograph of a boy 
picking cotton during the months 
and at the age when he ought to be in 
school forms, says Prof. W. K. Tate of 
George Peabody College for Teachers at 
Nashville, a telling illustration of "one 
of the great social struggles of the South 
— in behalf of the neglected child of 
the tenant farmer in the midst of a task 
which, under present conditions, must 
condemn him to poverty and ignorance." 
The college Record publishes a plea 
that "the burden of clothing the world 
be unloosed from the tired child of the 
sunny South," written in verse by Prof. 
H. C. Fellow of the Friends' University, 
Wichita, Kan., upon seeing this photo- 
graph. The first stanza follows : 

"In the image of God, created He him." 
Didst thou speak, Oh, Man ! with the 

voice of God? 
Didst thou say that the bent-over form 

of this boy 
Who toils in the cotton field all the 

year long 
With a body pinched close by the matrix 

of toil. 
And shoulders stooped with the yoke of 

an ox 
In dragging his loads to the marts of 

the world ; 
With a face burnt out and furrowed by 

care, 
With eyes dull leaden, that listlessly 

stare 
Into space, not seeing, but dead, stone 

dead ; 
With hands bronzed deep by a tropical 

sun, 
And scarred by the thorns of passionate 

briars — 
Didst thou say that this was thy image 
or God's? 



SHALL SCHOOL TEACHERS JOIN 
LABOR UNIONS? 

Chicago is dramatically staging 
n local issue, the national bearings of 
which will attract the attention of the 
whole country. The Board of Educa- 
tion has demanded that the Teachers' 
Federation withdraw from its affilia- 
tion with the Chicago Federation of 
Labor or give a pledge not to join it, 
not only as a condition of promotion 
and increase of salary but of continu- 
ance in or entrance upon the service of 
the public schools. 

Thus again in an acute and decisive 
way the question of public policy is 
raised whether employes in any govern- 
ment service should be permitted to be 
in any way identified with labor unions 
or any other class organization. 

Led by Margaret Haley, its formid- 
ably aggressive business agent, the 
Teachers' Federation at once picked up 
the gauntlet. Their first appeal was to 
public opinion in a mass meeting of 
4,000 citizens. Miss Haley appeared 
before them attended by the presidents 
of the American, the Illinois and the 
Chicago Federations of Labor. Or- 
ganized labor thus made common cause 
with the Teachers' Federation in de- 
fense from an attack alleged to be 
leveled alike against the teachers' and 
the working people's right to organize. 

To forefend themselves from this is- 
sue and the political consequences it 
involves, members of the Board of 
Education severally disclaimed being 
opposed to unions, but maintained that 
they were legitimate in the trades but 
not in the professions. The following 
drastic action of the board, passed by 
a vote of eleven to nine, was frankly 
introduced as "aimed directly at the 
Teachers' Federation" : 

"Membership by teachers in labor 
unions, or in organizations of teachers 
affiliated with a trade union, or a fed- 
eration or association of trade unions 
(as well as teachers' organizations 
which have officers, business agents, or 
other representatives who are not mem- 
bers of the teaching force) is inimical 
to proper discipline, prejudicial to the 
efficiency of the teaching force and 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 




S c aue - a» n-es 



THE REVIVAL OF BARNUM'S GREAT "WHAT IS IT?" 



""PHIS is not the path of a streak of 
greased lightning, nor, to quote the 
Oregon Voter from which it is taken, is 
it "a dachshund chasing a whoop-de- 
doodle into Przesymsl." It is school dis- 
trict No. 9 in Oregon, which has been 
given this fantastic shape for a very 
definite purpose. 

The city of Tillamook, occupying a 
square mile in the hind quarter of the 
dachshund, has an assessed valuation 
of $1,130,390. To help pay the cost of 
educating their children, the enterpris- 
ing Tillamookers managed to include 
timber lands assessed at over $1,700,000, 
and also some farm lands, thus rolling 
up a total assessed valuation of $2,943,- 
095 for their school district. Not being 
selfish, says the Voter, they left the 
balance of the timber lands of the 
county to be included in other districts, 



although it took some weird and won- 
derful mapping to get it all in. 

T^HIS gerrymandering of school dis- 
tricts is a favorite pastime of 
Oregon voters. "Shoestring districts, 
step-ladder districts, giraffe districts, 
hoop-snake districts and districts that in 
shape resemble no known or nameable 
object alive or dead are ingeniously 
spliced together," says the Voter. 
Swapping territory back and forth be- 
tween districts is also popular. 

The Voter concedes that railroad 
and timber property ought to pay its 
share towards schools, roads and local 
development. But the present system, 
it says, "makes possible the grossest 
discrimination, dulls civic morality and 
prompts reckless expenditure of other 
folks' money." 



detrimental to the welfare of the pub- 
lic school system ; therefore, such mem- 
bership, affiliation, or representation is 
hereby prohibited. 

"All members of the education de- 
partment who are now members of any 
such prohibited organization shall 
forthwith discontinue their member- 
ship therein and shall within three 
months from the date of the adoption 
of this rule furnish satisfactory evi- 
dence that such membership has been 
discontinued. 

"No person shall hereafter be em- 
ployed in any capacity in the educa- 
tion department until such person shall 
state in writing that he or she is not 
a member, and will not while employed 
in the education department become a 
member of any such prohibited organi- 
zation." 

Eligibility for promotion, advance- 
ment in salary, or transfer is condition- 
ed upon compliance with these new 
rules, a violation of which involves lia- 
bility to fine, suspension or dismissal. 

Political pressure is evidently both 
the first and last resort of the Teach- 
ers' Federation in fighting for its life 
and for what is claimed to be the per- 
sonal rights of over 7,000 teachers, al- 
though the number of them enrolled in 
the Teachers' Federation is kept secret 
and is variously estimated by friend or 
foe from over 3,000 to less than 500. 
The mayor's pending appointments of 
one-third the members of the school 



board were challenged at the outset. He 
was "dared" to reappoint or appoint 
those favoring the prohibitive rules. 
The City Council was next relied upon 
not to confirm such appointments. And 
the governor was asked to keep the 
state's hands off the local situation, be- 
cause the mayor and the Board of Edu- 
cation had shifted the inquiry into 
school affairs from the City Council to 
a senate committee, the legality of 
whose appointment is challenged. 

To gain time to develop these tactics, 
if not permanently to estop the proceed- 
ings against members of the federation, 
a temporary injunction was asked to re- 
strain the Board of Education and the 
mayor from enforcing the new rule. 
This was granted on the ground that the 
board had already contracted with the 
teachers for the ensuing year, knowing 
some of them to be members of the fed- 
eration, and that nothing had happened 
since then to change their status. The 
judge also held the rule to be arbitrary 
and unreasonable and one that if en- 
forced would prohibit the teachers' 
membership in the National Education 
Association and the Illinois State 
Teachers' Federation, as well as in the 
Chicago Teachers' Federation. 

In rendering this decision the judge 
added that "should the board file an an- 
swer to the bill setting forth that the 
Teachers' Federation is detrimental to 



the best interests of the schools, then a 
new question would arise to which his 
present ruling does not apply." This 
then will be the issue when application 
is made to have the temporary injunc- 
tion made permanent. 

The final decision in this case ought 
to go far toward threshing out a coun- 
try-wide public policy as to the union- 
izing of public employes. It must be 
conceded that some of the Chicago 
teachers have been broadened in their 
social intelligence and public spirit by 
the affiliation of their federation with 
the Federation of Labor; also that 
many trade unionists have had their 
vision widened and their standards 
raised by affiliation with the teachers. 
Fundamentally, however, the public, 
which owns the schools and employs the 
teachers, has the right to know why the 
paid and commissioned servants of the 
whole people should identify themselves 
with an organization of one class of the 
people, even though it may be the most 
numerous class; why if teachers thus 
affiliate, the city police, the postal serv- 
ice, the army and the navy, should not. 

PERSONALITY AS A TEST FOR 
PUBLIC SERVICE 

The head resident of a settle- 
ment in Minneapolis was called on the 
telephone by the secretary of the civil 
service commission the other day and 
asked if he would be one of five to give 
an oral examination to candidates for 
probation officer in the Juvenile Court. 
Arriving at the City Hall he found his 
confreres to be the secretary of the As- 
sociated Charities, the secretary of the 
Y. M. C. A., and the secretary and his 
assistant of the Civic and Commerce 
Association. 

The five proceeded to interview the 
candidates. They asked each one what 
he would do if he should suddenly meet 
his probationer coming from a moving 
picture show at 10:30 P.M. with a man 
or boy, how he would proceed in the 
case of a minor committed to his care 
for drunkenness, to what extent his 
views of heredity and environment 
might enter into his method of treat ■ 
ment, and other questions calculated to 
show the candidates' grasp of the sub- 
ject and to give the examiners a chance 
to study their personality. It turned 
out that the first three on the list of 
successful candidates were those who 
had received the highest rating for per- 
sonality from the volunteer oral exam- 
iners also. 

This plan of securing the help of 
public-spirited men and women in find- 
ing incumbents for specialized positions 
is more and more noticeable in the work 
of civil service commissions. The 
municipal commission of New York 
city, of which Henry Moskowitz, a 
former social worker, is president, has 
perhaps carried the policy as far as any 
body of similar character, as the com- 
mission's 1914 report make- clear Be- 



Common Welfare 



lieving that attendance officers should 
not merely enforce laws against truancy, 
but that they should be capable of study- 
ing social conditions leading to truancy, 
the commission framed an examination 
for this position only after securing the 
advice of an associate and three district 
superintendents of schools, the director 
of the Bureau of Compulsory Attend- 
ance, the head of the Public Education 
Association, the secretary of the New 
York Child Labor Committee, and two 
representatives of the Consumers' 
League. Three persons well known in 
protective work for youths helped to 
frame the examination for police ma- 
tron, and four social workers aided 
in preparing the examination for super- 
intendent of the Municipal Lodging 
House. 

In the examinations held by the New 
York commission for secretary of the 
Committee on Social Welfare of the 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment, 
three men well known in social work 
stood at the top of the list, Alexander 
Wilson, now temporarily serving as di- 
rector of social investigations for the 
Department of Public Charities of New 
York city, William B. Buck, now filling 
a temporary appointment as superin- 
tendent of the New York city Children's 
Hospital and Schools on Randall's 
Island, and John R. Shillady, secretary 
of the Mayor's Unemployment Com- 
mittee. 

In preparing this examination the 



commission had the advice of Homer 
Folks and other seasoned men in this 
field. 

Civil service commissions are but fol- 
lowing the lead of public and private 
charitable bodies in this matter. In 
1906, when a vacancy was created in 
the superintendency of the great county 
institutions at Dunning, 111., the presi- 
dent of the Cook County Board of Com- 
missioners repudiated the suggestion 
that he seek the advice of politicians, 
and turned instead to a group of emi- 
nent physicians .and others known to 
have an intelligent interest in the public 
care of the dependent and defective 
classes. The librarian of the Chicago 
Public Library, Henry E. Legler, was 
chosen with the assistance of the lib- 
rarian of Congress and of other library 
experts. 

The older type of civil service ex- 
amination tested the candidate's health 
and his ability to pass a written or 
"literary" test — something that a high 
school boy could often do better than 
an experienced man. It was so char- 
acteristically formal that in all the large 
cities "civil service schools" successfully 
coached shoals of aspiring public serv- 
ants to write answers to the sort of 
questions that could be confidently ex- 
pected. 

The new way, as Dr. Moskowitz points 
out in the New York report, tends to 
determine a particular man's fitness for 
a particular job, whether it be driving 



a garbage cart or managing a city in- 
stitution as big as a country village. 

In so far as civil service examina- 
tions have taken experience and per- 
sonality into account as well as a cor- 
rect recollection of the capital of Brit- 
ish Burmah and the number of fluid 
ounces in a quart — or is it a pound? — 
they have succeeded in putting round 
men and women snugly into round holes. 
More than that, Dr. Moskowitz holds, 
government is actually pointing the way 
for business in building up a technique 
of employment which may serve indus- 
try in cutting down the wasteful "turn- 
over" of unsuitable men, hired and fired 
to keep a work force going. 

ANNIHILATION OF ALL ARME- 
NIANS THREATENED 

That the massacres of Sultan 
Abdul Hamid in 1895, in which 300,000 
Armenians were put to death, seem in- 
significant in comparison with the butch- 
ery now going on in Turkey, was the 
statement published in this country last 
week. It was made by Nubar Pasha, 
the diplomatic representative in Paris 
of the Katholikos, or head of the Ar- 
menian church, who sent letters 
supporting his declaration to M. 
Simbad Gabriel, president of the 
Armenian General Progressive As- 
sociation in the United States. Dr. 
Gabriel estimated from these letters 
that the number of Armenians put to 
death in 1915 has exceeded 450,000 and 




AN INTERLUDE ON INFANT MORTALITY 

The very practical business of saving baby lives was given artistic setting during Pittsburgh Baby Week in two 
playlets or interludes. A special stage and system of lighting enabled the author, Prof. G. M. P. Baird, to begin the 
action in the Theft of Thistledown in a full afternoon light, which changed through sunset to twilight and the deep blue 
of evening against which the glowing fruit of faery trees and an antique lanthorn stood out in warm relief. The cos- 
tumes were Greek for all of the little actors — faeries, maids in waiting, pixies, herald and queen. The verse was written 
to suit the lung capacity of the performers. The chorus danced barefoot. Baby week was under the direction of Mary 
Swain Routzahn. 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



that 600,000 more have been driven 
from their homes to wander among the 
villages of Asia Minor. All these are 
from a population of but 1,500,000. 

"Christian martyrdom has at no time 
assumed such colossal proportions," 
wrote Nubar Pasha in transmitting the 
correspondence. "What has happened 
is nothing more nor less than the anni- 
hilation of a whole people." 

The authors of the letters begged that 
their names be kept secret lest ven- 
geance be visited upon them. One letter 
from Constantinople says that Armen- 
ians in all the cities and villages of 
Cilicia have been exiled to the desert 
regions south of the Aleppo. They 
have not been allowed to carry any of 
their possessions with them, the letter 
goes on, and Moslems are occupying the 
lands and houses left vacant. • The 
young men are kept for military service, 
and it is only the weak and aged who 
are deported. 

"The court-martials are functioning 
everywhere," says another letter. 
"Numerous Armenians have been hang- 
ed, and many others sentenced to ten or 
fifteen years in prison. Many have 
been beaten to death, among them the 
priests of the village of Kurk. Churches 
and convents have been pillaged and de- 
stroyed, and almost all the bishops have 
been arrested to be delivered up to 
court-martial." 

Greed, religion and politics combine 
to induce the Turks to massacre the 
Armenians, Dr. Gabriel said in making 
public the contents of the letters. He 
told of having talked recently with an 
Armenian woman who had just come 
from Constantinople. One morning 
twenty of her friends, she said, were 
taken out by the Turks and killed in 
cold blood for no other reason than that 
they were suspected of being unfriendly 
to the Turkish cause. 

"When the bugle blows in the morn- 
ing," said Dr. Gabriel, "the Turks rush 
fiercely to the work of killing the Chris- 
tians and plundering them of their 
wealth. When it stops in the evening, 
or in two or three days, the shooting 
and stabbing stop just as suddenly then 
as it began. The people obey their 
orders like soldiers." 

The American Red Cross is receiving 
many inquiries concerning conditions in 
Armenia and is daily requested to con- 
tribute toward the relief of the Armen- 
ian people. The country appears at 
present to be virtually inaccessible. 
Members of the Rockefeller Foundation 
War Relief Commission who have 
recently returned from Constantinople 
report that it was impossible for any 
foreigners to obtain permission to go 
through the interior of Asia Minor or 
into Armenia. Even American mission- 
aries who had come to Constantinople 
in the early summer had not been al- 
lowed to return to their stations and 
were in great uncertainty about the con- 
dition of the civil populations among 
whom they had lived. 

On Mondav the Red Cross announced 



that it was wholly in sympathy with 
those who are desirous of extending 
practical help to the Armenians and 
that it is now trying to obtain reliable 
information as to the most effective 
means of carrying relief to that country. 
Political conditions in Europe of course 
inject delicate diplomatic elements into 
the problem. A definite announcement 
may be possible within a few days, said 
the Red Cross. 



L 



ATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN 
COLORADO 



Attorney-General Farrar of 
Colorado, who superseded the local dis- 
trict attorney in the trial of John R. 
Lawson and took personal charge of the 
prosecution of the leader of the 1913-14 
coal strike, has followed up his oppo- 
sition to the motion for a new trial for 
Lawson by an attack not only upon the 
evidence which is the basis for the mo- 
tion but upon Fred W. Clark and 
Horace N. Hawkins, the attorneys who 
defended Lawson. On September 15 
he caused their arrest on a charge of 
subornation of perjury, and is making 
preparations for their prosecution. 

The principal basis for the appeal for 
a new trial for Lawson was the affi- 
davit of Grover Hall, a member of the 
jury that convicted him. Hall alleged 
that he had been coerced into voting 
for conviction, in spite of his belief in 
Lawson's innocence, by false statements 
made to him by the court bailiff to the 
effect that his wife was seriously ill. 
Hall is said later to have retracted this 
statement and the attorney-general 
caused his arrest a month ago on a 
charge of perjury. The action against 
the attorneys is predicated upon the 
theory that they secured from Hall 
what they knew to be a false affidavit. 

Clark and Hawkins are both well 
known in Colorado, and the latter is 
considered one of the leaders of the 
Denver bar. Their arrest on a charge 
that impugns their professional integrity 
has naturally attracted wide interest. 

Another development in the Colorado 
situation that has aroused considerable 
interest is the visit of John D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr.. to the properties of the Colo- 



DOWNING DEMONS 

r T* HEY have put an ancient foe 

On the bum; 
Merric England has laid low 
Demon Rum. 

And then maybe after that 

Folks will think 
That it might be wise to bat 

Demon Ink. 

Since they conquer, when they try, 

Such a flood 
It would not take long to dry 

Demon Blood. 

— Mel andburgii Wilson, in the 
New York Sun. 



rado Fuel and Iron Company. He is 
reported to have visited all the mining 
camps of that company and the steel 
plant at Pueblo. He was accompanied 
by officials of the company and by W. L. 
Mackenzie King, in charge of the in- 
quiry into industrial relations for the 
Rockefeller Foundation. 

The latter is reported to have stated 
in an interview that Mr. Rockefeller's 
visit is not to be followed by recognition 
of the United Mine Workers of 
America. Mr. King is quoted as say- 
ing "Our new system of welfare work 
under which employes are allowed to 
name grievance committees to protest to 
mine superintendents over conditions 
they don't like is the company's answer 
to demands of the union for recognition. 
It is democratic and successful." 



E 



UROPEAN STATES RECOGNIZE 
WAR RELIEF DUTY 



At a recent meeting of the 
Rockefeller Foundation's War Relief 
Commission it was decided not to send 
any member of the commission to 
Europe again for the present, unless 
unforeseen events make it desirable. 
When Ernest P. Bicknell, national di- 
rector of the American Red Cross and 
member of the commission, returned re- 
cently from Galicia to confer in this 
country on the Mexican situation, it was 
presumed that he would go back to 
Europe shortly. 

Inasmuch as the members of the com- 
mission, the other two of whom are 
Wickliffe Rose and Henry James, Jr.. 
have visited all the warring countries, 
the foundation feels that they are in a 
good position to advise it with regard 
to applications for relief that may come 
from those countries. The foundation 
is not now actually administering relief 
work, but is making grants through 
other agencies. 

It has become evident as the war has 
advanced, declares the foundation, that 
the care of the non-combatant popula- 
tion has become more and more recog- 
nized as a responsibility of government, 
and that the efforts of private agencies 
in this direction, while often most help- 
ful, must necessarily bulk small in com- 
parison with the magnitude which the 
task has assumed in nearly every coun- 
try. 

The question as to just what sen ice 
it can best render in the war area is 
now under consideration by the founda- 
tion. In addition to appropriations al- 
ready published, it has given $30,000 
for the relief of non-combatants in the 
Turkish Empire, and a similar sum 
through the American Red Cross for 
the continuation of certain sanitary work 
in Serbia during the next six months. 

It has just given $25,000 to tin 
American \\cd Cross to continue for a 
month tlu- Food supplies which the lat- 
ter has been distributing through its rep- 
resentative. Charles J. O'Connor, in 
Mexico City. 



THE MUCKERS 

By William H. Matthews 



D1RF.CTOR DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY WELFARE, NEW YORK ASSOCIATION FOR IMPROVING THE CONDITION OF THE POOR, 

PRESIDENT NEW YORK CITY BOARD OF CHILD WELFARE 



/ / "W 7"ES, I'll take a job in the sub- 

V' way if there ain't anything 

_§_ else to offer, but how in hell 

is a man going to support his 

family on a dollar and a half a day, tell 

me that?" 

He was a "common laborer," a mem- 
ber of that large body of toilers from 
whom the mass of poor are constantly 
recruited. There was nothing of levity 
in his tone as he asked the question. 
Rather was it asked with roughness, — 
a roughness akin to the work to which I 
was offering to send him, that of tearing 
away the rock and muck down in the 
pits where they are making ready to lay 
the tracks of the city's dual system of 
rapid transit which, combined with exist- 
ing lines, is to make the greatest city 
railroad system in the world. 

My reply to the question was that I 
did not know, either how he could do 
it in the place he had mentioned or in 
New York, but that as nine dollars was 
better than nothing, he had better take 
it until something else turned up. His 
family, I knew, consisted of himself, 
wife and three children under twelve 
years. How was he to do it? Let us 
see if we can find answer to his ques- 
tion. 

Later in the day I passed it on, in 
expurgated form, to the dietitian in 
charge of our Home Economy Depart- 
ment, whose business it is, when a fam- 
ily applies for assistance, to determine 
the "indispensable minimum," that is, the 
lowest possible amount which shall as- 
sure such family of the food, clothing 
and shelter necessary for the mere main- 
taining of the functions of the body in 
normal state. She answered by bring- 
ing to me the monthly budget made out 
for a widow with three children under 
twelve, a family which was being sup- 
ported entirely from the association's re- 
lief funds, the mother being too frail 
to do any work other than her house- 
hold duties. By the month it reads as 
follow? : 

Rent ■ $13.00 

Pood 22.11 

Fuel and light (average 

for twelve months I .... 3.2H 

Clothing 8.00 

Sundries 2.00 

$4S.3G 

By the year this would mean $580.32 or 
$110.82 more than my questioner would 
earn for his entire household provided 
he worked six full days of every week 
in the year. 

One of two things seemed plain : 
either the widow and her children were 
living too luxuriously, or the other 
family, with its $9 per week income, was 
living considerably below the standard 



that means the supplying of the normal 
demands of the family life. I have be- 
fore me the budget book which the 
mother of the pensioned family has kept 
for the six months during which she 
has been receiving the monthly allow- 
ance of $48.36. It shows in minutest 
detail how every penny has been spent 
over that period. The totals are as fol- 
lows : 

Amount Amount 

Spent Allowed 

Rent $78.00 $78.00 

Food 143.95 132.66 

Fuel and light 21.02 19.50 

Clothing . . . 29.49 48.00 

Sundries . . . 16.75 12.00 

$289.21 $290. 16 

Carried forward to the next month. $ .95 

The comment of the visitor who has 
had careful oversight of this family is : 
"Woman is a careful housekeeper, a 
good manager and makes the most of 
everything; finds it impossible to feed 
family on amount allowed in budget, 
but saves on clothing by being a good 
sewer." Nothing, it will be noted, was 
spent by this family for insurance. Sel- 
dom is the wage-earner's family found 
without at least one five cents a week 
policy on each member. Difficult as it 
may be to keep up the payment, it gives 
assurance that there will be something 
on hand for the undertaker should he be 
needed. 

One finds in these figures no answer 
to our question as to how a family of 
five may live on a $1.50 per day wage. 

Let us suppose now that there had 
been no private relief society ready to 
assist this woman in keeping her home 
together and that she had been com- 
pelled to commit her three fatherless 
children to one of the city's institutions 
where it is generally assumed that, by 
reason of large numbers under one 
roof, children can be maintained at the 
lowest possible per capita cost. To what 
expense would the city have been put 
to maintain the three younger members 
of this family? 

There are different grades of chil- 
dren's institutions, — one the barracks 
system, so called because the children 
are more or less herded together in 
large dormitories, another the cottage 
system where they live in smaller groups, 
the nearer approach to home life. 

Had these children been committed to 
the former, the city would have paid 
for their care and maintenance during 
twelve months, according to the rates 
now being paid for committed children, 
$435, or within $34.50 of the $469.50 
which our $1.50 per day laborer would 
earn during that same period. 

Had they been fortunate enough to 
find their wav into an institution con- 



ducted on the cottage plan, a fairer com- 
parison with the cost of keeping them in 
their own home, the city would have ex- 
pended upon them during the year $513.- 
00, or $43.50 in excess of the man's 
annual income. 

And in this connection it is interesting 
to note that the 'widows' pension law" 
put upon the books at the last session 
of the legislature, which calls upon the 
city to maintain fatherless families in 
their own homes rather than in institu- 
tions, specifies that ihe amount which 
the city may pay to the mother for the 
care of her children is to be that which 
it would cost to maintain them in the in- 
stitution. 

In the light of these figures one is 
moved to ask if, in dealing with these 
families, who have temporarily become 
dependent upon public or private charity, 
through the death or incapacity of the 
breadwinner, we have not adopted a 
"too adequate" relief policy, a standard 
of living unnecessary or at least quite 
impossible to a large body of wage- 
earners. Certainly we have found in 
them no answer to the question raised 
at the beginning of this article. To con- 
tinue the search. 

T N the report of the proceedings of 
the New York State Conference of 
Charities and Corrections for the year 
1907, one may read the results of an in- 
vestigation made by a committee ap- 
pointed to determine "what constitutes 
the essentials of a normal standard of 
living, and the cost of such a standard 
of living for a definite social unit at this 
time, in the cities and towns of this 
state." The chairman of that committee 
was Lee K. Frankel and among its 
members were Homer Folks, Edward T. 
Devine and Frank Tucker. The com- 
mittee summed up its findings, which 
cover several pages of carefully gather- 
ed data, with this sentence : "In view 
of all these facts, the committee is of 
the opinion that it is fairly conserva- 
tive in its estimate that $825 is sufficient 
for the average family of five indi- 
viduals, comprising the father, mother, 
and three children under 14 years of 
age to maintain a fairly proper stand- 
ard of living in the Borough of Man- 
hattan,"— $355.50 in excess of the $1.50 
per day annual income. 

Prof. Robert C. Chapin in a review of 
this same and additional data two years 
later in his Standard of Living among 
Workingmen's Families in New York 
City placed the amount at which such a 
family could be fairly maintained at 
$900 per year. This in 1909. 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



To take some more recent figures that 
have to do with the relation of wages 
to the cost of living. Some ten states 
have during the past two years provided 
by statute minimum wage commissions 
to inquire into the wages paid chiefly to 
female employes and to determine 
whether they were adequate to supply 
the necessary cost of living and to main- 
tain the worker in health. Practically 
unanimous have these commissions been 
in deciding that from $8 to $10 per 
week is the minimum amount by which 
a female employe, 18 years of age or 
over, can be expected to sustain her 
body and maintain her health — approxi- 
mately the amount which the subway 
laborer carries home in his weekly en- 
velope to pay the week's household bills ! 

The profane but pertinent question of 
my laborer as to how he was to per- 
form such a miracle again injects itself. 
How? Let me tell you. 

^\ N my way to my office two morn- 
ings ago I stopped in several tene- 
ment houses on the West Side to visit 
some families whose men I knew had ac- 
cepted subway laboring work at this 
wage. It was about half-past eight when 
I climbed the stairs of a dilapidated look- 
ing rear tenement. Mrs. , they told 

me, lived on the top floor back. The 
heat and the glare of the sun I had 
noted as I walked over from Sixth to 
Eighth avenue. The heat I still felt as 
I groped along the hall, but not the 
same kind — rather that stifling, smother- 
ing heat that makes one want to find an 
open window where he may at least 
get his head and shoulders outside. I 
knocked at the door to which I had 
been directed. 

Light steps came across the floor and 
there was a short struggle with an in- 
side bolt before the door opened. For 
a moment I wondered what my recep- 
tion would be if I had disturbed the 
family's sleep. But no. The little chap 
who opened the door was fully dressed, 
that is, he had on shirt and overalls. 
His age was 10; his look was a bit 
frightened as was also that of his 6- 
year-old brother who was sitting on a 
backless chair in a corner of the kitchen. 
Kitchen did I say? Yes, it was the 
kitchen, living room and dining room 
combined plus a single bed which 
crowded the little stove and dining table 
for room. Off this room was another, 
still smaller, with a little window open- 
ing on an air-shaft. Here the bed was 
three-quarter size. One might sit on 
the edge of it and take off his shoes 
provided no one wanted to pass at the 
same time. 

"Where is your mother, lad?" was my 
first question. 

"Gone to work." 

"How long ago?" 

"She goes soon after 6 to clean a 
building." 

"Where is your father?" 

"He goes up to the subway about 7." 



"And what are you and your brother 
doing?" 

"Eating breakfast." 

Yes, there it was, — a pot of murky 
looking coffee and part of a loaf of 
bread. 

Knowing that there was a third child 
in the family, a boy of 2, I inquired his 
whereabouts. 

"My mother take him to the nursery 
when she goes to work." 

They were fine little chaps, these two 
boys of 10 and 6 whom I had found 
getting their own breakfast nearly two 
hours after their mother had gone to 
work, lugging with her the other sleepy 
youngster. I sat on the edge of their 
bed, the one in the kitchen, and talked 
with them as they finished their bread 
and coffee, my thoughts going back to 
my own two boys of nearly the same 
ages whom I had left at the breakfast 
table with their mother an hour earlier. 
Poor kids ! What a start they were get- 
ting on the road to a strong, self-sus- 
taining manhood. Yes, "the lady who 
comes here" had told them they could go 
to the country for two weeks in the next 
party and maybe their mother and the 
baby were going too, if she could get 
away from work. 

Here in these two rooms was one an- 
swer to our question as to how the 
women and children exist when the 
man's occupation is one that pays less 
than a subsistence wage. 

Two blocks down the street I made 
my next call. Here the family consist- 
ed of man, wife and four children. 
But the man was getting $1.60 per day, 
which made it a bit better. 1 The rooms 
were three, of the same character as 
those I had just left. The week before, 
the mother had given up some outside 
work she was doing, an attack of rheu- 
matism and quinsy making it impossible 
for her to continue. This morning she 
had gone to the diet kitchen "to get 
milk and could scarcely get home, she 
was so weak." Two of the children 
were "not feeling well," but they were 
going to be sent to the country for two 
weeks which she thought would do them 
good. She would take them to the clinic 
that afternoon. Her husband was work- 
ing every day now, but had been laid 
off some days because of water in the 
subway. No, she "couldn't get along on 
his wages and if it wasn't for the milk 
and groceries which 'the society' is send- 
ing us, I don't know what we would do." 
Help from clinic, relief society, diet 
kitchen, country outings, — in these was 
the answer in this family to our ques- 
tion. 

The reply to my knock at the door 
of the next family to which I went was 
a gruff, "Come in." It was a man's 
voice. As I stepped into the kitchen its 
owner raised himself to a sitting posture 



'Since the preparation of this article, the 
rate has been raised to $1.60 and J1.75 per 
day, It having been found Impossible to secure 
men longer ;it the lower rate. 



on the couch bed on which he had been 
stretched. He was the father of the 
household. He belonged to the shift 
that went on at 2.30 in the afternoon 
and worked until 11 p.m. He was ly- 
ing down "to rest his leg." He thought 
it was "a touch of the rheumatism." 

And he told me what other men had 
told me, that there was a lot of water in 
the shaft where he was working and 
he nearly always had that trouble when 
he was working "in that kind of a 
place." A wife and three children made 
up the rest of this family. The chil- 
dren were out playing. The wife was 
lying down in the inner of the two 
rooms, rooms similar to those of the 
first house I had visited. "The missis 
had a headache this morning and isn't 
feeling well ; the nurse was in to see her 
yesterday and said she would send her 
and the children to the country." I 
asked him what he was doing for his 
rheumatism. "Nothing, but if it gets 
any worse, I'll go to the hospital and 
get something. If I can get a job that 
isn't down under the ground it'll go 
away again." 

A restless sigh from the inner room 
suggested that my presence was probably 
disturbing his wife, and with a promise 
to ask the nurse to call and see her and 
to keep a lookout myself for such a job 
for him, I went my way without fur- 
ther inquiry. 

ATER in the day I read our office 
"record" of the family. It was a 
story of that economic insufficiency that 
leads constantly to economic dependency, 
an appeal to the relief society now for an 
order of groceries "to help out for a 
few days," or again for a part of the 
rent to head off a "dispossess," the 
charge which someone in the community 
must in some way pay in its effort to 
save the physical and social deteriora- 
tion of the underpaid. 

Until well into the afternoon of that 
day I continued my visiting, finding in 
other homes conditions similar to those 
in the first three — families huddled and 
crowded into rooms in a way that made 
the most elementary condition of health- 
ful existence impossible of attainment ; 
mothers away at work to bring in a few 
dollars to piece out the family income ; 
children neglected ; sickness of some 
kind in almost every family ; relief so- 
cieties, clinics, dispensaries, churches 
constantly being called upon for help : 
people who while not utterly destitute 
were ever trembling on the edge of ab- 
ject poverty, struggling against hopeless 
odds, toiling on day after day, yet un- 
able to earn enough to supply themselves 
with the reasonable material comforts 
of life and in more or less constant fear 
that its barest necessities might fail. 

Let any reader who thinks we have 
overstated the case of these people go 
into their homes and see for himself the 
misery which crowds their lives. 

If in these homes we have found an- 



The Muckers 



Copyright, 1015, American Press Association 




WHEN THE SKY FELL IN 



For the muckers who are excavating New York city's new subway, the "sky" is a wooden planking covering the 
street. On September 23 a block of it fell in, killing 4 workmen and 3 others, and injuring almost 100, many of whom 
were girls going to their work in a surface car. The rock formation through which much of the subway is being cut. 
is shown in the upper left-hand picture. 



swer to the question raised at the be- 
ginning of this article, may we not now 
ask another: What social justification 
can New York city find for paying a 
wage to the men who go down in the 
subway shafts to tear away the rock and 
the muck to make way for "the greatest 
city railroad system in the world," — a 
wage so low that a balance must be 
paid by the community as a whole in the 
form of charges entailed by the social 
and physical deterioration of these men, 
their wives and their children? 

Does it find it in the increase of ap- 
propriations made each year to those of 
its departments that must care for the 
misery, the suffering, the wretchedness 
involved in such underpayment of these 
toilers? 

Is it content with having stipulated in 
its contracts that the wages paid "shall 
not be less than the prevailing rate for 
a day's work in the same trade or oc- 
cupation in the same locality," even 
though that wage must mean economic 
insufficiency, if not economic depend- 
ency, to those receiving it? 

Rather should it not, in this field of 
industry which so intimately and con- 
cretely ministers to the life of the whole 



community, stipulate that in the cost of 
production a wage shall be figured which 
shall at least be high enough to enable 
the laborer to insure his continued effi- 
ciency and to escape economic drown- 
ing? And this, not only for reasons of 
decency and justice, but for reasons of 
economy, if we will but count the final 
cost in human terms to the community 
of the waste and breakage resulting from 
the social undervaluation of such labor. 

I-JAS there been any wiser word said 
by political economists in their 
endless discussions as to the economic 
law which, by some mysterious process 
determines wages, than that of Alfred 
Marshall, late professor of political 
economy at Cambridge University, who, 
in defining the economic requirements 
of the lowest grade of labor says: 

"The necessaries for the efficiency of 
an ordinary agricultural or of an un- 
skilled town laborer and his family in 
this generation, may be said to consist 
of a well-drained dwelling with several 
rooms, warm clothing, with some 
changes of underclothing, pure water, a 
plentiful supply of cereal food, with a 
moderate allowance of meat and milk, 
and a little tea, etc.. some education; 



and some recreation, and lastly suffi- 
cient freedom for his wife from other 
work to perform properly her maternal 
and her household duties. If in any 
district unskilled labor is deprived of 
any of these things its efficiency will 
suffer in the same way as that of a horse 
that is not properly tended or a steam 
engine that has an inadequate supply of 
coals. All consumption up to this limit 
is strictly productive consumption, any 
stinting of this consumption is not 
economical, but wasteful." 

From many of the laborers I had 
heard complaints, not only of the wages 
paid, but no less of the conditions un- 
der which they had to work ; the wear 
and tear which it meant on shoes and 
clothing, a fact which must be consid- 
ered in connection with the low wage 
out of which replenishment of such 
articles must come; the possibility of 
accidents ; the dust from the constant 
drilling and blasting; the water which 
often meant wet feet the entire clay, on 
account of which many had quit. 

"I worked down there in mud for two 
weeks," said one, "and every day I 
came home with my shoes soaked and 
every morning I was so stiff with 
rheumatism that I could hardly get up, 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



and I quit, for what's a nine-dollar-a- 
week job that puts you down and out 
like that?" 

I suggested rubber boots. His reply 
was a snort. 

"How long d'ye think they'd last 
down there and how's a man going to 
buy them anyway on a dollar and a half 
a day?" 

Wishing to see things first hand, I 
climbed down the ladders into several 
of the pits to see the men at work. 

[ T is a wonderful job that is going on 
down there, this boring a four-track 
tunnel under the teeming thoroughfares 
of New York city, this tearing away 
of the solid rock foundations that in 
some places hold up mammoth build- 
ings, — hotels, theaters, department 
stores, — this moving the very earth 
from beneath the surface trolleys, and 
in some places from under the massive 
steel elevated structures, while without 
interruption the rumble of the cars 
overhead goes on, carrying back and 
forth the congested crowds for whose 
relief this greatest of all city under- 
ground railroad systems is being built. 
What a glory to be an engineer capable 
of planning and driving through such a 
mighty, wonderful piece of work ! 

I stepped my way beneath great build- 
ings, where the work of undermining 
was just beginning. Here were the 
shorers, the advance guard, sometimes 
one alone, again two or more together, 
driving in the first wedges, carefully, 
slowly skirmishing their way, making 
room for the giant steel beams which 
were to be shoved inch by inch, foot by 
foot, beneath the great weights above, 
which must be supported without any 
disturbance to their structures before 
the earth and rock beneath them could 
be moved. And here and there ®ne 
might peer down into square dug pits 
where men were at work building the 
massive concrete supports on which 
these giant beams must surely rest. 

In another section the work of ex- 
cavating had been completed. The steel 
structure for the support of the roof 
was going up and the rasping, hurry- 
ing hammers of riveting machines told 
where the structural iron workers were 
perched, tonging into their places the 
red hot rivets that join into one struc- 
ture the separate products of furnace 
and mill. 

But the "mucker", the chap whom T 
had sent to the $1.50-per-day job, the 
men of the families I had visited, where 
were they? 

"Here comes a crew of them now," 
replied the pit boss to whom I had ad- 
dressed my question. 

I looked in the direction indicated. 
The big steel "skip" loaded with dirt 
and rock was coming along the im- 
provised track on which I was standing. 
Behind it was the propelling force, some 
five or more of the laborers whom 1 



had come down to see at work. I fell 
in behind, following until the spot was 
reached where heavy derrick chains 
caught the skip and hoisted its load to 
the waiting trucks on the street above. 
It was not easy walking along this 
track. Ties were far apart, and into 
the water and mud that had settled be- 
tween them the men splashed, as did 
the mule which in some of the shafts 
was hitched ahead to help along the 
load. Had one naught to do but watch 
every step, he could manage to keep out 
of the puddles, otherwise no. 

I followed the unloaded skip down to 
the point where the excavating was go- 
ing on. Here were my "muckers" at 
their real job, throwing and shovelling 
into the skips the rock and shale that 
blocked the way. The pounding and 
hammering of the drills was interrupted 
only by the shouts of the bosses when 
they called to the gangs to move to 
places of safety as the powder men 
made ready to fire the blasts that would 
loosen and spill the rock in loadable size 
at the skip loading-points. Dust and 
grit gave weight to the air. Water 
trickled down the tunnel sides in many 
places; occasionally a broken pipe shot 
a steady stream which found its way to 
the low spots where the muckers were 
at work. Not in all of the shafts were 
these water conditions equally bad. I 
was told that it depended somewhat up- 
on the diligence of the pit foreman. 
Yet in practically all, one could see rea- 
son for the complaints which I had 
heard. 

One pit I especially recall, where a 
crew of men were shovelling away the 
muck beneath a big sewer line which 
later is to be buried beneath the sub- 
way floor. "A hell of a hole !" remark- 
ed one of the men near me. It was. 

The remark brought to my mind the 
allusion to the underworld which my 
laborer had made when he asked me the 
question which we set out at the begin- 
ning of this article to answer. Per- 
haps, after all, he had meant to be 
more literal than I had thought. The 
mud and water here ran well over the 
soles of the men's feet; many of them 
were splashed wet to their knees. And 
a sickening stench spoke strongly of the 
possible source of much of the leakage. 

T T is not to be expected that such work 
can be done without some dan- 
ger. Accidents there will be, even with 
every precaution taken. I was told of 
several. Yet to me, familiar to some 
extent with the constant effort now be- 
ing made in most of our largest indus- 
trial plants to reduce to a minimum the 
possibilities of accidents, to me it seem- 
ed that the safety first idea had not per- 
meated into these shafts. Several times 
I saw shovellers by a quick jump save 
themselves from rocks that came slid- 
ing down from above without warning. 
Men swung their sledges and sent the 



chips flying among groups shoveling 
nearby. Greater precaution I thought 
had been taken to insure the safety of 
the buildings overhead than to safe- 
guard the men below. 

I know, of course, that this kind of 
work is not for weaklings. The ex- 
amining doctors evidently recognize 
that, for in a list of 93 men applying 
for work over a period of two weeks, I 
note that 39 failed to pass the test. At 
least they must be physically fit when 
they start in. I did not expect in these 
shafts to find men sitting about on 
cushions. 

BUILDING railroad tunnels under- 
neath New York is no 4 o'clock 
tea affair of course. I have had 
sufficient experience myself at this 
kind of work to know what it 
means. It is work that calls for 
bodies unimpaired, a condition that 
must also be maintained if they are not 
to break and deteriorate under the 
drive. It is work attended with con- 
siderable more than the usual amount of 
physical danger that goes with such 
labor. It is work surrounded with more 
than average conditions inimical to gen- 
eral health. It is work without which 
the subways which you, I, everyone is to 
have the advantage of, could not be built. 

Is it not work worth a wage that 
shall at least make possible the neces- 
sities of life to him who does it and to 
the wife and children for whom he 
toils? I asked that question of every 
pit boss, foreman and engineer whom I 
met on the job. And with one accord 
they answered with emphatic, yes. 

At the entrance of one of New York's 
great railroad depots one may read this 
tribute: "To all those who with Head, 
Heart and Hand toiled in the construc- 
tion of this monument to the Public 
Service, this is inscribed." Perhaps 
some such tablet will one day be in- 
scribed to commemorate the completion 
of what is to be "the greatest city rail- 
road system in the world." It will tell 
of a wonderful achievement. Rightly 
will it extol the masterful thought, the 
courage of mind and heart, the sweat of 
body that made such glory of accom- 
plishment possible. 

But will it tell the full story of the 
toil unless it give answer to the question 
raised by my laborer who, with thou- 
sands of others, went down in the shafts 
to do the "mucker's" job; the men who 
got for their labor a wage that put de- 
cency of living beyond the reach of 
themselves, their wives and their chil- 
dren ; a wage that made unobtainable 
the food and clothing necessary for the 
maintenance of the laborers' bodies in 
normal state, that forced their families 
to live under conditions where health- 
fulness of existence was impossible, that 
sent them knocking at the doors of the 
city's hospitals, clinics and charitable 
agencies for relief: 




The LANTERN BEARERS 

A SERIES OF ESSAYS EXPLOR- 
ING SOME THOROUGHFARES 
OF THE PEOPLE'S LEISURE 




Censorship; and the National Board 

By yohn Collier 



THE writer now faces a difficult 
task. He has argued at length 
against theatrical censorship. His 
arguments have not merely re- 
lated to practicability but to fundamental 
principles. He has declaimed sweeping- 
ly against censorship, and at the close 
of the present article he will restate with 
all possible earnestness this view which 
he has for many years held and which 
has been strengthened through all the 
drift of his experience. 

Yet the writer helped to organize 
and for years acted as secretary for 
the National Board of Censorship of 
Motion Pictures. He still endorses the 
position and the general results of this 
board, whose work he holds to be still 
necessary and whose machinery is far 
more adequate for its task than was the 
■case even two years ago. And as the 
present article will show, the National 
Board, however voluntary in its origin 
and co-operative in its organization, is 
subtly compulsory in a measure that 
would hardly be possible through law. 
Is the writer simply inconsistent? 
The following is a brief reply : The 
national board originated through a con- 
dition wholly unusual and unquestion- 
ably temporary. This condition, exag- 
gerated in America, is found in other 
countries as well, and has led to the 
adoption in England of a method of con- 
trol modeled on that of the national 
board, while in China an effort is now 
being made to introduce a similar 
method. When this condition ceases to 
exist, the national board, as a censoring 
agency, will cease to exist. If it does 
not cease voluntarily, it will have to be 
destroyed — a fanciful eventuality. 

This is the condition, roughly describ- 
ed : Most exhibitors of motion-pictures 
can not (most of them do not wish to) 
choose their own programs. The "ex- 
change," or renting house which sup- 
plies films, does not, and under existing 
trade conditions can not, assign pro- 
grams with reference to the specialized 
audience attending any given theater. 
The film-maker, or "producer," general- 
ly speaking does not and can not desisrn 



SECRETARY COMMUNITY EXTENSION COMMITTEE, 

PEOPLE'S INSTITUTE; FOUNDKR, WITH CHARLES 

SPRAGUE SMITH, OF THE NATIONAL BOARD 

OF CENSORSHIP 

films with reference to any particular 
theater or even to any one class of the 
population. Each film is made for the 



ONE YEAR S WORK 

fl914] 

Of the National Board of Censorship 

Total number of reels in- 
spected, including those 
inspected more than once. 9,496 
Total number of subjects 

first inspected 5,770 

Number of reels condemned 
in toto in the form pre- 
sented by the manufacturer 107 
Number of subjects con- 
demned in toto in the form 
presented by the manu- 
facturer 79 

Number of subjects con- 
demned in toto even after 
pictures had been re-made 

by the manufacturer 27 

(In other words, about 
two-thirds even of con- 
demned films were, 
through being recon- 
structed, made accept- 
able to the National 
Board). 
Number of subjects in which 
changes were made by the 

National Board 522 

Total cost to manufacturers 
of negative, sample copies 
and sales copies kept off 
the American market. $513,853.20 
Number of meetings of the 
original Censoring Com- 
mittee for 1914, divided 
into sub-committees of 

4 to 12 members 1,011 

Number of meetings of the 
Ceneral Committee for 

1914 45 

The proportion of all films 
viewed by the National 
Board two years ago... 95% 
Proportion viewed one 

year ago - 97% 

Proportion now viewed... 99% 
(The one per cent not at present 
viewed includes some melodramas 
and dubious crime films and some 
films of local interest publicly shown 
over limited areas. A few obscene 
films are always being secretly passed 
around for private, exhibition before 
festive gatherings of men.) 



whole American and often for the whole 
world-public; most films are destined 
within a few months after production to 
go by a process of mechanical routing 
to all theaters, or at least to theaters 
patronized by every conceivable type of 
audience. 

Now approach the question from the 
standpoint of the audience. Since films 
are neither made, distributed nor exhib- 
ited for particular audiences, it is mani- 
fest that the audience does not — can not 
— choose its own entertainment. This 
crucial fact must be analyzed. It is 
well known that most film programs are 
changed daily. Each program contains 
a pot-pourri of themes, the output of 
many film-makers. So that even should 
you or I learn in advance the date on 
which a given film — let us say, Tolstoy's 
Kreutzer Sonata — is due to be shown at 
our corner theater, we are still com- 
pelled to view this film along with a 
whole program of unrelated subjects. 

In short, the typical motion-picture 
theater is a repertory theater where 
scores of stock-companies, each one com- 
pelled to satisfy the whole American 
audience, hasten across the screen at 
fifteen-minute intervals. And tomorrow, 
each film has fled on its mechanical 
route, from theater to theater, from state 
to state, ultimately from continent to 
continent. 

Well, these circumstances mean, first 
and practically, that every film-maker is 
helped or hurt by every other film-maker 
whose output is booked over the same 
circuit. Every film-exhibitor, himself 
unable to mediate between his audience 
and the film-producer, needs some agency 
to mediate for him. Every audience de- 
mands a gratification or a protection 
which the exhibitor cannot insure, which 
no one film-maker can insure. And so- 
ciety at large demands (or would de- 
mand, if it demanded anything) that at 
some point in this complex, centralized 
and mechanicalized history of the film, 
there be brought to bear an influence, 
a point of view and a determination 
other than the immediately and meager- 
lv commercial one. 



10 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



from The 
Escape, a film 
passed with elimi- 
nations by the Na- 
tional Board. 

Immigrant girls 
are being rescued 
from a house of 
crime. Only six 
years ago Mrs. 
Warren's Profes- 
sion was closed by 
the police of New 
York because it 
showed the inte- 
rior of a house of 
prostitution such 
as the movies 
show today i n 
every city. 




Let it be added that this needed in- 
fluence will be more creative and ef- 
fective in proportion as it can work by 
the method of positive suggestion, can 
enlist the good-will of the makers and 
exhibitors of films, and can remain plas- 
tic and experimental ; and we can un- 
derstand why the National Board of 
Censorship was necessary and why it 
continues as the most approximately sat- 
isfactory method of film-regulation yet 
devised. 

The present article is devoted to the 
national board. A future article will 
elaborate what has been said above as 
to the peculiarities of the film-situation. 
It will there be shown that the radical 
measures needed for the improvement 
of motion-pictures are of a kind simpler 
than and wholly different from the cen- 
soring methods even of the national 
board. The whole system of film pro- 
duction and distribution as described 
above must be revolutionized — and can 
be, and will be in a very few years. 

But in our present article, we are 
concerned with the application to the 
present film system, of a form of vol- 
untary censorship which all but over 
night became a national institution. 

The National Board of Censorship 
was founded in March, 1909, as an un- 



dertaking local to New York, through 
the initiative of The People's Institute 
assisted by the genius of Charles 
Sprague-Smith. A previous extended 
inquiry, conducted by the present writer 
as agent for a joint committee of civic 
agencies under the chairmanship of 
Michael M. Davis, Jr., had revealed the 
conditions described above and had 
shown that they were likely to hold good 
for several years. The board was first 
locally organized at the request of the 
motion-picture exhibitors, who under- 
took to shut out from exhibition any 
film not approved. The work became 
national through the request of the man- 
ufacturers of films. The original gov- 
erning committee of the board was 
composed of representatives from 
seven civic agencies. There are now 
thirty-two members on the general, 
or governing committee. This com- 
mittee is self-perpetuating and adds 
to its own membership ; it creates 
the censoring committees which now use 
the regular voluntary services of 120 
men and women. 

The general committee has final 
control of policy, finance and admin- 
istration, and is a court of last re- 
view in appeals from the censoring com- 
mittees. No system of national repre- 



sentation has yet been devised, and 
such representation is probably imprac- 
ticable ; but a bulletin goes from the 
board's offices each week to about 450 
collaborators in all parts of America, 
and a voluminous correspondence is 
maintained with agencies of all sorts 
which are concerned with the improve- 
ment of films. Many of the Board"s 
correspondents are legally required to 
inspect the motion programs shown in 
their cities, and others operate as vol- 
untary committees or advisory boards 
attached to the license departments. 

To this day, not merely has the board 
no legal powers, but it has no contrac- 
tual relations with the producers, dis- 
tributers or showmen of films. The 
board has power only through the posi- 
tive and continuing wish of those inter- 
ested in the film business; yet no mem- 
ber of the board is obligated to the film 
business or is permitted to have even an 
indirect interest in the commercial 
phases of the motion-picture art. 

The situation of the national board is 
so unusual as to be almost picturesque. 
Intense competition reigns among film- 
makers, film distributors and film show- 
men, yet the national board censors for 
them all. Trade arrangements come 
and pass, combinations are formed and 





A white - slave 
melodrama — 




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one of the first 












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and most debated 




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films. To the left. 




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the policemen ar- 
rest the father of 
the heroine, who 


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unknown to his 
wife and daughter 
(center) has 






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grown r i c h 
through financing 


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houses of prostitu- 






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tion and the re- 
cruiting oi young 
girls. The Na- 
tional Board cut 
out hundreds of 

feel but passed the 
balance. 






FROM 


"TR/ 


lFFK' in souls" 





Censorship ; and the National Board 



11 




broken up, but the national board co- 
operates right through. Only if all, or 
nearly all makers of films submit their 
product and obey the board's findings, 
can the board's efforts be of value to 
any one of them. Only through mani- 
fest fair play can the board hold hungry 
rivals in this concensus of submissive- 
ness. In spite of all its internecine 
struggles, the film art rises or falls as 
one, and the national board is an ex- 
pression of this fact in the moral field. 

While from the above standpoint the 
national board is really a trade institu- 
tion, from another standpoint it is a 
public institution. The board must sub- 
stantially satisfy the public, else its use- 
fulness to the film business is gone and 
its power vanishes. Yet the board and 
its members have no possible fiscal in- 
terest in keeping the work alive. The 
board succeeds or fails by the economic 
test — that is, the test of value rendered 



Three Censorship Problems 

MURDER: RAPE: VICE 

Above : A typical crime-episode from 
The Diamond from the Sky 
showing murder and robbery. The 
National Board considered it justi- 
fied through its relation to a signifi- 
cant plot. 

To the Right: A scene from The 
Outcast based on a well-known 
story of Thomas Nelson Page. The 
heroine, defending herself against 
assault, has killed the man. A 
scenario well within the National 
Board's standards. 

Below: The extreme of sensuousness 
permitted by the National Board 
of Censorship. Episode from The 
Toast of Death, an East Indian 
melodrama, which was approved 
because of its tragic-moral ending. 





alike and inextricably to the public and 
to the art. 

Even the board's executive expenses are 
and always have been paid by voluntary 
subscription, rather unequally distributed 
among the manufacturers of films, the 
very interests whose product it censors 
— whose product, to the value of a half- 
million dollars a year, it prohibits from 
the market. But no one who censors 
films, arbitrates policy or chooses the 
committees or administrative staff of 
the board, receives even his expenses 
from the trade interests or from the 
board. 

The board's procedure in judging films 
is described in testimony by the present 
writer, at that time secretary of the na- 
tional board, before the assistant attor- 
ney-general of the United States, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1914: 

Q. "Will you tell us something about 
the actual work of passing upon motion 



12 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



pictures and criticizing them, how it is 
done, and where ? 

A. "The censoring is done by this 
large sub-committee on censoring, of 
about one hundred and forty members. 
This committee is broken up into smaller 
committees, which are at work in New 
York every day except Sunday. . 
Two or three committees are at work 
on the same day. . . . Every foot 
of every film is looked at by the censor- 
ing committee, sample copies being sub- 
mitted to it. If there is a disagreement 
in the censoring committee, or if the 
secretary disagrees, or if the manu- 
facturer is aggrieved, the film is then 
appealed to the general committe which 
passes on it with final power. As soon 
as the board censors the film, it is listed, 
or is condemned, or passed, or passed 
with eliminations, and a bulletin is sent 
each week to over three hundred cities, 
containing statements of all the approv- 
ed, condemned, or changed films." 

At the time of its establishment, the 



It accords with the superficially-para- 
doxical nature of the whole origin and 
position of the national board, that the 
condition which permanently handicaps 
it is the very one which, as suggested at 
the beginning of this article, necessitates 
its existence. 

This is the handicap: Although the 
national board inspects with final power 
all but a handful of the films shown in 
America, it is powerless to direct where 
any given film shall or shall not be 
shown. Nay, more; it knows that vir- 
tually every film will be seen every- 
where, by every possible kind of audi- 
ence, by people of every possible grade 
of culture and of all ages from four 
years to seventy. 

Most states and most cities are, when 
viewed from the standpoint of the cen- 
sorship problem, practically as hetero- 
geneous as is the entire country. No 
censorship, whether voluntary or legal, 



of the film, would promptly be driven 
from office by an outraged public. The 
censor who tried to work consistently 
by the second method would find his- 
judgment entirely sophisticated, his ac- 
tion paralyzed; and he would resign in 
sheer discouragement. 

In real life, the legal censors have 
generally rushed to battle on the first 
policy, only to find themselves bathed 
in gore from slaughtered films and rep- 
robated by nearly the whole public 
which has created their office. They 
have then retreated toward the second 
policy, accepting more or less the guid- 
ance of the national board but waken- 
ing to an occasional erratic severity 
through the pressure of one or another 
element of taxpayers, office-holders or 
interests. The national board has from 
the beginning planted itself theoretically 
on the second policy, but in an empirical 
way has been more or less inconsistent. 









!i * . 







To the left 

PASSED 

THE National Board 
of Censorship bars 
grewsome brutality in 
most contexts, but ap- 
proved this scene as es- 
sential in a plot dealing 
with the relation of de- 
fective mentality to ju- 
venile crime. The boy 
who is here shown tor- 
turing a cat is later 
restored by medical 
treatment to normality. 

To the right 

PROHIBITED 

The kind of vulgarity 
which the National 
Board does not pass A 
dancing party is being 
held upstairs', a woman 
falls through the ceil- 
ing. 




board looked to many people impossible, 
Utopian; only the personnel of its gov- 
erning committees preserved it from 
suspicion and ridicule. It is still viewed 
with suspicion and incredulity by many, 
in spite of large visible results which 
have been achieved under its hand and 
of its influence, daily felt in every mo- 
tion-picture showhouse in America. The 
more insistent attacks upon the board 
are directed against its virtues; but its 
principal opponents — the advocates of 
legal pre-censorship — are unanimously 
silent concerning its one great practical 
weakness and limitation. For their own* 
compulsory censorships, existing and 
proposed, are afflicted with the same 
limitation. The national board adver- 
tises its limitation and makes no false 
promises. The legal boards and their 
advocates make promises which they 
must know to be impossible of fulfil- 
ment; when confronted with the na- 
tional board's handicap and their own, 
they "hasten by with averted gaze." 



under existing fundamental laws and 
trade conditions, can direct the use or 
restrict the audience of any film after 
it is once approved. 

By this fact, any censor of motion- 
pictures is compelled to choose between 
one of two policies: He may fix his 
mind on one element among the very 
composite audience, or pay attention to 
some one use among the many and com- 
plex uses of films, and he may censor 
with reference to that one human ele- 
ment or that one use, ignoring the rest. 
Or again, he may try to bear in mind 
the whole audience and the many vital 
uses of the film, remembering that each 
film is for all the audience and that most 
films have complex uses ; and cautiously 
proceeding, he may try to accomplish 
something or other under these condi- 
tions. The censor who worked con- 
sistently by the first method, focusing 
his mind on, for example, the juvenile 
and pathological elements in the audi- 
ence, or on the narrowly moralistic uses 



No judicial body is immune, fortunately 
and unfortunately, from the infection of 
public opinion, and public opinion is only 
approximately rational. 

At this point should be mentioned the 
comparative results of the national 
board and the various legally compul- 
sory censorships. The case of Chicago 
was fully treated in the article of this 
series on August 7 last. The Chicago 
board, like many of the legal boards, 
views films simultaneously with the na- 
tional board, so that many of the ver- 
dicts of all the boards duplicate one an- 
other. But the Chicago board takes the 
viewpoint of the child more exclusively 
than does the national board, and in 
considering films, is in the habit of judg- 
ing each scene out of reference to the 
general plot. And as pointed out in the 
article above referred to, the Chicago 
board is more sensitive — more prudish — 
than the national board in sundry mat- 
ters. 

Other boards, like those of Ohio and 



Censorship; and the National Board 



13 



Pennsylvania, publish meagre reports or 
no reports, rendering impossible a de- 
tailed comparison with the national 
board. But as their methods (not to 
mention ideals) diverge excessively from 
those of the national board, a diverg- 
ence of results may be taken for granted. 
A report by the Portland Board of Cen- 
sorship for the five months ending July 
31 last, may be compared with the 
statistics of the national board pub- 
lished elsewhere in this article. During 
that period, 2,003 pictures, or 3,538 reels, 
were viewed by the Portland board. Of 
this number twelve pictures were con- 
demned and 148 eliminations were made. 
A fair proportion of these condemna- 
tions represented verdicts going beyond 
those of the national board. The secre- 
tary of the Portland board adds that 
many of the films censored were old 
pictures made before censorship began. 

Viewing the national board internally: 
Many of its members are predominantly 
concerned with the child and have blind 
spots for other social problems. Others 
are swayed more or less unconsciously by 
their own rebellion against the aesthetic, 
not moral, standards of the millions. 
There are members with religious bias, 
members deeply schooled in submissive 
morality, members with a strong prop- 
erty loyalty, members with sympathies 
for the industrial revolution, members 
with a hatred for caricature or libel di- 
rected against downtrodden elements of 
the nation. 

Details of the board's theories and 
formulae in judging films would require 
a long article. The latest printed copy 
of its standards (which can be had free 
of charge from the board) fills twenty- 
three pages and is still far from ex- 
haustive. These formal standards are 
designed primarily for the guidance of 
film-makers and incidentally for the en- 
lightenment of the public, and within 
broad limits they are binding on the 
action of the board itself. The accom- 
panying excerpts from the "Standards" 
are given merely to suggest its contents. 

These examples, and practically all 
the rules of the published "Standards," 
are wisely general and serve well their 
proper aim — namely, to suggest the tem- 
per of the board and its probable action 
and reasons for action in any given case. 

Certain recent developments are less 
reassuring, indicating a tendency in the 
board to over-specialize its rules, al- 
ways in a prohibitive direction, in a 
fashion that may ultimately limit the 
board's own freedom of action and even 
of debate and may discourage the cre- 
ative producer of films. The board sin- 
cerely aims to keep itself free and to 
encourage responsible freedom in the 
film-makers. Dramatic art is an organ 
of life, and life is unforeseeable, tame- 
less and profound. Let the board of 
censorship not become, as William James 
said that academic philosophy had be- 
come, "too buttoned-up and white-chock- 



ered and clean-shaven a thing to speak 
for the vast slow-breathing unconscious 
Kosmos with its dread abysses and its 
unknown tides. The freedom zve want 
to see there, is not the freedom with a 
string tied to its leg and warranted not 
to fly away." 

Consistency is the original sin of in- 
tellect, and it is also practically expedi- 
ent. The writer has always been more 
afraid of the national board's consistency 
than of its inconsistency ; though it is 
plain that the board is here merely 
struggling in a net of perplexity which 
tangles all of human life. A committee 
on standards has recently been formed. 



Typical Standards of the 
National Board 



Section 36. "Nor has the board felt 
that it should insist that the struggle be 
robbed of elements of treachery or trick- 
ery, or dictate who shall win or what 
the weapons shall be . . . though it 
will not tolerate the rough handling of 
women and children except where the 
life depicted is undoubtedly pioneer." 

Section 39. "As a general rule it is 
preferable to have retribution come 
through the hands of authorized officers 
of the law, rather than through revenge 
or other unlawful or extra-legal means." 

Section 41. "An adequate motive for 
committing a crime is always necessary 
to warrant picturing it. It is 

desirable that the criminal be punished 
in some way, but the board does not al- 
ways insist on this. . . . The results 
of the crime should be in the long run 
disastrous to the criminal so that the 
impression is that crime will inevitably 
find one out. The result (punishment) 
should always take a reasonable propor- 
tion of the film." 

Section 42. "The producer should re- 
member that he is not writing a detailed 
exposition of a crime, but is telling a 
dramatic story which most often does 
not need such detail." 



This committee does not censor, but 
analyzes cases which are referred to it 
after action by the board. It tries to 
generalize from such cases and prepares 
resolutions which, when adopted by the 
board, become more or less binding on 
the future. The following recommenda- 
tion from the standards committee is at 
this writing pending before the board. 
It is just the kind of rule that one has 
to formulate if he insists on abstracting 
general and future-limiting laws from 
the solutions and compromises arrived 
at in facing concrete problems of art or 
morals ; but to the lover of dramatic art 
or to the pragmatist in philosophy it 
would appear that the standards com- 
mittee is more audacious than were 
Moses and Confucius: 

"The National Board of Censorship 
will condemn the presentation of com- 
plex and intricate themes presenting the 
details of the life of the so-called 'wan- 



ton heroine' and her companion when 
these are shown as attractive and suc- 
cessful. It will not allow the extended 
display of personal allurements, the ex- 
posure of alleged physical charms and 
passionate, protracted embraces. It 
will also disapprove the showing of men 
turning lightly from woman to woman, 
or women turning lightly from man to 
man in intimate sexual relationships. It 
prohibits the spectacle of the details of 
actual physical fights engaged in between 
women and disapproves of all such con- 
tests in which a woman is roughly 
handled. It disapproves also of the con- 
doning by pure women, in motion pic- 
tures, of flagrant moral lapses in men, 
presented in detail and at length." 

A recent example of inconsistency 
on the part of the national board is of 
interest, especially because the incon- 
sistency was due to an attempt at con- 
sistency. The board refused to prohibit 
the film "The Birth of a Nation," which 
in the view of many persons was an in- 
sult to a defenceless race, calculated to 
intensify race hatred and even to cause 
violence. This action of the board, 
taken after prolonged and conscientious 
discussion, was based on a necessary 
ruling by which the national board re- 
fuses to stand guard on behalf of the 
pride or interests of any special fac- 
tion, section or race, but aims to censor 
for the whole people of all the country. 
This ruling acted as a stay against ac- 
tion which might otherwise have been 
taken, based on the alleged libelous char- 
acter of "The Birth of a Nation" and 
its possible tendency to provoke lynch- 
ings and riots. 

Shortly thereafter, the national board 
condemned a film which depicted out- 
rages by German soldiers, alleged to 
have been committed in 1870 in the 
Franco-Prussian war. The owner of 
the film attempted to overrule the 
board's verdict in New York. The 
license commissioner concurred with the 
board and announced that he would re- 
voke the license of theaters showing this. 
film. The dispute was carried to the 
courts, and an injunction was secured' 
against the license commissioner, per- 
mitting the film to be exhibited. Said' 
the court, in effect, "We cannot take 
cognizance of national prejudices; this 
court does not recognize hyphenated 1 
Americanism." This injunction was con- 
tested and the case is still being ap- 
pealed. 

In this second case, the national board 
had acted on a ruling adopted at the 
outbreak of the Great War, that films 
likely to cause unneutral acts, or riots 
between (for example) Franco-Ameri- 
cans and German-Americans, should not 
be permitted. This ruling sufficed to 
neutralize and to override the ruling 
which had been applied in refusing to 
condemn "The Birth of a Nation." 

From the opposite standpoint, cases 
could be multiplied showing the need 



14 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



for general rules when used and not 
abused. A censoring group of the na- 
tional board, which happened to be made 
up from members who were all adher- 
ents of orthodox religious creeds, re- 
cently judged a Kalem film, "The Sec- 
ond Commandment." The film contain- 
ed the words "Christian Science" and 
two enlarged views of the Christian Sci- 
ence text-book. Forthright the commit- 
tee ordered that these scenes be elimin- 
ated from the film. The case was ap- 
pealed, and the higher committee re- 
versed the original one, but even the 
final adjudication was not unanimous. 
In this case, a long-standing rule of the 
board had saved the film: the rule that 
freedom of religious discussion in films 
must never be limited by the national 
board. 

In another recent case, comparable 
with the above, it is hard to exonerate 
the board from the charge of bias. The 
board's rule safeguarding religious dis- 
cussion has a parallel in one with respect 
to political discussion. A film, "The 
Governor's Boss," in which ex-governor 
Sulzer personally posed, dramatized Sul- 
zer's view of his recent impeachment. 
It placed responsibility on a well-known 
alleged political boss, and indicated the 
penetration of the boss's influence into 
the legislative chamber where Sulzer was 
judged. The judges of the Court of Ap- 
peals are by law required to sit with the 
New York Legislature in impeachment 
cases. The whole last reel of this film 
was condemned by the board, in the 
form originally presented. The board's 
grounds were the apparent libel against 
the members of the impeachment court. 
But in past years the board has author- 
ized, as it will in the future (and as it 
must and should authorize) many films 
satirizing, burlesquing and even seri- 
ously impugning the representatives of 
government and of social service. 

So by a hundred causes the national 
/board is swayed from its theoretical rule 
-of calm considerateness for the whole 
public, and this is as it should be; in 
no other way could the board do pro- 
gressively good work. But that the 
hoard's ideal is a judicial and inclusive 
• one, rather than a political and narrow 
•one; that the compass points north, to- 
ward a pole-star never reached; this is 
true and important. The writer is posi- 
tive, from a close knowledge of the 
board's work during five years, that its 
verdicts have never been swayed by 
threats or pleadings of special interests, 
by threats of denunciation or by a con- 
scious deference to public clamor. 

This is a remarkable fact, if true. 
As the writer has had no connection 
with the national board for more than 
a year, or with the film business or art 
at any time, but has observed the board's 
work closely during recent months, his 
assurance may have some weight. 

Is it possible to state briefly the con- 
trolling positive ideal of the board in 
censoring films? The board has in fact 



an implicit ideal. There is a tradition 
which its members share in common ; 
and which reveals itself in the fact that 
a new member can nearly always be 
readily identified. The most steadfast 
part of this tradition is mentioned no- 
where in the printed standards of the 
board; it is nothing more nor less than 
a recognition that the board is collabo- 
rating in an improvement of motion- 
pictures which is desired by all, and by 
none so much as by the heads of the 
great film studios. The board is not at 
work to force an improvement or to 
hand down its own greater wisdom, for 
the board has no such wisdom and makes 
no pretense to having it. The national 
board is a clearing house and a means 
by which many factors — business fac- 
tors, esthetic factors, moral factors and 
personal factors — represented by divers 
individuals, groups and corporations, are 
enabled to do team-work for the educa- 
tional, moral and to some extent the 
artistic development of the film art. This 
does not mean that the national board 
is merely an advisory agent. It has great 
powers, greater with each year, and it 
sometimes uses them with cruel effect. 
But these powers are neither legal, con- 
tractual nor mandatory in any sense 
whatever; the board is voluntarily exer- 
cising a trust which is voluntarily re- 
posed with it. 

To execute wisely, moderately and 
fearlessly this trust; to aspire toward 
no vested power, contractual or legal ; 
to make no false claims; to do its unpre- 
tentious best under the limitations, de- 
scribed in this article, which are beyond 
its power to modify; this is the implicit 
but perfectly conscious ideal of the more 
than 150 men and women who, without 
pay or recognition, examine and debate 
that ceaseless stream of film-drama flow- 
ing six days in the week, fifty-two weeks 
in the year. And thus working, the na- 
tional board has written itself pretty 
deeply into the history of motion- 
pictures during six years. Mistakes by 
the hundreds or thousands, which have 
been made and will continue to be made, 
are compensated for by this steadfast, 
earnest ideal of the board; and its own 
position, alike with the film-art and the 
public, grows ever stronger. 

Constructive Work 

Before leaving the subject of the na- 
tional board, mention should be made of 
its activities other than those of mere 
censorship. Although it has kept from 
the market probably $2,000,000 in value 
of films since 1909, this preventive or 
destructive work is not a boast of the 
board. Far more vital has been its 
purely constructive, standard-forming 
work, directed alike toward the pro- 
ducers of films and toward the public. 
In addition, the board has served as a 
bureau of information in all matters 
pertaining to the regulation of motion- 
picture theaters — the construction, light- 
ing, ventilation and licensing of the 



nearly 20,000 buildings where millions 
of people gather daily. Independently 
again of these activities, the board has 
waged a methodical campaign — frank, 
aggressive and on the whole successful 
— against such legal censorship as has 
been described in previous articles ot 
this series. 

A remark as to the nature and signifi- 
cance of the board's financial support 
is in place here. The facts have already 
been given in the present article, and 
it has been stated that the national 
board's work stands or falls by the 
economic test. But while this is true, it 
can hardly be said that the board is on 
a thoroughgoing economic basis. The 
film art and the public must continue to 
get "value received" through the board's 
work, but the only value received by 
the workers themselves — the more than 
150 volunteers who actually constitute 
the board — must be found in a satisfied 
desire for public service or an intellec- 
tual interest in the problems of censor- 
ship. They get not merely no pay but 
no public recognition save in the form 
of denunciations which every few weeks, 
are leveled at them for some mistake 
fancied or real. This circumstance may 
appear to be a fortunate one, but is not 
wholly so. It is indeed a guarantee that 
the board will not go radically "wrong," 
or fall below that minimum standard of 
results which will be needed to hold the 
allegiance of the public and of the busi- 
ness interests concerned, or outlast its 
usefulness in the censoring field. 

But after all, the censoring of films 
or anything else the board may do is not 
a vocation but only an avocation for 
the board's volunteer workers. It is in 
the field of vocation, not of avocation, 
that bold initiative, inventive imagina- 
tion and generalship are to be found. 
The censoring of films is quite properly 
an avocation; in its established work 
of censoring the national board does in- 
deed work under ideal conditions. 

Yet, beyond that, we must bear in 
mind that the national board is al- 
ready far more than a mere censoring 
agency; its real significance lies in the 
fact that it stands at the cross-roads of 
the film art and the public need, in free 
co-operative relations with everybody, in 
an unexampled position both to know 
and to do. The greater part of the na- 
tional board's great power has not yet 
been used ; it never can be used merely 
in censoring. Sooner or later the board 
may need to anticipate and to formulate 
new policies, new programs of social 
service reaching far beyond the censor- 
ing field. Will a large voluntary agency. 
with a small number (only five) of over- 
burdened secretaries, see and conquer 
the opportunity when it comes? Does 
the board's organization provide an ade- 
quate continuing motive for fresh, radi- 
cal and of course, hazardous initiative - 

At any rate, contrasting the organi- 
zation and relations to the public of the 
[Continued on page $/.] 




PLAQUES and MEDALLIONS 
By VICTOR DAVID BRENNER 





DORN in Shavely, a little Russian town near the Baltic, Mr. Brenner 
came to this country at the age of nineteen. For seven years he prac- 
ticed his calling as a die-cutter. Five years followed in Paris. 

Since then in addition to his occasional sculptures, a succession of bas- 
reliefs has come from his New York studio — coins, medallions, plaques and 
tablets, many of them symbolic of social activities and interpretative of 
American types. 



DR. JOHN HEWETSON 

Tablet unveiled two years ago at Johns Hopkins Hospi- 
tal. Dr. Hewetson gave up his life in carrying forward 
the study of tropical diseases. 



DR. RUPERT NORTON 

Tablet to be unveiled this tall at Johns Hopkins Hospital, 
to which, as a center for research. Dr. Norton con- 
tributed rare executive qualities. 





COMMEMORATIVE 
MEDALLIONS 



I. Medallion for the 
twenty-fifth National Confer- 
ence of Charities and Correction, 
1898. The spirit of help reaching 
out to the dependent and delinquent. 

II. Seal of the New York Public 
Library, adopted at the merging of 
the Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations 




THE TORCH BEARER OF EDUCATION 

Plaque for the fiftieth anniversary 
of the University of Wisconsin 




EVARTS 

THE LAWYER 



LINCOLN 

THE LEADER 





EMERSON 

THE PHILOSOPHER 





INTERPRETATIVE OF 
THE SOCIAL SPIRIT 



III. Medallion for the Inter- 
national Congress of Hygiene, 
1912. The antithesis of the Three 
Fates: a mother teaching a child to 
conserve the thread of life. 

IV. Medallion for the International Con- 
gress on Tuberculosis, 1 908. The triumph of 
science over the dragon of the White Plague. 





THE IMMIGRANT LED BY AMERICA 

Reverse of a commemorative plaque 
bearing the figure of Carl Schurz 



IV 



HUNTINGTON 

THE UPBUILDER' 



JOHN HAY 

THE DIPLOMAT 



ROOSEVELT 

THE PROGRESSIVE, 





WILLIAM H. WELCH 

Foremost in American medical research 



AMBROSE SWASEY 

Donor of the Engineering Research Foundation 




SOLOMON LOEB 





Americans whose humani- 
tarianism has made itself 
felt in work for the poor, 
for civil service reform, 
for the democratiza- 
tion of art, for racial con- 
servation and for peace. 



SPENCER TRASK 



MRS. TRASK 




TRANGE 
a n d n e w 
names have 
been brought 
into the 
headlines as 
battle front 



newspaper 
the eastern 

has been pushed back this 
summer. They have re- 
mained largely a matter 
of names to us, their 
human meaning small, 
with nothing of the sharp 
imagery of struggle, of 
gain and loss which was 
true of Rheims, or Liege, 
or Louvain. The soldiers 
who have gone down and 
those who have marched 
on — and the countrysides 
through which they have 
marched — are all misty, 
seemi ngly unconcerned 
with us like those dim 
battlefields of the Russo- 
Japanese war around 
Mukden and Harbin. 

Yet, if we go into any 
of the Slavic neighbor- 
hoods in our American 
cities or any of the Jew- 
ish quarters, the eastern 
conflict takes on meaning 
and personality; and if 
we were to go to the vil- 
lages in the province of 
Kovno, in that region 
near the old Russo-Ger- 
man boundary, — on the 
Baltic coast between 
Dantzig and Riga, — we 
should find new and 
quaint links with our- 
selves, — nothing more nor 
less than the seals swing- 
ing from the stout watch- 
chains of merchants and 
village officials and land- 
owners. For practically 
everybody in the United 
States, practically every 
day in the year, carries 
a pocket piece which is the handiwork 
of the same designer. 

This is the Lincoln penny which was 
sculptured by Victor David Brenner, 
one time seal-maker of Shavely in the 
province of Kovno, from whose studio 
in New York during the last fifteen 
years have come a series of plaques and 
medallions catching up and putting into 
enduring bas-relief, various forms in 
which the American type, mixture of 
all races, conqueror and child of a new 
continent and a new political order, has 
expressed itself. The accompanying re- 
productions show a few of the series, 
in a sense companion pieces to the head 
of Lincoln, — Hay the diplomat, Emerson 
the philosopher, Evarts the lawyer, 
with his deep inseeing eyes, Huntington 
the railroad builder who spanned moun- 
tain and desert, with eyes and back- 
ground giving a curious effect of the 



TWO NEW WORLDS 

AND A SCULPTOR'S CLAY 

By Paul U. Kellogg 




searchlight of a locomotive, Swasey the 
telescope builder whose lenses pierced 
the farthest heavens; and a score of 
others. 

They have included not only builders 
and men of letters, philosophers and 
public leaders, but some of those who 
in less obvious ways have gathered up, 
or left their impress on, the social life 
of the times so that, in a very special 
sense, Mr. Brenner has worked in a 
field of peculiar interest to readers of 
The Survey. For example, this fall 
another tablet will be added to those 
from his hands on the walls of Johns 
Hopkins Hospital, permanent memorials 
to the remarkable group of hygienists 
and administrators who have made hos- 
pital and university an expanding force 
in American medicine. On the cover of 
this issue is shown a plaque to be un- 
veiled this fall at the New York In- 



firmary for Women and 
Children, to Dr. Emily 
Blackwell, sister and co- 
worker of the pioneer 
woman physician of the 
United States. In the 
60's they founded, in con- 
nection with the hospital, 
that college for women 
which threw open the 
practice of medicine to 
their sex until the pre- 
judice and inertia of the 
men's medical colleges 
were worn down, and 
Cornell and Johns Hop- 
kins opened their doors 
to women. These plaques 
in themselves offer oc- 
casion for review here of 
the artist's work. They 
are instinct with its larg- 
er spirit. For this theme of 
pioneering, of expanding 
opportunity, is one which 
occurs again and again 
in his work ; and with 
cause, for to the young 
immigrant from a meager 
Baltic village, from a 
pale within that village 
even more repressed and 
barren of color and form 
than the Russian life 
about it, America meant 
a new world in a very 
real sense — the bursting 
through of fettered apti- 
tudes, the unfolding of 
new and fabulous vistas 
of existence, into which 
generations of painters 
and sculptors and archi- 
tects had gone before and 
left the work of their 
hands as guide stones to 
those who came after. 

Small wonder, there- 
fore, that Brenner has 
sought to bring these 
two new worlds of his 
together. By interpreting American 
life in clay and bronze? Yes, but 
more than that, by trying to make 
art itself part of the American op- 
portunity for all — by helping to bring 
the love of beauty and the realization of 
beauty into the common possession of 
the people of this new and roughly 
thrown together civilization of ours. 
And out of the very ladder of his own 
opportunity, this immigrant sculptor hit 
upon an unusual means for reaching the 
farthest recesses of the common life 
with a fragment of his message. The 
modelling of the new one cent piece in 
1909 was to him other than a chance 
government commission. He had learn- 
ed that the common coins of a people 
may become the spreaders of a sense 
of what is true in line and contour and 
proportion — more readily than paintings 
or statuary, or the scattered forms of 



19 



20 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



architecture, more wide spread even 
than the photograph or the moving pic- 
ture, and more responsive to the mould- 
ing influence of the artist. For coins 
are itinerant teachers to eye and touch, 
they reach the poorest homes and most 
out of the way villages — the unnumbered 
Shavely's of a new continent. They 
can leave a habit, if not a craving, for 
beauty, which will be less and less satis- 
fied with what is ugly and shapeless and 
dull in the things of daily use. They 
can at strange and unexpected times 
touch a burdened life or fire a young 
one with the moral force inlaid in the 
seamed face of a Lincoln. Thus, by 
slow but all embracing experience, com- 
mon standards may be raised ; thus, by 
the strategy of building up inside human 
lives a craving and recognition of what 
is beautiful and enduring, peace may 
achieve something more imperishable 
than cathedrals; thus, out of Russia 
came a servant to the democracy. 

Shavely is a market center of 5,000 
inhabitants, Lithuanians, Poles and 
Letts; its officials Russian, its cultural 
life dominated by German influences. 
Brenner's grandfather was blacksmith 
to a landed proprietor of the region. 
His father, as a boy learned to cut out 
silhouettes, and as a man carried the 
family gift of metal working to a new 
stage when he set up a little shop in 
his home, and in addition to the gen- 
eral run of work as a mechanic carved 
soapstones along fanciful lines, cut 
stones for the village grave yard and 
engraved ornate rings and brooches. 
Here the son took his place at the 
bench beside him at the age of 13, tu- 
tored out of hours by his father in his- 
tory and languages and the Talmud, and 
learning the gifts of hand which his 
father knew. More especially, he learn- 
ed seal making, for this was a time when 
throughout the middle classes of Russia 
there spread the vogue of much use of 
private seals such as the nobility had 
always employed ; and such as had 
utilitarian value, also, in a region where 
the new peasant land-holders were many 
of them unlettered. After three years 
the boy became an itinerant journey- 
man, going from village to village, stop- 
ping at inns and taking orders for his 
work from door to door. Then, a new 
branch of the craft opened up to him 

when he spent 
nine months 
at line en- 
graving at 
an establish- 
ment at Mi- 
tan, capital 
of a neigh- 
boring prov- 
ince, where 
type metal for 
n ewspapers 
and maga- 
zines, rubber 
stamps and 
label printing 




were put out. In his eighteenth year 
still another branch opened up when 
he set out for Riga and went into the 
shop of a jewelry engraver, teaching 
him seal cutting in exchange for learn- 
ing his branch of the craft. The year 
following, the boy returned to Kovno, 
capital city of his native province of 
the same name, and set up as an en- 
graver of musical instruments, of seals 
and jewelry. 

From Kovno to New York 

It was without money that he set 
out for America in 1890, but with this 
all around equipment in a trade which 
might find a market wherever people 
adorned themselves, or drew music from 
brass, or signed legal forms, or print- 
ed from type, or marked their dead. 
And surely they did these things in the 
New World. But these were not after 
all the opportunity he set out to find 
in America — but something richer in 
life, something which the artist in him 
craved without knowing what it was, 
at his engraver's bench in the little Bal- 
tic town, or in the rigid intellectual dis- 
cussions of the Jewish community of 
which he was a part. Nor was it what 
he found in this new America. For 
such is our stupidity that we have not 
yet learned the knack of sifting out the 
special aptitudes of those who pour in 
at the gates of New York, and we be- 
gin by turning artists and musicians 
and poets and craftsmen among them 
into a common mold of our unskilled 
labor. 

This was not for long, however, in 
Brenner's case. He in time found work 
in an Essex Street shop as die cutter 
and engraver of badges. He prospered 
and the year following he sent for his 
brother, in the second year, for his par- 
ents and the rest of his family, and in 
1894 was able to start out for himself 
as a die cutter for jewelers and silver- 
smiths. 

This meant money, such as could 
scarcely have been dreamed of at his 
tool bench at Shavely, and the beginnings 
of a new line of work which, when the 
issue was drawn, the young craftsman 
was to find meant more to him than 
money. Professor S. Ettinger of the City 
College was a collector of coins of more 
than local standing, and one day in 
browsing about the East Side he entered 
the badge factory on Essex Street, and 
came across a tiny head of Beethoven, 
used as the pendant of the badge of a 
singing society. This he found to be 
the work of the young immigrant crafts- 
man and he brought him to the notice of 
the president of the American Numis- 
matic Society. In the rows of coins 
and medals which these collectors show- 
ed him, an entirely new world opened up 
to the young die cutter — coins of gold 
and silver, bronze, nickel and copper, 
reaching back, link upon link, to the 
dawn of history; milled dollars, clinking 
with romance and the days of the Span- 
ish Main, when the confines of the 



known world were pushed out and out ; 
sovereign gold pieces such as offered a 
common medium for the trade of all na- 
tions; medallions struck off to com- 
memorate some of the greatest adven- 
turings of men. Nor was this all. These 
coins, battered and worn smooth by the 
thumbs of other races and generations, 
were, some of them, beautiful with a 
chasteness and grace of design unlike 
anything to be found in the purses of 
Kovno or Riga. Still less like the coins 
that had found their way into American 
pockets. They were, in truth, the con- 
necting link between his engraver's 
craft and the whole range of fashion- 
ings in wood and stone and clay and 
metal, out of which the sculptors have 
built their art. 

Slowly the young die-cutter groped 
his way into this second new world. 
Before he came to America he had 
never seen a museum of art. As a child 
he had dreamed of studying; as an im- 
migrant boy in New York he had fairly 
trembled when he first saw a man who 
was pointed out to him as a real artist. 

Through members of the Numismatic 
Society who took an interest in him, 
young Brenner got the commission to 
design a medal struck off at the opening 
of a new ward at St. Luke's Hospital — 
bearing the head of Dr. Muhlenberg, its 
founder. Soon after, he executed the 
design made by Lydia Field Emmett for 
the Cullum medal of the. American Geo- 
graphic Society, and given to Nansen 
and Peary. And then he was commis- 
sioned to design and make the medal 
of the Twenty-fifth National Confer- 
ence of Charities and Correction. 

But these were, after all, but oc- 
casional forays into the new world 
which lay beyond his practical com- 
missions for jewellers and silversmiths. 
That it was which consumed his day- 
light hours; at that he prospered,, 
prospered amazingly so that he was on 
his way toward becoming a rich die- 
cutter. Had he kept at it until middle 
life he would have become no doubt a 
wealthy patron of art, but a disappointed 
man. 

In 1898, just four years after he had 
opened up his establishment on Fulton 
Street, he closed it and went to Paris 
on the proceeds of the four years. 
There for three years he studied at the 
Academic 
Julien. under 
Roty, who 
was the rank- 
ing medallist 
of Europe, 
and Alexan- 
dre Charpen- 
tier, a radi- 
cal in sculp- 
ture a n d 
member of 
the Rodin 
Sfroup. Re- 
turning t o 
New York 




Two New Worlds and a Sculptor's Clay 



21 



he set up as medallist and in this period 
designed the George William Curtis 
medal for Columbia and a military 
medal for the state of Michigan. He 
served as a teacher at the National 
Academy and three years later once 
more was back at the Academie Julien 
— bent on an entire break from the com- 
mercial field to the uncertain one of 
art. In 1906 he again returned to New 
York to establish himself as a medallist 
and sculptor. 

One of the movements he threw him- 
self into was that of the Numismatic 
Society to secure better coins. Even 
the conservative British were eclipsing 
the United States in this direction. The 
movement met with a hearty response 
from President Roosevelt. In 1908, 
Brenner was chosen to design the Pana- 
ma medal which has since been given 
to every workman who puts in two con- 
secutive years on the canal. Among his 
earlier pieces of work had been the ex- 
ecution of a series of modern coins for 
the Republic of San Domingo. Presi- 
dent Roosevelt was struck with the pos- 
sibility of making use of his Lincoln as 
the first step in reforming the face of 
our own coinage. The question lay be- 
tween the half dollar and the cent; and 
choice fell on the latter, both because 
for sixty-five years there had 
been no change in our cop- 
per pieces with their rather 
impossible Indian heads; and 
because the smaller the coin, 
the more people who would 
thumb it over. St. Gaudens 
had already wrought his 
beautiful ten and twenty 
dollar gold pieces for the 
United States but the circu- 
lation of such denominations 
was so restricted that the 
movement had stopped there. 
The Lincoln head was, of 
course, the main element in 
the new pocket piece ; but it 
represented also the modern 
tendencies in simplified 
decoration. It is not over- 
loaded and introduces the 
hollow surfaces used in the 
beautiful French pieces. 

In the last ten years Bren- 
ner has made numerous 
medallions reflecting differ- 
ent phases of public life. 
Several of them have been 
related to the social welfare; 
but not all, for his work has 
been catholic, ranging among 
such varied commissions as 
a medallion for the Aero Club 
bearing the heads of the 
Wright brothers, with a bi- 
plane on the reverse, the 
John Fritz medal of the 
United Engineering Soci- 
eties of America, which com- 
memorated seventy-five years 
of development in the iron 
industry of the United States 



and the sheerly artistic plaque which 
was struck off for a memorial exhibition 
to Whistler. There has been his medal- 
lion of the International Congress of 
Hygiene and Demography with a new 
fable to match that of the Fates, — a 
mother telling her child how to spin the 
thread of life; the medallion of the In- 
ternational Tuberculosis Congress, sym- 
bolic of science triumphing over the 
dragon of the white plague; the seal of 
the University of Wisconsin on which 
is shown the figure of a youth who has 
caught the light but reaches further; 
in a way a companion piece to the Carl 
Schurz medal distributed by Paul M. 
Warburg among the friends of the Ger- 
man leader at the time of his death, 
showing an immigrant led by the spirit 
of America. 

Portraiture in Bronze 

While Brenner's work has thus caught 
up and given expression to several of 
the social movements of the times and 
of the meaning of life as he has seen 
it in men's lives, his art has not as yet 
centred around any one social propa- 
ganda of protest or proposal. When he 
first came to the East Side his frequent 
companion was a young fellow work- 
man from his own village in Russia, a 




A SONG TO NATURE 



The group which will surmount the memorial fountain in 
Schenley Park, Pittsburgh. 



smelter, son of a small proprietor. They 
were members of a group who debated 
Socialism and took an active interest in 
currents of thought on the East Side 
In Paris he was thrown with the 
radicals in sculpture. Yet these eco- 
nomic and professional currents did 
not grip him so strongly as his own life 
experience. When he came to this coun- 
try it was like being let out of a closet. 
He had before that known no recrea- 
tion; only to dig. Here he felt energies 
freed in him; through which he could 
create and feel new beauty and mean- 
ing in tangible things. The mystery of 
this was to him the big thing, the mys- 
tery of the moth which has come from 
the worm and cocoon. 

And its first meaning as it was borne 
in upon him was that the impounded 
power in every man ought to be re- 
leased; that he should find self-expres- 
sion. What and how far men had 
achieved this goal was his constant 
search; so that when he drew Hunting- 
ton he strove not to put himself in but 
to bring out the man and what he stood 
for ; and, as we have seen, he fashioned 
eyes that could see across a continent, 
and could bind the states together. In 
Lincoln he saw the great introspector — 
the lonely man — the man who amid 
great travail preserved what 
Washington had created, 
what Napoleon strove to 
create and failed — the union 
of a continent ; who held in 
his face what he said in his 
Gettysburg speech. 

For a time Brenner shared 
in that gospel of strenuosity 
which was characteristic of 
the Roosevelt regime at 
Washington, and which was 
kindred to the up-leaping im- 
pulses in much of our immi- 
grant life. It was following 
this period and in a degree 
in reaction to it, that he con- 
ceived his first large group 
of statuary — Nature the Re- 
storer, a group in which the 
limp figure of a boy shows 
the first pulsings of return- 
ing strength where his foot 
touches the ground and 
where the soothing hand of 
his mother touches his el- 
bow; — which, if you will, 
has some analogy to the 
physical breakdown of hun- 
dreds of young immigrants 
who flood our cities in their 
eager wave of ambition and, 
after the over-exertion and 
over-crowding have done 
their work, can find re- 
cuperation only by a return 
to Mother Earth and simple 
living. 

The modern social mes- 
sage of the piece is, how- 
ever, pretty much concealed 
by its classic treatment and 



22 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



symbolism. For it must be remembered, 
if New York was to Brenner the gate 
of his first new world, Paris was that 
of his second. In New York he had 
begun as immigrant boy with mouth 
agape ; in Paris he was quite as fully 
engrossed in going through the disci- 
pline of a sort of Greek and Latin 
period of training. 

In a way, however, perhaps other and 
stronger forces entered in. There are 
those immigrants who, either because of 
their experience abroad or what befalls 
them here, are caught up and enter at 
once into the whirl of agitation and 
revolutionary thought. A larger num- 
ber go through the typical American 
process of "getting on." It is only when 
they get to a breathing spell, when they 
have in a way arrived, that the tension 
relaxes and they are impelled by social 
concepts of citizenship and opportunity. 

So with this immigrant sculptor; he 
has been less a leader among his own 
people with a challenge for their ears, 
and their challenge for ours, than a 
sharer with them in the common ex- 
perience. 

Yet in the fact that when it came to 
the second loaf of bread in his calling 
as a die-cutter, he turned aside — more, 
got down to crusts if you will in his 
search for hyacinths, — coupled with 
that other fact that when he found these 
hyacinths unfolding under his touch, he 
scattered them as bread or largess were 
never scattered before, into the pockets 
of all of us — there is a promise that we 
will have in Brenner an interpreter not 
only of the spirit of self-expression in 
individual men but of the same spirit 
as it manifests itself through great com- 
panies of people. "If joy is our reason 
for being," he says, "then because of 
our desire for possession, or because of 
wrong distribution, we have lost it; as 
Cain lost his heritage. But the Abel 
promise keeps reasserting itself." 



THE WHIST- 
LER MEDAL- 
LION — CON- 
SIDERED PER- 
HAPS THE 

best illus- 
tration o f 
mr. brenner's 
faculty for 
spirited por- 
traiture 




It is in character, therefore, that his 
largest public commission to date is the 
fountain memorial to the donor of 
Schenley Park, which will be placed in 
Pittsburgh next year. It is a mythologi- 
cal group with Pan and nymph treated 







^K 




M 






A 






\ 


M 


^-^•^ 








THE WRIGHT MEDAL 





in classic spirit, entitled A Song to 
Nature, — a gay, unspoiled conception 
kindred to the effrontery with which 
some little natural park breaks into our 
tamed and deadening city landscape. 
But the piece he is working on now is 
a conception of democracy. 



Just as we can see the stars in the 
daytime by looking into a deep well ; 
so as we look deep in some great sphere 
of human activity can we gauge what 
abstractly is beyond the power of our 
minds to apprehend, or of our con- 
sciences to admit — gauge what the great 
war means in human loss and tragedy 
to the people of Europe and then to 
us. This Kovno seal-maker, with his 
gift for sculpture and his promise of a 
social message gleaned in his climbings 
through two new worlds, was just such 
a lad as has gone down in the thousands 
as the battle front has strained forward 
and backward over the provinces whose 
names sound strange to our ears. 



THE life of Dr. Emily Blackwell 
was so intimately connected with 
that of her sister, Dr. Elizabeth 
Blackwell, that in giving a 
sketch of one, the other is necessarily 
included. 

The Doctors Blackwell were the first 
women in this country to graduate from 
a regular medical college and the first 
in any country to establish a hospital for 
the treatment of women and children, 
by women. 

To the natural gifts of the sisters and 
their — for those days — unusual educa- 
tion, was due the possibility of coping 
with the ignorance and prejudice which 
faced them ; it was only by their courage 
and strength of character that those ob- 
stacles were overcome. 

Doctors Elizabeth and Emily Black- 
well were born in Bristol, England. 
Their father came to this country with 



Emily Blackwell 

An Appreciation by 
Elizabeth M. Cushier, M.D. 

An early associate of the Doc- 
tors Blackwell and herself one of 
the pioneer women physicians of 
this country. 



[See Cover] 



a large family of children when Emily 
was four years old. Mr. Blackwell set- 



tled first in New York city — and later 
in Cincinnati where he died, leaving his 
large family unprovided for. He left to 
his children, however, a rich inherit- 
ance in character which was later re- 
vealed in the work accomplished by 
them. 

Following the death of their father, the 
two oldest daughters started a school in 
Cincinnati which proved very successful. 
The younger daughters, Elizabeth and 
Emily, taught for some years in this 
school, and later elsewhere. It was dur- 
ing this time that they became more and 
more impressed by the limited opportuni- 
ties for even educated women to make 
their way in the world. They had. too, 
a keen sense of individual responsibility, 
— the need of each to work for all. This 
led them to seek for women a larger field 
for useful work. 

The idea of studying for the profession 



Emily Blackwell 



23 



of medicine was first suggested to Dr. 
Elizabeth Blackwell by an invalid 
friend, who said how much less dis- 
tressing her medical treatment would 
have been could she have had a woman 
physician. And she added, "Why do 
you not study medicine ?" The sugges- 
tion was not attractive to Elizabeth 
Blackwell. She had always shrunk from 
physical ills in others, and was a stoic 
in regard to her own, and it was only 
after much thought and consideration 
of the possible advantage to women 
which the opening of such a field would 
be that she gave the idea serious at- 
tention. 

She then began to consider the pos- 
sibility of obtaining in a regular col- 
lege the necessary medical instruction, 
and she soon learned that there was 
scarcely a limit to the obstacles to be 
met; but having determined that it was 
the right thing to do, she would permit 
nothing to daunt her. 

Dr. Blackwell's efforts and final suc- 
cess are charmingly told in her Pioneer 
Work in Opening the Medical Profes- 
sion to Women, and Dr. Stephen Smith 
of this city, who was a student at the 
Geneva college when Elizabeth Black- 
well entered, has given a graphic ac- 
count of her influence in converting — by 
her example and gentle dignity — a crowd 
of unruly young men into a class of or- 
derly and attentive students. After her 
graduation in 1849, Elizabeth .Black- 
well went to Europe where she con- 
tinued her studies in London and Paris. 
She returned to New York in 1851 and 
started a dispensary for women and 
children on the East Side. This was 
made possible by the generous support 
of some members of the Society of 
Friends who were the first to recog- 
nize the value and need of the work. 
Two years later the charter for the New 
York Infirmary was obtained and the 
hospital established. The infirmary 
was at that time the only institution 
in New York where a hitherto inno- 
cent girl who was about to become a 
mother could find shelter other than 
among the hardened reprobates of 
Blackwell's Island. 

In the meantime, Dr. Emily Blackwell 
was pursuing her medical studies. She, 
too, met with no end of opposition, and 
it was only a sense of moral obligation 
that gave her courage to continue the 
struggle. 

It had been decided at the Geneva col- 
lege not to establish the precedent of 
opening its doors to women; this made it 
necessary for Emily Blackwell to seek 
elsewhere. She went from city to city 
begging for an opportunity to fit her- 
self for medical work, meeting every- 
where with refusal. At last an appeal 
to the faculty and trustees of the Med- 
ical College of Cleveland, Ohio, met 
with a favorable result, and she began 



her studies there. As the step was such 
a novel one there was uncertainty as 
to how a woman would be received by 
the students — so their attitude was an- 
ticipated by the dean who appeared be- 
fore them at the opening lecture and 
said, "We are to have with us this win- 
ter a lady who proposes to study medi- 
cine. The lady is Miss Emily Black- 
well, sister of Elizabeth Blackwell, who 
has already graduated with honor. 
American men have the reputation of 
being chivalrous. I hope that reputa- 
tion may be sustained by you." The 
address was applauded and the doctor 
was always treated with consideration 
and respect. 

She received her degree from this col- 
lege and then continued her studies at 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, 
also at the famous Maternite in Paris, 
and later with Sir James Simpson of 
Edinborough, who was much interested 
in her work and made her his assistant. 

On her return to New York, Dr. 
Emily Blackwell joined her sister, and 
together they carried on the work of 
infirmary and dispensary with the con- 
stant aim of enlarging it and increasing 
its usefulness. In this they were helped 
at every step by the trustees, prominent 
men and women who were in full sym- 
pathy with them. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War, 
when there was a great demand for 
nurses, an informal meeting of the lady 
managers wa,s called at the infirmary 
to see what could be done toward sup- 
plying the need. A notice of this meet- 
ing having found its way into the New 
York Times, the parlor of the infirm- 
ary was crowded and out of it grew the 
organization of the National Sanitary 
Aid Association. 

In 1864, the Doctors Blackwell, with 
the hearty co-operation of the trustees 
of the infirmary, opened the medical col- 
lege, the charter for which had been 
obtained when the hospital was founded, 
and it was known as the Woman's 
Medical College of the New York In- 
firmary for Women and Children. The 
doctors did not approve of small iso- 
lated colleges, but the failure of all ef- 
forts to gain admission for women to 
the large men's colleges made it neces- 
sary to start an independent one. It 
was from the first determined that the 
standing of the college should equal the 
best, and in order that there should be 
no question as to the thoroughness of 
its instruction, there was appointed in 
addition to its faculty, a board of ex- 
aminers. The members of this board 
were selected from among the leading 
professors in the men's colleges, and it 
included Drs. Willard Parker, Austin 
Flint, Alfred Loomis, Fordyce Barker, 
Stephen Smith and Professor Chandler 
of Columbia, all warm and faithful 
friends. The college was the first to 



follow Harvard in making a three years' 
course of study obligatory, and the 
course was later extended to four years. 
When the doors of Johns Hopkins at 
Baltimore and the medical department 
of Cornell in New York were opened 
to women, the college — having fulfilled 
its mission — was closed and all further 
efforts were directed toward increasing 
the facilities for practical work at the 
infirmary. 

In 1869, Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell went 
to England where she made her future 
home. From this time the duties as 
head of both hospital and college fell 
upon Emily Blackwell. The task was 
not an easy one but it was lightened by 
Che trustees who had always shown 
great admiration for and faith in her 
judgment and who supported her by 
their cordial sympathy at every step. 
The doctor also had the hearty co- 
operation of her medical associates, and 
the enthusiastic devotion of her assis- 
tants and students to whom she was 
friend as well as teacher, and a con- 
stant source of inspiration. Her clear 
vision, breadth of view, and mental 
power were combined with a rare mod- 
esty and simplicity added to which was 
a serenity and dignity that impressed 
all who knew her. 

The doctor's interest was not limited 
to medicine. Among other questions, 
all social problems were given earnest 
thought, and at the time of the attempt 
to legalize prostitution in this state she 
was among those who made vigorous 
protest against the measure, and was an 
able supporter of Aaron and Mrs. Pow- 
ell in the crusade which they so suc- 
cessfully carried on. 

The ideals of the Blackwell sisters 
were realized as the infirmary steadily 
grew and proved its value both as a 
hospital where women could receive 
medical treatment by women, and as 
a center where women physicians could 
obtain practical instruction in all 
branches of medicine. This growth con- 
tinued, until the little hospital of ten 
beds which started over 60 years ago 
now contains 100 beds. It has medical, 
surgical, obstetric and children's wards, 
to which were admitted during the past 
year 2,346 patients. 

In the dispensary connected with the 
infirmary were treated during the year 
11,000 patients, and in the out practice 
over 6,000 visits were made to 1,041 pa- 
tients in their own homes. In addition 
to the medical treatment given, valuable 
statistics were obtained in regard to the 
conditions under which the patients 
lived. 

The hospital with its dispensary, the 
medical work of which is done by 
women, is regarded as a worthy tribute 
to the noble women through whose early 
struggles it first came into existence. 



The Time to Make Peace 

By Emily Greene Balch 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. WELLESLEY COLLEGE 



THERE is a widespread feeling 
that this is not the moment to 
talk of a European peace. On 
the contrary there is reason to 
believe that the psychological moment 
may be very close upon us. If, in the 
wisdom that comes after the event, we 
see that the United States was dilatory 
when it might have helped to open a 
way to end bloodshed and make a fair 
and lasting settlement, we shall have 
cause for deep self-reproach. 

The question of peace is a question of 
terms. Every country desires peace at 
the earliest possible moment at which it 
can be had on terms satisfactory to it- 
self. Peace is possible the moment that 
each side would accept what the other 
would grant, but from the international 
or human point of view a satisfactory 
peace is possible only when these claims 
and concessions are such as to forward 
and not to hinder human progress. If 
Germany's terms are the annexation of 
Belgium and part of France and a mili- 
tary hegemony over the rest of Europe, 
or if on the other hand the terms of 
France or of England include "wiping 
Germany off the map of Europe" there 
is no possibility of peace at the present 
time nor at any time that can be fore- 
seen, nor does the world desire peace on 
these terms. 

In one sense the present war is a con- 
flict between the two great sets of bel- 
ligerent powers, but in a different and 
very real sense it is a conflict between 
two conceptions of national policy. The 
catch words "democracy" and "imperial- 
ism" may be used briefly to indicate the 
opposing ideas. In every country both 
are represented, though in varying pro- 
portions, and in every country there is 
strife between them. 

In each belligerent nation there are 
those that want to continue the fight 
till military supremacy is achieved, in 
each there are powerful forces that seek 
a settlement of a wiser type which, in- 
stead of containing such threats to sta- 
bility as are involved in annexation, hu- 
miliation of the enemy, and in competi- 
tion in armaments, shall secure rational 
independence all round, protect the 
rights of minorities and foster interna- 
tional co-operation. 

One of the too little realized effects 
of the war is the overriding of the regu- 
lar civil government by the military au- 
thorities in all the warring countries. 
The forms of constitutionalism may be 
undisturbed but as inter arma leges 
silent so in time of war military power 
— no less really because unobtrusively — 
tends to control the representatives of 

24 



the people. Von Tirpitz, Kitchener, 
Joffre, have in greater or less degree 
over-shadowed their nominal masters. 

Another effect of war is that as be- 
tween the two contending voices, the 
one is given a megaphone, the other is 
muffled if not gagged. Papers and plat- 
forms are open to "patriotic" utterances 
as patriotism is understood by the 
jingo; the moderate is silenced not alone 
by the censor, not alone by social pres- 
sure, but also by his own sense of the 
effect abroad of all that gives an im- 
pression of internal division and of a 
readiness to quit the fight. In our own 
country during the height of tension 
with Germany, loyal Americans who be- 
lieved that the case of the United States 
was not a strong one (and a hundred 
million people cannot all think alike on 
such an issue), those who loathe the 
thought of war over such a quarrel, 
could not and would not give any com- 
mensurate expression to their views for 
fear that they might make it harder for 
our government to induce Germany to 
render her warfare less inhuman. 

Everywhere war puts out of sight the 
moderates and the forces that make for 
peace and gives an exaggerated influ- 
ence to militaristic and jingo forces 
creating a false impression of the pres- 
sure for extreme terms. 

Of course each country desires as 
favorable terms as it can get and there- 
fore would prefer to make peace at a 
moment when the great struggle — which 
in a rough general sense is a stale-mate 
— is marked by some incident advan- 
tageous to itself. Germany would like 
to make peace from the crest of the 
wave of her invasion of Russia; Russia 
and England would like to make terms 
from a conquered Constantinople. If 
the disinterested neutrals, who alone are 
free to act for peace, wait for a moment 
when neither side has any advantage 
they will wait long indeed. 

But the minor ups and downs of the 
war, shifting and unpredictable, are rel- 
atively much less important than they 
appear. The grim unchanging fact 
which affects both sides and which is to 
the changing fortunes of battle as the 
miles of immovable oceans depths are to 
the waves on the surface — this all out- 
weighing fact is the intolerable burden 
of continued war. This it is which 
makes momentary advantage compara- 
tively unimportant. All the belligerents 
want peace, though probably with dif- 
ferent intensity ; none of them wants it 
enough to cry "I surrender." 

The making of peace involves not 
only questions of the character of the 



terms, of demands more or less ex- 
treme ; it also involves the question of 
the principle according to which settle- 
ments are to be made. There are again 
two conflicting conceptions. 

On the one hand is the assumption 
that military advantage must be repre- 
sented quid pro quo on the terms — so 
much victory, so much corresponding 
advantage in the settlement. There is 
even the commercial conception of war 
as an investment and the idea that the 
fighter has a right to indemnity for 
what he has spent. 

On the other hand it is assumed that 
the war having thrown certain inter- 
national adjustments into the melting 
pot, the problem is to create a new ad- 
justment such as shall on the whole be 
as generally satisfactory and contain as 
much promise of stability as practicable. 

Even in a settlement based on such 
considerations the balance of physical 
force could not be merely ignored. 
Gains won by force create no claim that 
anyone is bound to respect yet while 
the expenditure of blood and treasure 
gives no right to reimbursement (and it 
is to the general interest that such ex- 
penditure, undertaken more or less on 
speculation, should never prove a good 
investment), nevertheless the arbitra- 
ment of war, being an arbitrament of 
violence, relative power is bound to tell 
in the resulting adjustment. 

f T is important, therefore, to consider 
that, with a given balance of relative 
strength as between the contending sides, 
an equilibrium may be expressed in 
more than one way, as there are equa- 
tions which admit of more than one solu- 
tion. The equilibrium of opposing 
claims might be secured by balancing 
unjust acquisition against unjust acqui- 
sition or by balancing magnanimous 
concession against magnanimous con- 
cession. A neutral mediator or mediat- 
ing group acting in the interest of civili- 
zation in general and of the future 
might, without throwing any weight in- 
to the scale of one or the other side, 
help them to find the equilibrium on the 
higher rather than on the lower level. 

On the basis of military advantage or 
on the basis of military costs the neu- 
trals have no claim to be heard in the 
settlement. The soldier is genuinely ag- 
grieved and outraged that they should 
mix in the matter at all. Yet even on 
the plane of fighting power the unex- 
hausted neutral may fling a sword into 
the scale and on the plea of costs suf- 
fered the neutral may demand a voice. 
It is, however, supremely as representa- 
tives of humanity and civilization and 

Titb SriiVKY. October - 1810 



The Time to Make Peace 



25 



the true interests of all sides alike that 
those who are not in the thick of the 
conflict can and should be of use in the 
settlement and help to find it on the 
higher plane. 

The settlement of a war by outsiders 
— not their mere friendly co-operation — 
is something that has often occurred, 
exhibiting that curious mixture of the 
crassest brute force with the most am- 
bitious idealism which often character- 
izes the conduct of international deal- 
ings. The fruits of victory were refused 
to Russia by the Congress of Berlin in 
1878, Europe forbade Japan the spoils 
of her war with China in 1895, the re- 
sults of the Balkan wars were largely de- 
termined by those who had done none of 
the fighting. While mere might played 
a large part in such interferences from 
the outside there is something beside 
hypocrisy in the claim of the statesmen 
of countries which had not taken part 
in the war to speak on behalf of free- 
dom, progress and peace. 

A peace involving annexation of un- 
willing peoples could never be a lasting 
one. The widespread sense of irritation 
at all talk of peace at present seems to 
be due to a feeling that a settlement 
now would be a settlement which would 
leave Belgium if not part of France in 
German hands. Such a settlement 
would be as disastrous to Germany as 
to any other nation. It might put an 
end to military operations but it cer- 
tainly would not bring peace if we give 
any moral content to that much abused 
word. Europe was not at peace before 
August, 1914, nor Ireland for long be- 
fore, nor Poland, nor Alsace, nor Fin- 
land. Any community which, if it could, 
would fight to change its political status, 
may be quiet under coercion but it is 
not at peace. Neither would Europe be 
at peace with Germany in Belgium. 



The question then is what sort of 
peace may we at least hope for now 
— on what terms, on what principles? 

V\7" E may be sure that each side is 
ready to concede more and to de- 
mand less than appears on the surface or 
than it is ready to advertise. The summer 
campaign, in which marked advantages 
are most likely, is nearly over and a 
winter in the trenches will cost on all 
sides money and suffering out of all 
proportion to the advances that can be 
hoped for. It must be remembered too, 
that the advantages hitherto gained are 
not all on one side but that each has 
something to concede. The British an- 
nexations of Egypt and Cyprus may be 
formal rather than substantial changes 
but the conquest of the German colonies' 
large and small — South West Africa, 
Togo Land, Samoa, Neu Pommern, 
Kaiser Wilhelmsland, the Solomon, 
Caroline and Marshall Islands, to say 
nothing of Kiao-Chao — and probably 
Russian gains at the expense of Turkey 
in the East — give bargaining pow- 
er to the Allies. So also, even without 
success in the Dardanelles, does their 
ability to thwart or forward the Ger- 
mans in Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. 
Friends of Finland and of Poland 
must see to it that the debatable lands of 
the eastern as well as of the western 
frontier are kept in mind. From the 
point of view of Poland the main thing 
to be desired is the union of the three 
dismembered parts — Russian, German 
and Austrian Poland — and their fusion 
in some sort of a buffer state, inde- 
pendent or at least essentially autono- 
mous. Something like this appears to 
be the purpose of both Germany and> 
Russia with the difference that this 
Polish state would be in the one case 
under Teutonic, in the other under Rus- 



sian, auspices. No one knows which 
would be the choice as between the two 
of the majority of the Poles concerned. 
Concessions to Germany in Finland and 
Poland are at least conceivable and 
would make the concession of complete 
withdrawal in the West easier for her 
to make. Still more important are the 
concessions in regard to naval control 
of the seas which Great Britain ought to 
be willing to make if the safety of her 
commerce and intercolonial communica- 
tions can be adequately secured other- 
wise, and this would seem to be the 
natural counterpart of substantial steps 
toward disarmament on land. 

But all this is speculation. The fact, 
obvious to those who look below the 
surface, is that every belligerent power 
is carrying on a war deadly to itself, 
that bankruptcy looms ahead, that in- 
dustrial revolt threatens, not at the 
moment but in a none too distant future, 
that racial stocks are being irreparably 
depleted. The prestige of Europe, of 
the Christian church, of the white race 
is lowered inch by inch with the prog- 
ress of the struggle which is continually 
closer to the debacle of a civilization. 

Each power would best like peace on 
its own terms. Our common civiliza- 
tion would suffer by the imposition of 
extreme terms by any power. Each peo- 
ple would be thankful indeed to secure 
an early peace without humiliation a 
long way short of its extreme demands. 

There is thus every reason to believe 
that a vigorous initiative by representa- 
tives of the neutral powers of the world 
could at this moment begin a move to- 
ward negotiations and lead the way to a 
settlement which, please God, shall be 
a step toward a nobler and more intel- 
ligent civilization than we have yet en- 
joyed. 



PORTRAIT OF A PHYSICIAN 

By Sarah N. Cleghorn 



CLEAB-CUT his shaven face ; his air 
Is touched with dignity and care, 
And yet observantly aware, 

Keenly alive; 
His active form is slight and spare, 
Turned thirty-five. 

Well does he love the country green, 

In all the country sports is seen, 

And drives the golf-ball swift and clean 

With sure address. 
— Indoors he offers combat keen 



At bridge or chess. 



Though (overshadowed, year by year 
By cares of this his grave career) 
His boyhood humor wanes, I fear, 

Yet 'tis not spent ; 
When most in need, its heartening cheer 

Can still be lent; 

For through his glasses' poor disguise 
It lights once more his hazel eyes 
Where some sick child in languor lies ; 

There, not in vain, 
His tender wiles and fooleries 

Charm away pain. 



Such gentle arts, I well believe, 

He doth from friendly heaven receive 

Because he scorns not to relieve 

The humblest, least 
Poor patient that can ache or grieve: — 

A wouuded beast. 



26 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



IN the desperate struggle between 
"dry" and "wet" forces county op- 
tion will be decided at the polls in 
Minneapolis on October 4. A 
radical step has been taken by all the 
social workers of the city in this cam- 
paign. At the annual fall meeting of 
the Social Service Club, an organization 
composed only of professional social 
workers, the 100 members present were 
addressed by C. C. Carstens of Boston. 
The following resolution proposed by 
Judge E. F. Waite of the Juvenile Court 
was passed : 

"The Minneapolis Social Service Club, 
without assuming to speak for the sev- 
eral organizations which its members 
represent, deems the occasion an appro- 
priate one to place on record its opinion 
that in producing the social ills of the 
community, to the alleviation of which 
the members of the club are devoting a 
large part of their daily work, the most 
obvious and direct factor is the licensed 
saloon." 

The amazing fact about this stand 
was not that the resolution was passed 
unanimously but the overwhelming senti- 
ment, expressed in crisp, terse speeches, 
that the social workers of the city would 
be negligent in their duty if they did not 
step into rank with the prohibition 
forces. It is interesting to note the 
forces represented: the Associated 
Charities, the Civic and Commerce As- 
sociation, the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A., 
the settlement houses — Unity, Pillsbury, 
Northeast Neighborhood and Drum- 
mond — the Humane Society, the social 
service workers of the hospitals, the 
Juvenile Protective League, the school 
board, particularly the superintendent of 
schools, several high school principals, 
and supervisors, and the sociological de- 
partment of the state university. 

The attitude of the settlement work- 
ers in this campaign is stated in the 
words of Robbins Oilman, head resi- 
dent of Northeast Neighborhood House: 
"The settlement houses are lining up 
against the saloon, treading the path 
blazed by Robert A. Woods, of South 
End House, Boston, who is one of the 
foremost settlement workers who came 
out unreservedly against the saloon. 
Rid of the saloon and the task of 
Americanizing the conglomerate foreign 
population would be lightened 50 per 
cent. I attribute 75 per cent of the evils 
of society to the liquor traffic." 

Arthur E. Taylor, head resident of 
Pillsbury House stated: "We are 
handling the campaign in the Sixth 
Ward for the dry forces. We have 
been forced into this campaign because 
of the issues involved, and the methods 
used by the liquor men. With us it is 
a question of right and wrong." 

J. W. McCandless, educational secre- 
tary of the Y.M.C.A. who is handling 
the publicity end of the campaign, said : 
"All the social workers have rallied to 
our aid, many of them giving us their 
entire time." 



Disgorging the 
Saloon 

By Paul H. Benjamin 

SECRETARY ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS COMMITTEE 
OF THE MINNEAPOLIS ASSOCIATED CHARITIES 



However, the professional social 
workers are simply a sector of the en- 
veloping circle which is organized along 
as big lines as any presidential cam- 
paign. Others are the Citizen's League 
of Hennepin county, an organization of 
business men, such as ex-Mayor David 
P. Jones and ex-Governor Van Sant ; a 
closely knit league of the clergy, includ- 
ing Catholics and Protestants, 150 of 
whom are nightly giving street speeches; 
a women's league which held a meeting 
in the largest hall in the city, attended 
only by women in such numbers that 
two overflow meetings followed ; and 
an organization of all the Sunday 
schools of the county. 

The social aspects of this campaign, 
in which so many organizations are 
united, are interesting. According to 
the census of 1910, Minneapolis has 
301,408 inhabitants, roughly divided into 
those of Yankee stock and those of 
Scandinavian, there being 96,000 native 
whites, the remainder being either of 
foreign birth or of foreign parentage. 
The Yankee stock is composed of New 
Englanders of Puritan and Revolution- 
ary descent, stern guardians of justice, 
while the Scandinavians are a temperate 
people, hard headed, and susceptible to 
arguments of facts, the other nationali- 
ties, because of their cleavage and the 
small colonies of some of them, are 
more difficult to classify. 

Before this constituency, both sides in 
a campaign more bitter and closer drawn 
than the presidential campaign of 1912. 
have waged a locked-horns fight, the 
campaign in a crude way, perhaps be- 
cause of the type of the constituency, 
being fought on economic grounds. In 
trying to meet such arguments, or rather 
in endeavoring to befog the issue, the 
"wets" have used methods which, if 
they were not so pernicious, would be 
ludicrous. They have literally painted 
the town red with huge bill posters, 
which contain in flaming letters, two 
feet high, such economic truths as: 

"Georgia is a Prohibition state, shall 
wc follow its lead in lawlessness?" 

"If you want to keep Minneapolis wet 
and prosperous and taxes down, vote 
no." 

"Fellow workers if you vote Hennepin 
county dry the workers in the following 
occupations will be thrown out of em- 
ployment and will compete with you for 
your job which will naturally reduce 
your wages." 

Then follows a list of sixty occupa- 



tions, including every conceivable one, 
such as bakers, barbers, blacksmiths, 
bricklayers, carpenters, farmers, paint- 
ers, clerks and bookbinders. 

"Protect your boy by keeping Minne- 
apolis wet." 

"Vote no to prevent locking out 7,00'J 
wage-earners, taking $300,000 from out- 
side sources out of Minneapolis circula- 
tion yearly, adding $600,000 burden to 
the city taxpayers, making vacant 480 
store buildings, taking money belonging 
to Minneapolis to St. Paul" (which is 
not voting on the proposition). 

The "drys" have been unable to get 
an inch of billboard space. The man- 
ager when approached said: "Gentle- 
men, you are too late. The entire space 
was paid for long ago." The head of 
this billboard company is a well-known 
wet. However, the Prohibition forces 
have replied in printed pamphlets, show- 
ing that by the 1910 census there were 
but 322 men in the city engaged as 
brewery workers : that at the large esti- 
mate of three men per saloon there are 
1,200 saloonkeepers and bartenders, less 
than 2,000 that would be affected by 
county option. This "dope" of the liquor 
interests is carried out through the en- 
tire campaign to prove which counties- 
other incidents might be mentioned. 

On the platform the "wets" are claim- 
ing that the patrol limits will be destroy- 
ed under county option. To explain: in 
Minneapolis the saloons are restricted to 
five wards, comprising the downtown 
and foreign districts. In reply to the 
decision of three former judges of the 
supreme and district bench, namely, that 
patrol limits would not be destroyed, 
neither would the keeping and serving 
of liquor in the homes be unlawful, but 
only that the saloon would be banished. 
Paul Fontaine, one of the speakers "with 
a punch" for the "wets" said before a 
gathering of 300 to 400 working men : 
"Tax dodgers are the aristocrats who 
are Prohibitionists. Judges Simpson. 
Jamison and Lancaster belong to that 
class." 

It is not necessary to go minutely into 
the arguments used, for all intense con- 
tests of this kind are fought along simi- 
lar lines. What we are more interested 
in are the methods used. The street 
meetings of the "drys" have been so re- 
peatedly egged, in spite of the fact that 
complaints have been made to the mayor 
for police protection, that each one be- 
comes a hazardous adventure. One as- 
sault on a crowd of ministers was en- 
couraged by a saloonkeeper who came 
from a nearby "joint." The placards on 
small stands, which have been placed 
by the church people in front of their 
homes to counteract the effect of the 
bill-posting campaign carried on by the 
"wets" have been wrecked at dark so 
that the order has been issued that they 
be taken in each night. Further, to hide 
a cloven hoof, the liquor interests have 

[Continued on page S4-] 




Editorials 



EDWARD T. DEVINE 

JANE ADDAMS 
GRAHAM TAYLOR 

Associate Editors 



PAUL U. KELLOGG 
Editor 



KEIR HARDIE 

THE British Labour Party and the inter- 
national Socialist movement lost one of their 
ablest and best known leaders in the death, on Sep- 
tember 26, of Keir Hardie, Scotch miner, labor 
leader and member of Parliament. More impor- 
tant, however, than the loss to a party or a faction 
is what the whole world loses when a man of his 
rare and useful character is taken from his place 
among men. Keir Hardie was a radical without 
bitterness and an idealist with the courage of his 
convictions. 

An experience of the writer's that he will always 
regard as one of the moments of high privilege of 
his life, was a little trip some three ears ago in 
the company of Keir Hardie from London down 
to the district of Merthyr-Tydvil in Wales, which 
he represented in Parliament. As we walked 
through the squalid streets of the steel town of 
Merthyr there seemed to be a sort of wireless 
communication that, blocks ahead of us, informed 
the people "Keir Hardie is coming! Keir Hardie 
is coming!" and they turned out, men, women and 
children — especially the children — to see and to 
salute not the distinguished member of Parlia- 
ment, whom they honored, but the man whom they 
loved. 

On the journey back to London a stop was made 
at Beading where arrangements had been made 
for a meeting in the public square. After the for- 
mal address the people were invited to ask ques- 
tions. Some began to ask about war and. the 
national defense. 

Would Mr. Hardie carry his opposition to war 
so far as to favor disarmament? Surely he would 
not, if he could, weaken the British navy! "If 
the Socialists were to carry an election," replied 
the speaker, "and I were made prime minister, 
my first move would be toward dismantling the 
navy and turning the ships into merchantmen." 
But what if the Empire were attacked? he was ask- 
ed. His answer, in these days of war and slaugh- 
ter, seems like a voice out of a long past. Look- 
ing straight into the face of his questioner the 
white-haired idealist replied: "The only way to 
stop war is to stop preparing for war. Some 
country will have some day the courage and the 
high principle to be the first to disarm. I should 
like that country to be my country. I should be 
willing to take the chance of any other country 
attacking us. I do not for a moment believe that 
any country in the world would be so lost to honor 
and humanity as to do it. ' ' 

And then with simple but tremendous earnest- 



ness came the climax: "I believe that, because I 
believe in Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace. I 
believe that the principles taught by Him are 
bound to prevail." 

That was all. There was a momentary hush, 
and no one asked any more questions about war. 

John A. Fitch. 

CHARLES M. CABOT 

THE death of Charles M. Cabot, of Boston, 
on September 5 removed an irrepressible — 
a fairly irreplacable — figure from the field of so- 
cial advance in industry. Mr. Cabot's will, since 
made public in Boston, discloses what was un- 
known to his associates in industrial reforms, that 
he had devised a trust fund of $50,000 to carry 
forward the movement he started [See p. 33.] 

If one were looking for analogies in civic life 
to the part which this Boston stockholder played 
in the affairs of the greatest employing corpora- 
tion in the United States, he would have to go 
back of the period of surveys, municipal research, 
graft exposures, civil service reform and good 
government campaigns, back to a period when, 
single-handed, some citizen in some city had the 
effrontery to put it up to his fellow voters that they 
themselves were responsible by their action or in- 
action for the human conditions in their town. 

In March, 1908, a preliminary report on the 
general housing conditions in Pittsburgh was 
made by the Pittsburgh Survey and distributed 
by the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce. One 
paragraph dealt with conditions in Painter's 
Row, an old mill property which had come into 
possession of the Carnegie Steel Company be- 
fore the formation of the United States Steel 
Corporation. Collier's Weekly seized on the para- 
graph as a text for an editorial, written by Ar- 
thur H. Gleason, now an ambulance man on the 
Belgian front. This editorial came under the eye 
of Mr. Cabot, and his protest at the steel cor- 
poration's headquarters in New York brought 
from there a memorandum from the officers of 
the Carnegie company, so favorable as to condi- 
tions at Painter's Row, that he felt justified in 
criticizing the editors of Collier's for their appar- 
ently unwarranted statements. They in turn call- 
ed upon The Survey to make good. In support of 
the paragraph which was but a few lines long, full 
details of how things stood at Painter's Row were 
transmitted by the investigator, Elizabeth Crow- 
ell. Mr. Cabot was aroused, convinced and in po- 
sition to lodge another protest, this time with the 
facts behind it. 

27 



28 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



There were twenty-seven basement and cellar 
kitchens, dark, unsanitary, ill ventilated; and 
twenty-two families without the first elementary 
convenience for sanitation. Mill water was piped 
out to the rows but not a single house in the en- 
tire settlement had drinking water. There was 
an absentee water supply — an old pump in the 
mill yard 360 steps from the farthest apartment, 
down 75 stairs — the sole source of drinking water 
for 91 households, comprising 568 persons. 

The investigator had talked with one mother, 
whose two rooms on the top floor were spotless, 
and whose children were well looked after. Day 
after day and many times a day she carried water 
up and down that her home and her children might 
be kept decent and clean. "I looked at her bent 
shoulders, gaunt arms and knotted hands," wrote 
Miss Crowell. "Work aplenty — necessary work 
— there always was and will be for her to do, but 
those shoulders, arms and hands had to strain 
laboriously over unnecessary work as well.' 
"God, Miss," said she, "but them stairs is bad!" 

It is to be said that in the last five years there 
has been a sanitary revolution in the properties 
in the United States Steel Corporation. They 
have spent hundreds of thousands of dollars on 
washrooms and toilets and on water supply in 
their plants; they have rehabilitated mining 
camps and laid out the framework of modern mill 
communities. But that mother with her aching 
back and the stockholder who took up her cause 
are to be reckoned as factors in the history of 
these changes, as well as the progressive bent of 
the executives who have carried it forward. 

AT Painters' Row, combined pressure from 
stockholder and local health bureau 
brought three rows of houses down within the year 
and radical improvements in other directions. 
This measure of results, led Mr. Cabot to interest 
himself in other labor conditions under the cor- 
poration in which he was an infinitesimal owner. 
He gave a fund to The Survey which enabled us 
to send John A. Fitch on an investigation of steel 
centers in Alabama, New York, Pennsylvania, Il- 
linois and Colorado. On the other hand, as an 
individual, Mr. Cabot set out to make his wishes 
known at headquarters and to bestir his fellow 
stockholders. 

In 1907 the executive officials of the Steel Cor- 
poration had issued a Sunday rest order. It was 
a dead letter till 1910, when it was put into effect 
as a result of the determined stand inside the 
corporation of William B. Dickson, then first vice- 
president. The pressure of outside public opin- 
ion helped secure its enforcement. The telegram 
which called for its observance was sent out from 
New York at the time of Mr. Cabot's first con- 
ference at 71 Broadway. This cut down un- 
necessary Sunday labor, and the seven-day week 
in the continuous processes was dealt a smashing 
blow soon after by Mr. Dickson in a speech at the 
first meeting of the newly organized American 
Tron and Steel Institute. As a result, a committee 
of the institute recommended to all steel companies 
a schedule by which every man was to gel one day 
of rest in seven. 



One of Mr. Cabot 's first efforts as an individual 
stockholder was to circulate among his fellow- 
stockholders reprints of an article by Mr. Fitch 
in the American Magazine dealing with labor con- 
ditions [March, 1911]. This plan the adminis- 
tration first assented to and then refused. Mr. 
Cabot started suit to enforce what he conceived 
to be his rights as a stockholder to have access 
to the lists and communicate with other stockhold- 
ers. The case was compromised by acceding to 
a plan by which Mr. Cabot did not send out this 
particular article, but sent out a statement by 
Mr. Fitch on the twelve-hour day to some 15,000 
names. This pamphlet showed that in the con- 
tinuous processes in steel making — open hearth, 
hlast furnaces and the rest — the plants are run the 
twenty-four hours through, that choice must be 
made between two shifts of twelve hours each, or 
three shifts of eight hours each. There is no 
third alternative of nine or ten hours. 

Mr. Cabot put this choice up to his fellow stock- 
holders and asked them to write their views to 
him or to Judge Gary. The replies were meager 
in number, but significant in point of view. Six- 
teen per cent were non-committal ; 36 per cent un- 
favorable to Mr. Cabot's proposal but 48 per cent 
of the stockholders replying came out for a reduc- 
tion of hours. 

Meanwhile, Mr. Cabot presented himself at the 
annual meeting of the Steel Corporation in April. 
1911, and on his motion, acquiesced in by Judge 
Gary, a stockholders' committee of five was ap- 
pointed to investigate as to the truth of the state- 
ments contained in the article in the American 
Magazine which had been held up in the courts. 
Stuyvesant Fish was chairman of this committee ; 
Charles L. Taylor, chairman of the Carnegie Hero 
Fund, and an experienced steel man, a member; 
and William H. Matthews, former headworker of 
Kingsley House, Pittsburgh, secretary. 

This committee brought in the next year a re- 
markable report. They reviewed the development 
of safety measures, accident relief, sanitation and 
other welfare activities of the Steel Corporation : 
they expressed the belief that the final solution 
of labor relations had not been reached in the cor- 
poration's anti-union policy; they approved in 
general the bonus system, but felt that the scheme 
of distribution among all whose labor contributed 
to increase in production was a subject calling for 
consideration and action; they pointed out that 
the seven-day week had been relegated to the past : 
they prophesied the eventual abolishment of the 
twelve-hour day, and put it up to the administra- 
tion to take steps to bring about the reduction of 
the long hours of labor. 

A year later the administrative officers, to whom 
this problem was referred, reported that the Steel 
Corporation was unable to reduce the twelve-hour 
day unless its competitors would do likewise. The 
stalemate thus reached on this point — that the 
largest and most powerful corporation in the conn 
try protested that it could not cut down the twelve- 
hour day single-handed was, if nothing more, a 
challenge to action by government or by enlighten 
ed stockholders in all companies; for it set the 



Editorials 



29 



problem unequivocably of striking a new balance 
between dividends and decent hours. That is the 
type of issue which in the future stockholders can- 
aot dodge. It is the type of decision which Mr. 
Cabot believed ought to be put up to them along 
with financial statements. 

In the years of financial depression this stock- 
holder's movement in the Steel Corporation has 
slowed down, but the challenge still stands. 

Only last July Mr. Cabot wrote that he was for 
making a live issue of the twelve-hour day as 
soon as the industrial conditions improved. He 
wrote : 

''Evidences of reaction are appearing all over the country. 
These evidences will, I believe, become stronger and more 
numerous, and we must not allow them to govern. Let's keep at 
it, but let's be very careful and make each step count." 

And it was evidently with the intention of fol- 
lowing up the beginnings of the last five years 
whatever befel himself, that he set aside his pub- 
lic bequest. In describing its scope, he said : 

"Without intending to limit the discretion of said board by a 
definition, I suggest as illustrating such general character and ob- 
jects that said fund be used to procure or encourage or promote 
the investigation and study of industrial conditions in this coun- 
try and in the publication of the results of such investigation and 
study to the end that industrial abuses and hardships of indus- 
trial laborers may be known and remedied." 

MR. CABOT was cordial in recognizing the 
advances made in sanitation and safety 
in the steel industry. He believed in tackling the 
seven-day week and the twelve-hour day as 
the first steps in getting freedom and leis- 
ure for the men; but back of all these 
lay an ingrained reaction against the re- 
pressive measures resorted to by the steel mana- 
gers to keep out unionism, and the general spirit 
of fear of one's neighbor which that engendered 
among the workmen of the steel districts. These 
things were to him elementary ; they were germane 
to his status as a part owner in the business — to 
the stewardship of all stockholders in all corpora- 
tions. Otherwise, to his mind we might see the 
perfection of administrative industry and the con- 
servation of a fat, busy and unwounded working 
population — at cost of a shriveled democracy. 

It would be difficult for any other to fill Mr. 
Cabot's shoes as a militant stockholder. The sur- 
prisingness of the man was one of his most en- 
gaging characteristics — and one of the most 
alarming to those who opposed his agitation. He 
was a David with pebbles of a hundred shapes for 
his sling; with outstanding intrepidity in using 
them, with that rare courage that can face ridi- 
cule and disparagement. In his first interview 
with Judge Gary he introduced himself as a "dam' 
fool small stockholder." Some of his fellow stock- 
holders to whom he put the case for the men 
emptied upon him their vocabularies of sarcasm 
and denunciation. Others there were who re- 
sponded with cordiality and interest, and in his 
stockholders' movement we have without question 
the most practical experiment yet made toward de- 
veloping a new social responsibility under absentee 
capitalism. And among those who knew labor con- 
ditions first-hand and from different angles, Mr. 
Cabot won respect. 

"T am sorry to hear of Mr. Cabot's death," writes a militant 



civic leader of Pittsburgh. "He was a fine courageous man, the 
type we need." 

"While I often disagreed with him as to the way in which he 
went about things," writes an official of a steel corporation, "I 
recognized his courage, determination and unselfishness of pur- 
pose. He was certainly a good fighter and we came to get on 
together very well, even though we struck sparks at intervals 
in our interviews." 

But perhaps the most pertinent tribute is that 
of the foremost investigator in another great in- 
dustrial field, who writes : 

"I am distressed to know of Mr. Cabot's death. His part had 
been so peculiarly his own. He was so adapted to play it. I am 
afraid it will be hard to find anybody to do just what he could 
and would have done." 

It must needs be harder still for a committee to 
cany forward what was so essentially a dramatic 
and personal contribution to the sum of things. 
But they can endeavor to give momentum and per- 
manence to some of those forces for improved 
labor conditions which his initiative set free. 



Social Forces 



By EDWARD T. DEVINE 



THE HARM OF LOW WAGES 

TWO disasters in one week in the course of 
the construction of New York's subway, 
causing scores of serious injuries and the loss of 
eight lives, give additional point to the profane 
question quoted in an article in this number of 
The Survey: How in hell can a man live and sup- 
port his family on the dollar and a half a day 
offered on this very job to common labor? 

We do not know at this writing whether public 
officials or the contractors or an engineer or a 
foreman or a laborer made the fatal blunder. 
We need not inquire here into the compensation 
of officials or contractors or engineers or fore- 
men. What we know for certain is that the com- 
mon laborer who received a dollar and a half a 
day or even the dollar and sixty or seventy-five 
cents to which the wage has recently been raised 
is underpaid and there appears to be much jus- 
tification for the denunciation by the Central 
Federated Union of the employment of "cheap, 
unskilled and incompetent labor," and for their 
prophecy — fulfilled in a measure by the second 
accident — that such cave-ins are liable to happen 
at any moment "where subway work is being 
done under like conditions." 

There are two possible ways of securing intel- 
ligent, responsible and efficient labor. One is that 
favored by the Federal Commission on Indus- 
trial Belations and suggested by the Central Fed- 
erated Union in the resolutions from which we 
have quoted: the way of trade unionism, the em- 
ployment of only skilled union men, working un- 
der union conditions, the union itself being re- 
sponsible for keeping up an adequate supply of 
competent labor. The other is that championed 
perhaps most conspicuously of late by the Bocke- 
feller interests in Colorado mines and elsewhere: 



30 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



the way of the employer who refuses to recog- 
nize unions and shoulders the whole responsibil- 
ity for each separate individual wage contract, 
counting on getting the best men by paying the 
highest wages and making the conditions accept- 
able to individual workmen. 

Both plans can show instances of success. As 
long as laborers, like other people, differ among 
themselves, some working well in combination, 
others preferring to do the best they can for 
themselves, it may be possible to build up an in- 
dustry on either plan. Which plan would win in 
a direct competition on full and equal terms is a 
question on which there is still room for difference 
of opinion. 

GONTRACTOES who offer workingmen in 
New York city a dollar and a half a day 
for such employment as digging the subway are 
following neither of these two comparatively en- 
lightened policies. They are simply exploiting a 
cheap labor supply. They are taking advautage 
of the unemployment of men and the employment 
of wives and children. They are paying a wage 
on which a homeless hobo may live in the back 
room of a saloon, in a mission shelter, or a free 
municipal lodging-house, but on which the head 
of a family cannot provide shelter, clothing and 
food on any standard of living which will stand 
public scrutiny. They are undermining the health 
of employes and their families, depriving them of 
the most simple nourishing food, creating appli- 
cants for relief agencies, hospitals, and the chil- 
dren's court. They are shameless parasites on 
the community to the extent, for every laborer 
they employ, of nearly one-half the nine hundred 
dollars which it costs an average family to live in 
New York city. 

For this contractors are responsible in the 
first instance, but they are doing only what 
they are allowed to do by the public officials who 
determine the conditions of their contract. It is 
no oversight, but a deliberate policy, adopted 
after public hearings and full discussion, that 
contractors are permitted to buy their labor 
on whatever terms they can and will. The 
legislature also and even a constitutional con- 
vention have thus far refused to interfere. 
This reluctance of legislature and local bodies to 
interfere with a free labor contract is quite intel- 
ligible. Freedom of contract is a principle dear 
to us from hard struggles in the past to secure 
its advantages. But unrestricted freedom of 
contract, like freedom of speech, or of manufac- 
ture and sale, has its limitations which must be 
determined by a study of its results. In 
sweated industries it has worked badly. In the 
case of children it has worked atrociously. Even 
in some industries which employ only adults it is 
very much on the defensive. When it becomes a 
question of public work, and the community itself 
becomes the exploiter, either directly or through 
contractors, the case for interference, for estab- 
lishing reasonable conditions of the wage con- 
tract as an integral feature of the public con- 
tract, becomes irresistible. No doubt this will 



increase the cost of the work and so perhaps at 
least temporarily increase taxation. The alterna- 
tives are such privations as lead to the lowering 
of standards of living, contributions for charitable 
relief, and taxation for the support of children in 
institutions. 

EXCEPT in a few states we are not yet gen- 
erally converted in this country to the idea 
of establishing minimum wages in private iudus- 
tries by law. There is in fact considerable hos- 
tility to this idea even on the part of organized 
labor. Official labor leaders prefer that working- 
men should be accustomed to rely on the unions 
rather than on the legislature or on wage com- 
missions for protection, and apprehension is ex- 
pressed that there will be a tendency for mini- 
mum wages to become standard and so eventually 
maximum wages. Unorganized labor from the 
nature of the case is inarticulate, and organized 
labor, which is in a sense its competing rival, 
takes on itself a considerable responsibility in 
opposing minimum wage legislation for the pro- 
tection of low paid unorganized labor. Prob- 
ably the threat of organized labor to oppose the 
adoption of the new constitution in New York if 
it contained the minimum wage amendment was 
largely responsible for its defeat. Under these 
circumstances it would seem to be highly import- 
ant to organize as quickly as possible the trades 
which such legislation might have benefitted and 
to raise wages in them by the methods which 
trade unionists prefer. 

We are not now considering, however, the mer- 
its of the legal minimum as a remedy for low 
wages. At best it is a desperate remedy, justified 
only when there is clear evidence that other meth- 
ods are not operative to prevent exploitation. 
Public opinion itself is one method, sometimes the 
most effective of all, to stamp out an obvious in- 
justice. It will require no extended argument to 
persuade public opinion that thirty-nine dollars a 
month is too little to pay any class of laborers 
employed on a great public undertaking from 
which the whole community is to benefit for gen- 
erations to come. On that income families can- 
not live decently, children cannot be nurtured into 
good citizenship, immigrants cannot themselves 
be made into desirable citizens, and the work 
itself cannot be well done. 

The subway offers the text but the lesson has 
a far wider application. Low wages have recent- 
ly been declared by an official investigating com- 
mission to be the chief cause of industrial unrest. 
In this obvious, but nevertheless much neglected, 
conclusion, the commission is right. The cure fol- 
low wages is not to be found in any simple off- 
hand formula. It is bound up in the whole social 
and industrial problem. It involves efficiency 
and organization and agitation and action. Bur 
just now, in these particular employments in 
which the public has an undoubtedly legitimate 
interest, in those instances in which there is a 
demonstrable discrepancy between income and 
necessary living expenses, it is mainly a question 
of action. 



Censorship 



31 



CENSORSHIP 

[Continued from page 14.] 

National Board of Censorship with the 
organization and relations of any con- 
ceivable legal board, we will suspect 
that what such an agency of censorship 
has not done and knows cannot be done, 
no revival of the star-chamber or of 
legal censorship for motion-pictures is 
likely to do. 






With the above our discussion of cen- 
sorship comes to a close. The final 
articles of this series will be devoted 
wholly to those measures of a construc- 
tive nature which are designed to place 
the theater in a radically changed rela- 
tion to the community and to society. 
The writer's own final feeling about cen- 
sorship may be summed up in the follow- 
ing words : 

1. Censorship is impracticable and 
dangerous because the means involved 
are too crude for the ends sought; are 
indeed largely unrelated to the ends 
sought ; and because the indirect damage 
of censorship infinitely exceeds the di- 
rect good which may be accomplished. 

Fundamentally, the theater, while 
truly an agent of preventive morality in 
one of its aspects, is in another aspect 
just as truly an agent of necessary ad- 
venture — an agent of challenge, of con- 
flict, even of revolution. The challenge 
of the old and the institution of the 
new are a responsibility of the drama, 
no less than is the inculcation of accept- 
ed virtues; and the former will always 
be the more difficult responsibility for 
the reason that the mass of men are 
normally hostile to innovation, particu- 
larly in the moral field. As for the po- 
litical, economic and religious fields 
which are traversed by the theater, there 
are in each of them powerful vested in- 
terests hostile to innovation. Unpopu- 
lar propagandas peculiarly require the 
aid of the theater. An idea that is once 
publicly dramatized is through that very 
fact given a social entree; for as we 
have already pointed out, drama is in 
its essential nature a collective utter- 
ance. A secret belief or private pro- 
test or hope, when pleaded in the the- 
ater, becomes through that fact a part 
of public opinion. 

These are considerations which pro- 
vide constant temptation to institute 
censorship of the theater; they indicate 
the danger of theatrical censorship to 
society; they make of the theater, from 
the standpoint of democracy, a tre- 
mendously important, even a sacred in- 
stitution. The theater is an institution 
for the development of the new world- 
views; such development is possibly the 
supreme contribution of our present age 
to human history. To no censor — to no 
conceivable agent of government or 
extra-governmental power — dare we 
commit the censorship of this process 
of spiritual revolution. 

2. The underlying presumption of cen- 




The Man in the Multitude 



That the human voice may 
be transmitted across our con- 
tinent by telephone is the marvel 
of this age of wonders. Yet the 
full significance of the achieve- 
ment is not realized if it is con- 
sidered strictly as a coast-to-coast 
connection. 

The Transcontinental Line 
not only bridges the country 
from east to west, but, by having 
finally overcome the great bar- 
rier of distance, it has removed 
the last limitation of telephone 
communication between all the 
people of the nation. 

This means that the voice 
can be sent not only from New 
York to San Francisco, but from 
anywhere to anywhere — even 
from any one to any one — in the 
United States. 



Wherever you are, it is pos- 
sible to reach any one of our 
hundred million population. 
You can single out from this 
vast throng any particular in- 
dividual with whom you desire 
to speak. 

To bring this about, the Bell 
System has spent years and 
millions, extending its lines 
everywhere, anticipating the ul- 
timate triumph. It has had the 
foresight and the courage to 
unite this great country, com- 
munity by community, into one 
telephone neighborhood. 

With success achieved by 
the Transcontinental Line, the 
established Bell highways make 
you, wherever you are, the near 
neighbor of your farthest-away 
fellow citizen. 



American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

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32 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



CONSTRUCTIVE THINKING 

that throws valuable light on social problems 




CHRISTIAN EQUIVALENT OF WAR 



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D. WILLARD LYON 

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FAMILY AND SOCIAL WORK Clolh . 60 

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girls desires position. Can give highest cre- 
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or composition. University grade. Address 
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sorship — the presumption that protection 
is the controlling need of the people — is 
a mistaken one. The people most of all 
need not protection but life. "That they 
may have life in greater abundance" : 
This is the last moral command. The 
only moral protection that is ultimately 
possible, for those who must go their 
ways in the modern free-moving world, 
is knowledge and life. 

Is it too much to suggest that the 
lifting of taboos, the bold facing out of 
realities and of points of view, especi- 
ally in the sphere of sexual interest, is 
needed no less urgently than the spread- 
ing of moral precepts? It could be 
argued, if space permitted, that such a 
lifting of taboos is a necessary pre- 
liminary to the work, which must some- 
how be performed, of draining off our 
vast racial impurity. Censorship, even 
in the unconstrained hands of the Na- 
tional Board of Censorship, finds it ex- 
tremely hard to do other than re-affirm 
or shift the prevailing popular taboos. 

3. The present article contains full 
statement of the belief that censorship, 
or some kind of artificial control, at 
least of film programs, is necessary for 
the time being because of the artificial 
conditions prevailing in the film art and 
to some extent throughout the field of 
the theater. To change these injurious 
conditions fundamentally, we must look 
not to censorship but to the civic theater 
movement, the development of sundry 
co-operative methods for the taking over 
of the theater by the people; to the 
growth of pageantry and of drama in 
education, and, in the motion picture 
field, to the establishment of new links 
connecting the producer of films in a 
new way with the exhibitor and his 
audience. Already a certain number 
of large playhouses are able to select 
their films, but fully 80 per cent of the 
picture theaters in America are below 
the dead line, so to say — are practically 
not free to choose their own programs. 
The various methods, including the 
method of a co-operative or public film 
library, which sooner or later may liber- 
ate the film art from stereotyped com- 
mercialism, will be discussed in the next 
article. 

4. No matter what developments the 
future holds, public drama will always 
be subject to the police power of the 
cities and state. The preceding article 
of this series was largely devoted to a 
discussion of the advantages to be found 
in a control by the method of licensing 
playhouses rather than censoring plays. 
In many cities there have already been 
created auxiliary agencies, voluntary in 
character, which strengthen and guide 
the licensing authorities. A simple case 
in point is to be found in Memphis. 
Tennessee. Here a group of three vol- 
unteers, appointed by the mayor, regu- 
larly visit the motion picture theaters, 
advise with the mayor and check up and 
criticise the results of the national 
board. Boston, San Francisco. Mil- 



Censorship 



33 



vvaukee and New York city successfully 
use their licensing power, finding its 
method preferable in all ways to that of 
compulsory censorship. And the pres- 
ent article may well close with a cur- 
rent quotation from the Philadelphia 
Evening Ledger, which will serve to link 
the suggestions here made with the full 
discussion in the preceding article of this 
series : 

"The courts of Alleghany County 
have, in a recent decision nullified the 
police rights of Pennsylvania cities. By 
declaring that the State Board of Cen- 
sors for Moving Pictures is the final au- 
thority, they have taken away the funda- 
mental power of each city to govern it- 
self. The court has decided that when 
a film has passed the censors it cannot 
be stopped by the police. The full effect 
of this decision is to tie the hands of 
individuals and to deliver the cities 
bound and gagged into the hands of the 
board (of censors). There was almost 
a riot on Broad street last night, yet the 
police were without authority to forbid 
the exhibition of the pictures to which 
objection was made. Irrespective of the 
merits or demerits of the particular 
show, it is apparent that the city is 
placed in an intolerable situation." 



The Cabot Fund 

Excerpts from the Will of 

the Late Charles M. 

Cabot of Boston 

[See Page 27] 



"I give, devise, bequeath and appoint 
a Trust Fund No. 5 to said Philip Cabot 
and his successors as trustee. This fund 
is to be of the amount of fiftv thousand 
dollars ($50,000) to be held in trust to 
apply the same to such charitable uses 
as shall be appointed by a board of 
three managers hereinafter described 
but always and only for such charitable 
uses for the public benefit as are allow- 
ed and can be sustained by law of the 
general character and for the general 
objects hereinafter described. Without 
intending to limit the discretion of said 
board by a definition I suggest, as illus- 
trating such general character and ob- 
jects, that said fund be used to procure 
or encourage or promote the investiga- 
tion and study of industrial conditions 
in this country and in the publication of 
the results of such investigation and 
study to the end that industrial abuses 
and hardships of industrial laborers may 
be known and remedied. 

"Such board of managers may in their 
discretion appoint and apply said fund 
in whole or in part directly for the 
charitable use or uses determined upon 
by them or they may appoint said fund 
upon trusts for such charitable use or 
uses in whole or in part to an individual 
trustee or trustees or to any charitable 



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34 



The Survey, October 2, 1915 



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or other corporation or body organized 
or to be organized for purposes which 
include the charitable purposes which 
they wish to see carried out. 

"The trustee for the time being shall 
be a member of said board of managers. 
In case of vacancy in the trusteeship by 
death or otherwise the new trustee shall 
be nominated by the surviving member 
or members of said board of managers. 
In case of a vacancy in the board of 
managers by death or otherwise in one 
of the two positions other than that 
filled by the trustee such vacancy shall be 
filled by the surviving members or mem- 
ber of said board by appointment in 
writing filed in the probate court in 
which this trust is administered. In 
case of vacancies in both positions other 
than that of the trustee the trustee shall 
fill one vacancy and the trustee and the 
person so appointed shall fill the other 
vacancy. The trustee and managers of 
this trust shall be allowed proper com- 
pensation for their services out of the 
fund and the trustee's compensation as 
manager may be in addition to his com- 
pensation as trustee. 

"The whole fund shall be expended and 
this trust terminated within a period of 
forty years after my death or within 
twenty years after the death of my last 
surviving child whichever date shall fall 
first. 

"The first members of said board shall 
be Paul U. Kellogg of the city, county 
and state of New York, Edward T. 
Devine of New Rochelle, New York and 
said Philip Cabot as trustee." 

DISGORGING THE 
SALOON 

[Continued from page 26.] 

rallied under the euphonious title of the 
Business Men's Educational League. 

Both sides admit that the crux of the 
issue rests with the workingman. It is 
conceded that the bulk of the Scandina- 
vian vote will be cast for county option. 
The rest of the laboring vote is prob- 
lematical. The manufactured arguments 
of the "wets" that the city will be in 
the throes of a financial panic in case 
the county goes dry, that taxes will 
jump, that all trades will be faced with 
starvation and unemployment, that pro- 
hibition is an infringement of personal 
rights, that St. Paul will became the 
metropolis of Minnesota have put even 
the sober laboring man in a panicky 
state of mind. However, the clear facts 
and common-sense logic presented by 
the "drys" have forced a wedge into the 
workingmen. At a meeting of 400 work- 
ingmen, gathered to hear the paragon 
of the "wets," "Jim" Robertson, a former 
county attorney and a teetotaller (ac- 
cording to himself) the writer was 
struck by the derision of the men for 
the flimsy arguments used. 

Although ostensibly a local contest, 
both sides feel its national and strategic 
importance: for Minneapolis, if county 
option passes, would be the largest city 
in the world to go dry under normal con- 
ditions, and capable of swinging the 
whole Northwest into prohibition. 



tf 






SOKGW 




Discovering Pennsylvania 

Responsibility for the Eastland 

Community Cost of a Powder Mill 

Saving Infant Eyesight 



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illillllllllllllll 







DKIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIKIIHIIHIIIilllli 






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Price 10 Cents 



October 9, 1915 



Volume XXXV, No. 2 











SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

D I] D f 1 c Li r,- i> e 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

105 East 22d Street Robert w deForest. President 2559 Michigan Ave. 

New York Arthur P. Kellogg. Secretary Frank Tucker, Treasurer Chicago 











Vol. XXXV, No. 2 



Contents 



October g, 1915 



THB COMMON WELFARE 

SCOTT NEARING IN COLLEGE OPENING WEEK 

MINIMUM WAGE IN THE DEPARTMENT STORES 

RELIGIOUS WORK SHOWN AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION ... 

"DID THEY GET ANY OF YOUR MONEY?" 

DR. DAVIS' FIRST YEAR "ON THE ISLAND" 

BRINGING IN THE SHEAVES 

NEW COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE CRIME 

WHAT WAR ORDERS MEAN TO A RURAL TOWN .... 

THE PEAK, a poem Mary Carolyn Davies 

CONTRIBUTRD ARTICLES 

DISCOVERING PENNSYLVANIA Emily S. Johnson 

SAVING THE SIGHT OF BABIES ....... Carolyn C. Van Blarcom 

HELD TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EASTLAND Graham Taylor 

"NOW I DARE TO DO IT" Crystal Eastman Benedict 

PERSONALS 

Eunice Eckhart, George L. Sprague, Robert D. Dripps, Anna Rochester, Benjamin Stickney Cable 
LITTLE DIALOGUES OF A BIG CITY Walter Leo Solomon 

SOCIAL AGENCIES 

SCHOOL BELLS RING FOR 22 MILLION 

JOHNS HOPKINS COURSES FOR SOCIAL WORKERS 

WHERE "LITTLE WANDERERS" IN NEW ENGLAND FIND REST 

ILLINOIS TO CONTINUE THE HONOR SYSTEM 

THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH 

HARVARD COURSES ON PLAY AND RECREATION 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Applied History Vols. I and II (Horack and others) and History of Social Legislation in Iowa (Briggs) 
Charles W. Flint. What Every Mother Should Know (Kerley) G. S. The American Negro (McCord) 
Celia Parker Woolley. Profitable Vocations for Boys (Weaver and Byler) Alvin E. Dodd 



CONFERENCES 

COMMUNICATIONS 

JOTTINGS 



53 



55 



Price 



Single copies of this issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular 
subscriptions $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Issued weekly. 
Changes of address should he mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing 
commercial practice when payment is by check a receipt will lie sent only upon request. 



ENTERED AS SE 



i, BY SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC 
ME POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK 











MAKING THE SICK WOi 

In one county of New York state 1 ,600 cases of 
ness occured in 16 months. The patients lost 41,244 d 
was more loss than the county could afford, so the sick 
at work. Their job was to lie down and be countec 
the facts as to the extent, cost and care of sickness, oi 
county program of prevention could be drafted. 

In other words, the first report of 

THE DUTCHESS COUNTY SUR 

A feature of the The Survey for October 1 6- 

NEXT WEEK 


RK 

serious ill- 
ays. That 
were put 
1 — to give 
i which a 

VEY 











The GIST Of IT- 
BEGINNING New Year's day, a schedule 
of minimum wages for women and 
minors employed in department stores will 
go into effect in Massachusetts. Page 35. 

SCOTT NEARING is to give a course of 
lectures under the auspices of the Bal- 
timore Social Service Corporation. Page 35. 

£) R. DAVIS' report on the first quarter 
of her four-year sentence to the De- 
partment of Correction. Page 36. 

gTATUTE law alone will not give sight 
to blind babies. In spite of it, the num- 
ber of children admitted to schools for the 
blind scarcely changes year by year. The 
need is for health departments to secure 
reports of every birth and be equipped with 
nurses and hospital wards to treat every 
first symptom of coming darkness. Page 
43. 

PLACING responsibility for the loss of 
the Eastland is now in the hands of the 
courts. A review of the situation and of 
Secretary Redfield's complaint of summary 
treatment. Pages 45 and 55. 

"y HE annual report of the Bureau of Ed- 
ucation on the 22 million Americans 
who went to school and college last year 
bristles with figures. In fact the only sta- 
tistics lacking appear to be the amount of 
soap and water used to achieve so many 
"shining morning faces." Page 49. 

DR. ALETTA JACOBS tells how she 
plucked up courage to call the 
Woman's Peace Congress at The Hague. 
Page 46. 

JOHNS HOPKINS University and Gou- 
•* cher College have established courses 
for social workers which give Baltimore a 
school of civics and philanthropy. Page 
49. 

J-J ARVARD has signed Joseph Lee and 
George E. Johnson as a team to teach 
play and recreation. Page 49. 

JNDUSTRIAL hygiene held a prominent 
place in the discussions of the American 
Public Health Association. Page 53. 

SOUTH CAROLINA'S State Conference 
of Charities showed a temper that will 
not much longer brook sending wayward 
girls to the penitentiary and loosing the 
mentally unfit on society. Page 53. 

W/'HEN a girl grows up — graduates from 
college and turns from ancient histon 
to modern — looks into the way her menfolk 
have run things, she makes such discoveries 
in the American commonwealth as Lord 
Bryce never dreamed of, good man that he 
is. There's "the stupid prehistoric monster" 
of her town government, the control of the 
bosses, and at the bottom of all else the 
brewery money, which is sheer waste and 
bound to go. The direct primary was the 
beginning of the end of money in elections, 
and votes for women will finish rubbing 
the dollar marks off the ballot. Page 39. 



%' 





mmmm 



ihmmi 




SCOTTi NEARING IN COLLEGE 
OPENING WEEK 

When the University of Penn- 
sylvania opened last week Scott Near- 
ing was absent from his customary 
place on the faculty of the Wharton 
School of Finance and Commerce, but 
the week brought forth two interesting 
announcements concerning him. 

The first announcement is that he is 
to deliver in Baltimore a ^course of six 
free public lectures on present industrial 
conditions and problems. They are to 
be given under the auspices of the Social 
Service Corporation and a community 
committee made up of some fifty social 
workers and representatives of civic and 
improvement associations, labor unions, 
city and state departments, public and 
private schools, and churches of all de- 
nominations. 

The second is of the early publication 
of a book, the Nearing Case, by Light- 
ner Witmer, head of the Department 
of Psychology of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. The announcement by the 
publisher, B. W. Huebsch, states that Dr. 
Witmer "has prepared a complete state- 
ment of what led up to Dr. Nearing's 
dismissal and the facts in all their ramifi- 
cations," and that the book "contains 
practically the indictment, the evidence, 
the arguments and many interesting 
documents, among them the now historic 
letter from Dr. Nearing to Billy Sunday 
which, according to some, led to the 
trustees' action." 

The Baltimore lectures will be given 
on six successive Monday evenings be- 
ginning November 15. They follow on 
the initial course in the Social Recon- 
struction Series under the Social Service 
Corporation, given last year by Edward 
T. Devine. John Daniels, director of 
the corporation, says of the Nearing 
lectures: 

"Mr. Devine's six lectures on The 
Normal Life, which are now published 
in book form under that title, drew 
audiences of as many as 1,700 people. 
They layed a broad foundation for more 
specialized courses in subsequent years. 
There was general agreement that in- 
dustrial conditions would be the most 
timely, interesting and profitable subject 
for this year, in view both of the con- 
stantly growing public attention which 
industrial problems are receiving, and of 

Volume XXXV, No. 2 



the unprecendented questions raised by 
the European war. Dr. Nearing was 
selected as the lecturer after an inquiry 
extending over several months and cov- 
ering the entire country. 

"Before deciding upon Dr. Nearing, 
the committee in charge looked very 
carefully into the circumstances of his 
non-reappointment on the University of 
Pennsylvania faculty last spring, and the 
resulting debate which has attracted the 
interest of the whole country. Without 
going into the general question, I may 
say that the committee found nothing 
which made it feel that Dr. Nearing was 
in any way disqualified for the Baltimore 
lectures, or that it would in any way be 
unwise to invite him to deliver them. 

"The title which he has chosen for his 
course is The Industrial Regime: a dis- 
cussion of the Relation between Indus- 
trialism and Human Well-being. The 
scope of the lectures is indicated by 
their titles: The Man and the Machine. 
The Laborer and His Hire, Industrial 
Leadership, Poverty, Riches, and Indus- 
trial Democracy. As a whole, the lec- 
tures should constitute a notable survey 
and analysis of the outstanding features 
of the industrial situation of today, and 
an indication of the direction in which 
fundamental and lasting progress is to 
be achieved." 



York Times 




M 



INIMUM WAGE IN THE DE- 
PARTMENT STORE 



THE WATCHERS 



Department store employes 
are the third class of workers in Massa- 
chusetts to benefit by the minimum wage 
law. As in the case of the brush and 
laundry industries, the Massachusetts 
Minimum Wage Commission has voted 
to accept the recommendations of a 
wages' board which has just submitted 
rates for women and minors employed in 
retail stores. The new schedule will go 
into effect January 1, 1916, the date set 
by the board. 

The minimum wage rate proposed for 
the pay envelope of a woman employe 
is $8.50 a week for those who, after 
reaching the age of eighteen, have had 
one year's experience in a retail store. 
The minimum wage for inexperienced 
workers.aged eighteen or older, is $7 a 
week ; for a minor between seventeen 
and eighteen, $6 a week ; and for a 
minor under seventeen, $5 a week. 

These rates, as stated in the report 
of the board, are for full-time work, by 
which is meant the full number of hours 
per week required by employers and per- 
mitted by law. Extra or part-time work- 
ers shall receive at least the same scale 
of pay pro rata for the time actually 
employed. If compensation is deter- 
mined or supplemented by commissions 
on sales bonus, premium or other meth- 
ods, there must be a guarantee and pay- 
ment of the full weekly rate. 

"It has not seemed necessary," de- 
clares the board assigned to this study 
of the department store business, "to de- 
tail the necessary cost of living, but it 
considers it to be at least as much as, 
and probably somewhat above, the mini- 
mum set forth. The board feels that 
the schedule of wages adopted is as high 
as the retail stores of the state will be 
able to pay until industrial and busi- 
ness conditions shall have shown a mark- 
ed improvement. Moreover, it should 
be noted that these rates will mean a 
very large increase in earnings for many 
of the employes, especially for the min- 
ors and inexperienced, and a correspond- 
ingly increased burden of expense for 
the employers which they cannot easily 
or immediately shift to their customers 
or offset by economics in other operat- 
ing expenses or by means of the increas- 

35 



36 



The Survey, October 9, 191S 



RELIGIOUS WORK SHOWN 

AT THE 

PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION 




^/J ORE than forty boards and oilier organizations joined in the exhibit of re- 
ligious work at the San Francisco Exposition under the direction of Guy B. 
St. John. Illustrated lectures by representatives of each body, Chinese and Japanese 
school exercises, Negro glee clubs, motion-pictures and still exhibits told the story 
of religious work, chiefly from the angle of social service and community studies. 
The large picture shows the center of the exhibits, a gathering place for visitors 
of all denominations. At the right sits a man 89 years old who dropped in one 
day to say that he had visited every world's fair since the centennial of 1876. 
Above is Mrs. Adjutant Simpson, who is in charge of the Salvation Army exhibit. 



ed efficiency of the workers. When this 
adjustment to the higher wage scale has 
been accomplished, however, and when 
the business is in a more prosperous con- 
dition, the rates herein may and per- 
haps ought to be, advanced to a some- 
what higher level." 

Under the Massachusetts statute there 
is no power to enforce these recom- 
mendations, except that the Minimum 
Wage Commission may publish the 
names of employers who refuse to com- 
ply. 

The board has been sitting since 
March. On it were representatives of 
some of the largest retail stores in 
Massachusetts, their employes and the 
public. The latter were represented by 
Caroll N. Doten, professor at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, chair- 
man; Mrs. Frank M. Hollowell president 
of the Consumers' League of Massachu- 
setts; and B. Preston Clark, president of 
the Plymouth Cordage Company. 

The work of the Massachusetts Mini- 
mum Wage Commission in regard to the 
candy trade is being hampered by the 
filing of a bill in equity in the Supreme 
Court by 26 candy manufacturers. The 
bill asks for an order restraining the 
commission from proceeding further in 
the organization of a wages board to 
fix the rate of pay for candy workers. 



u 



D 



ID THEY GET ANY 
YOUR MONEY?" 



OF 



"Did they get any of 
your money?" is the title of a pamphlet 
just issued by the Cleveland Chamber 
of Commerce, reporting a soliciting 
scheme unearthed by their bureau of in- 
vestigation. 

It seems that during the past year, 
agents claiming to represent a "Chil- 
dren's National Tuberculosis Society" 
have made a systematic canvass of 
Cleveland, gathering in about $500 a 
month from the sale of a booklet en- 
titled Our Tuberculosis Children, and 
claiming that after expenses were de- 
ducted, all proceeds and contributions 
were used to maintain a sanatorium in 
New Mexico "where worthy tuberculous 
children are cared for free of charge." 

"All you need to do," the society's lo- 
cal manager told the chamber's agent, 
who was ostensibly working as his em- 
ploye, "is to hold these books in your 
arm this way, pull one out and say: 
'Won't you buy one of these books to 
help sickly children?' and you will see 
how fast you sell them." 

Investigation local and in other cities 
where the society had been active, show- 
ed that the sanatorium, or "home" was 
a heavily mortgaged property given the 



society by an unsuccessful denomina- 
tional college; that a year and a half 
after the society first issued its booklet, 
there were only two or three children 
in the "home" ; that the society's ac- 
counts were in bad condition, auditors 
finding many vouchers and invoices 
missing; that commissions of 40 or 50 
per cent were paid the selling agents ; 
and finally, that the "doctors" named 
on the society's letterhead were men of 
no professional standing — they are not 
specialists in tuberculosis and one of 
them, apparently, is not a doctor at all. 
The ethics of the Cleveland manager of 
this society may be inferred perhaps, by 
his own words : 

"This world owes every man a living. 
. . . Why, I give a man credit if he 
can fool the public and get rich, don't 
you ? . . . No one will ever miss that 
dime, so why should anyone else kick?" 

Upon the evidence, the police ordered 
the society to cease operations in Cleve- 
land. 



D 



R. DAVIS' FIRST YEAR "ON 
THE ISLAND" 



Of Becky Edelson and her 
hunger strike, of stopping the traffic in. 
drugs, of riots in the city penitentiary, of 
past "horrors" at Bedford Reformatory 
while Miss Davis was superintendent 
there, of Frank Tannenbaum, the I. W. 
W. leader, and his "disclosures," of the 
professional idiosyncracies of Warden 
Hayes — in short, of all matters involv- 
ing friction and disquiet, the public has 
heard much during the twenty-one 
months that Katherine B. Davis has 
been the first woman commissioner of 
correction of the city of New York. 

Of constructive plans for the better- 
ment of her department and of progress 
achieved, little has been said. Her first 
annual report, just from the press and 
covering the year 1914, tells a different 
story from the one newspaper readers 
have been obliged to piece out. 

Seven district prisons, three city pris- 
ons, three workhouses, a penitentiary 
and a reformatory for male misdemean- 
ants comprise the institutions under 
Commissioner Davis' authority. They 
housed during 1914 a daily average of 
4,530 men and 808 women. The num- 
ber of inmates during the year was the 
greatest in the history of the depart- 
ment ; the per capita maintenance cost 
was the lowest. 

The only organized use of productive 
labor found in the department when she 
took charge, says Commissioner Davis. 
was the employment of a portion of the 
prisoners in the manufacturing shops at 
the penitentiary. Current household 
work, such as cleaning, painting and 
cooking, was done by inmate labor in 
all of the institutions, as was a cer- 
tain amount of construction and repair 
work. The latter has been extended. 
One complete dormitory building, with 
a capacity of 100, was erected by inmate 
labor on Riker's Island at an approxi- 



Common Welfare 



37 



mate cost of but $20 per capita accom- 
modation. Three other such dormitories 
will be completed this year at 50 per 
■cent below the cost of similar build- 
ings constructed under contract. 

The employment of inmates on agri- 
cultural work was heretofore "entirely 
petty and casual," declares the report. 
In the establishment of the New Hamp- 
ton Farms branch of the New York 
City Reformatory, the first step has been 
taken towards putting inmates at pro- 
ductive farm work. During the year 
many boys were sent to develop this 
farm. The crops grown by them more 
than offset the total expense of the ex- 
periment. 

The buildings, almost without excep- 
tion, are of antiquated construction, 
faulty in design, unsanitary and over- 
crowded. A plan for the physical re- 
organization of the institutions of the 
department has been worked out in com- 
plete detail. This will increase the 
normal inmate capacity from 5,420 to 
7,880, at a net increase to the value of 
the institutional property — $14,716,000 — 
of only $433,284.85. The per capita cor- 
porate investment of the city in its de- 
tention and correctional institutions will 
thereby be reduced from $2,716 to 
$1,922. 

One of the main achievements of 
Commissioner Davis' administration so 
far has been the securing of state legis- 
lation applying the indeterminate sen- 
tence to prisoners sent to the city work- 
house and penitentiary, and the creation 
of a paid board of parole for New York 
city. Only last year over 40 per cent 
of persons received at the workhouse 
were "repeaters." Some had had more 
than twenty previous sentences; the his- 
tory of the department records the case 
of one woman who had been sentenced 
to that institution 104 times. The court 
congestion caused by these cases will, 
it is expected, be relieved, and oppor- 
tunity will be given to minister more 
directly to the moral and physical wel- 
fare of the prisoners. 

Commissioner Davis has resolutely 
grappled with the drug evil. A number 
of dismissals from the service, with 
criminal convictions, improved the 
morale of the institutions. The free im- 
portation of certain articles in which it 
is easily possible to secrete drugs, has 
been abolished. A system of medical 
inspection and segregation of drug ad- 
dicts has been instituted. 

The fact that of 489 consecutive new 
admissions to the workhouse, 388, or 
80 per cent, were found to be suffering 
from contagious blood and local dis- 
eases, indicates to some extent the medi- 
cal problems of the department. Yet 
only since Commissioner Davis took 
office has there been such a medical in- 
spection of all women received under 
workhouse sentence as to permit a sani- 
tary classification of them. Additional 
hospital wards and accommodations 



have been installed at the workhouse 
and the branch workhouse on Hart's 
Island. New hospital accommodations 
for other institutions, with a capacity 
of 300 beds, have been planned. 

A scientific and varied dietary, the 
instruction of cooks in the preparation 
of meals, the abolition of prison stripes, 
the installation of a comprehensive 
cost-accounting system, and the gather- 
ing of heretofore unrecorded vital sta- 
tistics, are among the other accomplish- 
ments of the year. 

"My personal experience of thirteen 
years of work at the New York State 
Reformatory for Women at Bedford 
with women who have broken the law," 
says Commissioner Davis, "has proved 
to me the value of experiment with 
methods of organization, discipline and 
self-government, but conditions in a 
new institution under one's personal 



supervision are quite different from 
those in a department controlling varied 
institutions with century-old traditions. 
On taking charge of the department on 
January 1, 1914, I realized that many 
changes were desirable and set about at 
once to survey the situation, to deter- 
mine a policy and to plan out our course. 
To this plan we are steadfastly adher- 
ing. We are willing to experiment, but 
wc believe in experimenting slowly and 
without incurring dangers which, come 
from a too great impatience with diffi- 
cult conditions, and too great anxiety 
for improvement more rapid than is 
warranted by the human and physical 
machinery at our command. If new 
wine is poured too rapidly into old bot- 
tles we know the consequences. We 
believe in progress toward the highest 
ideals attainable, but we believe in mak- 
ing it in a sane and safe fashion, which 
is the surest road to permanent suc- 
cess." 







7&2& 




BRINGING IN THE SHEAVES 

Y\/ ITH the men at the front, the women of France are harvesting the crops. 
The three pictures here reproduced were taken between Paris and Nantes by 
the Rev. S. N. Watson, rector of the American Church in Paris, and used to illu- 
strate a brief article which he contributed to the Churchman. 

At the top are three families — seven women and a boy — making up a co-opera- 
tive team of harvesters. Below, at the left, is a soldier's widow with her children, 
cutting their crop with sickles; at the right a pcrmissionaire, a soldier home on 
eight days' leave to help his wife get in the grain. 

It it not only the farmers, however, who are doubling up in their work. Dr. 
Watson tells of a visit from the Abbe de Saint-fuscin, from Fontaine up at the 
North, who is cure now for seven parishes. The cures of the other parishes are 
all gone— four killed in battle and the other three with their townsmen in the 
trenches. The abbe wanted the loan of a reaper and binder to pass about among 
the villagers. Dr. Watson was able to buy one the day the request was made and 
to send it to him the next day. 

The demands on Americans in France have been very heavy, but Dr. Watson 
feels that they are as nothing to what will be needed when the war is over, when 
the people come back to their devastated farms and villages. 



38 



The Survey, October 9, 1915 



N 



EW COMMISSION TO INVESTI- 
GATE CRIME 



While the Chicago City Coun- 
cil's committee on crime is valiantly de- 
fending its report from the attack of the 
seriously discredited civil service com- 
mission, as reported in The Survey for 
September 25, an authoritative endorse- 
ment of the committee's main findings 
has been given by two of the city's 
judges. 

Moved by their own long and varied 
experience to grapple with the conditions 
investigated and reported by Professor 
Merriam's committee. Chief Justice Ol- 
son of the Municipal Court and Judge 
Kersten, who has long served on the 
bench of the Criminal Court and until 
recently as its chief justice, have under- 
taken to carry out the following recom- 
mendation of the City Council's commit- 
tee on crime : 

"That a joint commission be appointed 
by the chief justice of the Municipal 
Court and the presiding judge of the 
Criminal Court for the purpose of study- 
ing the criminal practice and procedure 
in the courts of Chicago and recommend- 
ing necessary changes in methods or 
in law for the better administration of 
justice; that such an inquiry should in- 
clude among other things the study of 
an improved system of criminal statis- 
tics, actual methods and practices in po- 
lice and criminal courts and in the of- 
fices of city prosecutor and states at- 
torney, necessary c anges in criminal 
law and procedure, operation of the 
parole and probation system, creation of 
consolidated court of Chicago and im- 
proved methods of electing judges." 

Of the twenty-four commissioners ap- 
pointed by the judges, five are the alder- 
men serving with Professor Merriam 
on the City Council's crime committee; 
five are women — Mrs. Mcdill McCor- 
mick, Mrs. Andrew J. Graham, Minnie 
F. Low of the Jewish Charities, Grace 
Abbott of the Immigrants' Protective 
League, and Harriet E. Yittum of the 
Woman's City Club; fourteen are rep- 
resentative men, officials of the Bar As- 
sociation, the American Judicature So- 
ciety, the law schools, practicing attor- 



neys, the secretary of the Chicago Fed- 
eration of Labor, the superintendent of 
the Illinois Steel Company, the vice- 
president of the Fort Dearborn National 
Bank, and Allen B. Pond, president of 
the City Club of Chicago. 

In announcing these appointments, 
Judges Olson and Kersten said that "the 
scope of the work entrusted to the com- 
mission is large enough to embrace prac- 
tically everything pertaining to the ad- 
ministration of justice criminally in the 
city of Chicago, including even the mat- 
ter of the selecting of judges." The 
investigation is shown by them to be es- 
pecially significant in view of the prob- 
ability of constitutional revision in the 
near future. "It means," they say, "that 
the City Council is awake to the possi- 
bilities of co-operating with a constitu- 
tional convention and will be prepared 
with adequate data when the time comes 
lor fundamental changes." 



w 



HAT WAR ORDERS MEAN TO 
A RURAL TOWN 



Salem County, N. J., lies along 
the reaches of the Delaware river just 
above the bay. The first Quaker colon- 
ists settled there, and the county seat, 
Salem, remains yet a "pleasant little 
village settled by Quakers." The 
county is truly rural with no large towns 
and no trolleys. It is away from main 
lines of traffic by railway or highway. 
Some of its highways are paved with 
oyster-shells which make excellent road- 
beds for light traffic. 

At the little village of Pennsgrove, on 
the Delaware opposite Wilmington, for 
years a small powder-plant was operated 
with about 200 men. This year there 
were great changes. Contracts were 
signed by the powder company which 
necessitated extensive enlargement of 
the works. This caused a sudden de- 
mand for all kinds of labor for con- 
struction and operation. Today there 
are 9,000 men employed at Pennsgrove, 
and the monthly payroll has leaped to 
$500,000 with promise of further in- 
creases of men and wages before the 
end of the year. 



Salem county has been roused from 
its quiet by this inrush of new people. 
There are housing problems, sanitation 
problems, traffic problems, roads, bridges, 
schools, — all the problems that follow in 
the wake of a "boom." The powder-works 
now cover some three miles of ground 
along the river, entirely enclosed with 
a high wire fence, carefully patrolled 
within by some 900 guards and highly 
illuminated at night against marauders. 
Building operations within the grounds 
of the company have meant a housing 
problem for Pennsgrove and the vil- 
lages for miles about. 

One of the incidental features of this 
great enlargement of the powder plant 
at Pennsgrove has been the inrush of 
all sorts of men seeking employment 
and of the presence of those who bat- 
ten on the wage-worker, all of which 
resulted in a sudden increase of the 
county jail population at Salem. The 
old jail was unable to meet the de- 
mands. County officials had to meet the 
situation. As a new law permitting the 
working of jail prisoners on roads had 
come into force in July, the county offi- 
cials decided to try out the law, rather 
than go to the expense of enlarging the 
jail. 

County officials unitedly took hold, a 
portable bunk-house on wheels was con- 
structed, and now this roadside "Pull- 
man" travels about the county, carrying 
the prisoners to places on the highways 
where work is to be done. 

An under sheriff has charge of the 
prisoners and the bunk-house, and the 
county road supervisor directs the work. 
The prisoners work eight hours and have 
been promised a wage of fifty cents a 
day for approved work. Most of the 
prisoners sent out from the jail are 
serving time in default of fines for 
drunkenness or disorderly conduct. 

Since this road work was started in 
July, some of the prisoners have com- 
pleted their sentence and found employ- 
ment on farms nearby. The powder- . 
works has drawn men of all trades from 
every community' of the county and 
even from distant cities and farm work- 
ers have become scarce. 



THE PEAK 

Mary Carolyn Davies 



THERE'S a far high trail where the pines are, 
There's a gray faint trail to the dawn, 
There's a sudden hush on the hillside — 

Look! The last star's gone! 
And, follow, follow, the far trail seems to say, 
Follow, comrade, follow, and you'll make the peak 
today ! 

There's a steep hard trail where the stones arc, 

. There's a sharp crag gray at the bend; 
There's a far fine mist where the road winds — 



What is at the end? 
Follow, follow, the dark trail seems to say, 
Follow, comrade, follow, and you'll, make the peak 
today. 

There's an unknown trail — but we'll take it. 

It's a sleep hard trail — who's afraid? 
There are deep sharp chasms to walk by; 

No one's hands can aid. 
Follow, follow, the far trail seems to say. 
Follow, comrade, follow, and you'll make the peak 
today ! 




V 



te-s for 

cJe.*>iueir polii 



o urn Gnu. meatus 
cs. 



THE woman suffrage movement 
(which is credited with so 
many evils and goods by its 
enemies and its friends that 
one wonders reflectively how Agamem- 
non and Hannibal, Gregory VII and 
Tippoo Tib ever contrived to get em- 
balmed in print without touching it) is 
hot afoot in Pennsylvania. Not hiking 
nor waving banners, nor even pleading 
with the voters very much yet : but it is 
organizing, studying the men's political 
machines county by county, and setting 
the women to think of our government 
as a utilitarian balancing of local groups. 

Politics is highly personal in Pennsyl- 
vania, as in California. The personal 
ascendancy of most men prominent in 
state affairs is directly based upon a con- 
trol of boroughs, towns or cities, or even 
precincts of cities, with which they are 
in intimate touch every week of the year. 
For that reason it is the easier for the 
women to analyze the accepted system. 
It is much easier for women to grasp the 
fact that So-and so's power is rooted in 
Schuylkill county, for instance, than to 
debate with themselves the steel tariff. 
The power shows, when you look at it. 
Tariff lurks off in the fourth dimension 
somewhere. 

We are a state of standpatters and 
reactionaries, of course; and woman suf- 
frage is a radical reform. But we are 
a good-natured lot, with a general in- 
stinct that nothing our women want is 
too good for them, nor to be denied in 
niggardly precaution. Overlord, vassal, 
and ward leaderlet are thus predisposed, 
in a general way, to "do the handsome" 
by even the female cry for votes ; though 
withal much puzzled to see why any 
woman would want such a trinket in her 
collection. "If you get that, it'll be aero- 
planes next," one man phrased it to me. 

How all of them will throw their 
strength on the suffrage amendment in 
the referendum of November 2 is at 
this writing quite beyond prophecy. But 
at least the feudal structure of political 
Pennsylvania has given to the workers 



DISCOVERING 
PENNSYLVANIA 

Wise Woman Finds Mere Man Struggling 
to Make His Baffling System of Cogs, 
Gears and Straps Work Even Pass- 
ably for Daily Government Needs 

By Emily S. yohnson 



who agitate for the new thing the pleas- 
antest, most courteous campaign women 
have anywhere seen. Only two or three 
general rules of the road obtain for the 
petticoated reformer. She must be well 
turned out, sartorially, for any public 
occasion : it is ladylike. She must not 
use the word "politics" if she can help 
it: for that is not ladylike. Above and 
beyond all, she must not mention wine, 
spirits, beer, high license, saloons, thirst, 
or saturation, prohibition or alcoholism : 
for those are sure trouble-makers among 
your friends, and not ladylike by a mile 
or two. 

That dreaded phrase, "The liquor 
question" ! As if any ingredient in the 
local political pie were more a fact ! 
And the early Victorian tones of voice 
prescribed for orthodox Pennsylvanians 
uttering those words on a social occa- 
sion do so imply that Emma Goldman, 
hookworm, and hundred-per-cent-divorce 
are waiting in the next room to snatch 
us all ! Buncombe, you know, — bun- 
combe which is equally dear to stand- 
pat men and perfect ladies. 

When the Civic League is having a 
brilliant tea-party at the Country Club, 
I may ask a verandaful : "What do 
you think of sewage disposal?" without 
offense. Though aesthetically inappro- 
priate to a tea-party, the subject is time- 
ly and impersonal enough for uplift clubs 
to discuss. We feel that sanitation is "so 
civic !" (As a matter of fact it is hide- 
ously urgent. All our thickly settled in- 
dustrial areas lie upon stream-beds which 
are flood-swept in spring, and the daily 
drainage of each town, between floods, 
is merely sewered on to the nearest river 
without care where it may go next.) 

But had I asked the tea-party, "What 
do you think of the liquor question?" 
everybody would be unhappy. Every- 
body would know that I had said the 
wrongest thing at my disposal. Those 
magic words violate the social decen- 
cies; and besides, nobody agrees with 
anybody what the five syllables mean. 

Many a Pennsylvania woman, these 
last three years back, has turned her col- 
lege-trained mind upon the theory of 
local government as laid down in her 
state's laws : and then upon the practical 
machinery of local government as it 
rumbles and grates and deadlocks and 
turns again under the handling of its 



"V ~ - C S FOR 



"^^ O M 2 K 




(^)um%>6& llMt/l 



men masters. If in her student days she 
made any thorough inquiries into Roman 
imperial government or into the politics 
and the economics of France from 1750 
to 1830, if she read Stubbs on the Eng- 
lish Constitution, even if she knows more 
about the modern institutions of Switzer- 
land, Belgium, Germany and Sweden, 
than all her men folks together can im- 
part — if she has, I mean, some good his- 
torical parallels to judge by, — she turns 
upon her new maturer study of a de- 
mocracy wide, astonished eyes. 

The democracy has always been there, 
electing its council, subsidizing its politi- 
cal fire company of volunteers, pulling 
this and that string on its poor board, 
its school board, its election boards, its 
hospital boards, its trade board, its tax 
revision board, its health board ; but its 
doings were nowhere revealed to woman- 
ly eyes. The men who filled local offices 
were many of them known to her in a 
personal, non-political sense. But how 
they governed, or how far they govern- 
ed, was never any of her business. 

Nowadays, our women are calling each 
other's attention to local political ma- 
chinery. The yellow suffrage slip is 
abroad in the land by thousands, each 
handed out by a party worker with a 
personal request that one sign one's 
name and place of residence. And by 
thousands, women signers are asking: 
"What ward do I live in? And in what 
election precinct? What does legisla- 
tive district mean ?" 

Those queries once occurring to the 
woman with a taste for history, they will 
not down. A mere brief answer which 
can be learned from the grocer's boy, 
or the postman, or the policeman on the 
block, whets her interest precisely be- 
cause every male citizen seems to know 
it as a matter of course, and no woman 
of her acquaintance ever heard a whis- 
per about it. And so she begins original 
research in modern history, with her 
ward and her city as clinical units of 
study. 

Oh, and it surprises her ! She knows 

39 



40 



The Survey, October 9, 1915 



the city — its customs, taboos, pleasures, 
banks, shops, churches — knows person- 
ally its newspapers, its charities and hos- 
pitals, and the dinner-tables of its lead- 
ing citizens. But as a money-spending 
machine, tax-fed, her town strikes her 
fresh vision as a stupid prehistoric 
monster, — a great, greedy, wasteful 
gorilla-like anachronism, spoiling more 
material than it utilizes from want of 
thinking brains at the top. That the 
men, the men who have always been 
preaching household economy to her 
with those smug straight faces, should 
organize any permanent business so 
messily as they have this city-manage- 
ment plant ! And then that they should 
forcibly keep the whole works out of 
bankruptcy by pouring in tens of thou- 
sands of new money every year to pay 
operating expenses and deterioration ! 
Oh, a colossal discovery ! 

Next consider the factor of respons- 
ibility. Constantine, William of Nor- 
mandy and Hastings, Louis the Sun, 
Napoleon, Frederick of Brandenburg, 
Bismarck, those men who were the sys- 
tem-builders for races and for centuries 
in the world's instructive past, did their 
ruling and set up their social orders by 
never delegating authority save to some 
strong man. He, accepting it, was re- 
sponsible for that authority's use, literal- 
ly with his head and his hide, his chil- 
dren, goods, and lands. 

That sort of thing was not democracy, 
of course. But it was scientific manage- 
ment of human nature in bulk. It "de- 
livered the goods." Moreover, it had 
somebody to punish if matters were mis- 
handled. It had a salutary vacancy at 
the top the morning after, to which some 
junior was promptly elevated with an 
intimation that there was to be no more 
nonsense in that office. Fancy, can you, 
the prefect of Iberia, or the proconsul 
of Thrace-Balkans, taking out a million- 
sesterce bond with a Corinthian surety 
company to satisfy Constantine of their 
loyal industry ! Think what Frederick 
the Elector would have elected to do 
with Generals Derflinger, Schomburg, 
and Kannenberg, had these gentlemen 
been underwritten by the London gold- 
smiths (already dabbling in Lloyds' risks 
in Pepys' time) against defeat at War- 
saw ! Could they have handed their 
master three paid-up policies, instead of 
taking the city? Or Napoleon, master 
draughtsman of a workable empire-re- 
public, — what would he say to commis- 
sion government of a city as mighty as 
his Paris of 1799, with no redress for 
malfeasance and mismanagement other 
than ten or thirty thousand dollars 
mulcted from the wrongdoers' sureties, 
and the pleasure of keeping the erring 
brother perpetually in the public midst, 
out on bail? 

No guillotine, no Bernardotte with a 
willing file of veterans carrying rifles 
primed for a traitor, no penal galleys, 
nor lettrcs dc cachet : what have 
we got left for a Napoleon to use in 



teaching responsibility to a modern city 
official? The suffragette discovering 
modern history looks about her in her 
own city for the power that enforces 
liability, for the legal blaming machine. 
And what does she see? 

Well, there is the grand jury, you 
know, once a quarter. They hear evi- 
dence, and maybe indict. And who 
makes the grand jury? The county's 
sheriff sees the two jury commissioners 
draw it (or in a critical instance maybe 
they only "pull" it) from the jury wheel. 
Can you punish the sheriff and com- 
missioners for "pulling" the kind of 
grand jury that has charity to cover a 
multitude of sins? Certainly not; they 
aren't responsible for what the grand in- 
quest does after it is drawn. Or can 
you punish the grand jury? Certainly 
not : you would shatter our liberties clear 
back to Magna Charta if you even spoke 
such a wish. They are free and sove- 
reign while they sit, act in privileged 
secrecy, and need not indict unless they 
choose to. Well, but can you punish 
your bad officials unless the grand jury 
finds a true bill? In no way. Can you 
punish anybody else? Why, no; for no- 
body is responsible. 

Nobody responsible for any govern- 
mental function in Pennsylvania, — that 
seems to be the ideal our men have work- 
ed towards in building their civic ma- 
chinery. If any taint of liability is left 
to disfigure some officer, you may be 
sure that it is a legal oversight, and that 
the machine isn't finished. In five years 
more, with care, skill, and persistence at 
Harrisburg, there will be a board and a 
bureau atop of every activity from vil- 
lage dog-licensing to governors' vetoes. 
Also, any official jerked up short for re- 
proof will be able to diffuse his obligation 
through lunar rings of men below him 
who ought to have called his attention to 
the alleged negligence, and through a 
whole solar system of men above him 
who ought not to have left the item to 
his department anyway. 

So much machinery, so much duplica- 
tion of function, such cumbersome checks 
and counterweights everywhere to safe- 
guard everything but the plain job itself ! 
It is wonderful that men could build so 
baffling a thing of cogs, straps, gears, 
and levers as the Pennsylvania system. 
It is nothing short of miraculous that 
the male population averages so high in 
executive ability as to be able to work 
it even passably fdV daily purposes. 

But the thinking suffragist puts history 
back on the bookshelf and goes to hard 
work in canvassing a ward when she 
wishes to study that electoral unit of all 
democracy. It is hard work and slow 
work ; but she learns things Taine nor 
Bryce nor Norton ever put in print. 
Assume that she really comes to know 
her ward, its people and activities, their 
finances and expenditures, such as the 
rent they pay. the kinds of food and 
drink they buy; how economically de- 
pendent they are, except in a rare 



"boom" year, upon Pa's-foreman's con- 
tinuing goodwill; how they read the yel- 
low press; how the labor unions stiffen 
them on their feet, or else how they 
deadweight their unions; how, on elec- 
tion day, the labor unions are no more a 
binding force constraining a man's ballot 
than is the accidental homogeneity, for 
instance, of red haired voters, or oi 
lame people. Then knowing her ward, 
the woman will come to know the three 
or four men in it who are its unsalaried 
governors, legislators, and judiciary, — 
the ward leaders of the two or three 
living political parties. She will know, 
too, that these men manage brewery 
money on election day. 

That fact of the brewery money star- 
tles a thinking woman. It is easy to 
understand maybe, that the leaders would 
have a harder task in maintaining prim- 
acy in their bailiwick if they had not so- 
and-so much a year to spend that they 
did not personally earn. But breweries 
are not in business to "play angel" to a 
ward's promising young men. Year in 
and year out, what do the brewing com- 
panies buy for their own profit? 

Hardly votes, in the crude sense that 
a candidate might spend his own cash 
for himself: for no brewer, and rarely 
any relative of a brewer, seeks public 
office. Not popularity: because nothing 
has so stirred up resentment against the 
maltmasters as the spending of long 
campaign "rolls." Not immunity from 
taxation : all brewing capital, and every 
step in the process of shipping and sale, 
are taxed so heavily now that the trade 
has little more to fear in peace times. 
Not the backing of one political party 
against legislative assaults of the other 
parties: for in order to buy Republican 
protection, let us say, Pennsylvania 
brewers would not only have to con- 
tribute vast sums to that one party treas- 
ury, but would have to cut off every cent 
from Washington, Keystone, Socialist, 
Bull Moose and Democratic funds, lest 
these secondary contributions cancel the 
first big benevolence. No such deal is 
attempted. 

Every Pennsylvanian knows that brew- 
ery money 

"droppeth like the gentle rain from 

heaven 
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest : 
It blesseth him that gives and him that 
takes." 

But what return do the brewers get 
for their expenditure? With each party 
spending its largess to defeat brewery 
dollars given the enemy, wherein lies a 
blessing? How can the breweries keep 
opening an Aladdin's purse? 

As to the last matter, the customs prev- 
alent in our industrial towns afford par- 
tial explanation. Political town-money 
or ward-money, spent "in disseminating 
information" otherwise than through the 
mails, the $5 apiece paid to pollmen, and 
much of that spent "to get out the vote." 
tends to go back to saloons and bottlers 
within 4S hours after election d.iv. 



Discovering Pennsylvania 



41 



"Crossing the Bar" is an apt statement 
of the local specie market. Political 
small change is especially marked out 
in the workman's ledger as trinkgcld, 
and to spend it he goes either to the bot- 
tling department of a local brewery or to 
a saloon. Thus the blessings come home- 
to roost again, and the brewer may bal- 
ance income against outgo. 

Yet there are always some losses to be 
taken in the game, accidents aside from 
the regrettable habit of some voters in 
drinking wine or whisky. In my town 
a temperance man got $20 for staying 
home and not voting, and he spent it on 
a chicken-coop, without a backward 
glance at its logical source ! Taking it 
by and large, I fancy the brewer is lucky 
whose political account shows anything 
like a balancing of credit to debit. 

Then what do brewers, considered as 
captains of industry, gain by their sub* 
scriptions to Pennsylvania politics? 

To the woman suffragist who studies 
the contemporary situation as impartial- 
ly as she would study an 1890 govern- 
ment report embalmed in a book, ihere 
comes the amazing conviction that the 
brewers as a group get nothing at all for 
their money. One or another brewery 
may get a few new customers in a given 
city by financing the triumphs of a bur- 
gess or a mayor; but another brewery 
loses those saloons simultaneously. The 
same money put into fancy calendars, or 
Christmas premiums to retail trade, would 
have been better advertising for both 
manufacturers. Ordinary competition, 
aside from politics, has won the brewers 
as much trade as there is to get until the 
population increases appreciably. The 
trade will not, I think, ever be larger 
than now in the anthracite coal counties. 
General economic pressure, the large 
Catholic total abstinence societies, the 
rules of railroads, street car companies, 
and some industrial plants, all work to 
establish a sort of deadline beyond which 
annual consumption cannot rise. 

The breweries have, in fact, arrived 
at the same competitive level as the shoe 
industry, or the stove manufacturers, or 
the graniteware kettle men, or the win- 
dow glass mills. They all make in bulk, 
from raw materials widely distributed 
and inexpensive, articles of common use. 
They all price their products cheap, 
relatively. The domestic market needs 
only so and so many thousands of output 
yearly, and no more. One brewery, just 
as one shoe man, may get a competitor's 
trade and keep its own, and so multiply 
one plant's profits ; but the whole trade 
shows no expansion from the conquest. 
Aside from export trade to distant 
markets (which is distinctly aside from 
local political matters), it is becoming 
pretty evident to the informed that there 
is no bonanza future for brewing in 
Pennsylvania. For beer as for shoes or 
stoves, the solvent workingman, not the 
drunkard or the near-pauper, makes the 
market; and there are just so many of 
him. Competition is not "between beer 



GIVE MOTHER THE VOTE 

WE NEED IT 




OUR FOOD OUR HEALTH OUR PLAY 
OUR HOMES OUR SCHOOLS OUR WORK 
ARE RULED BY MEN'S VOTES 

Isn't it a funny thing 

That Father cannot see 

Why Mother ought to have a vote 

On how these things should be? 

THINK IT OYER 



Pmlid bj Kiliinil Hum Mtllit Pibliihin[ Comptni. Inc.. 505 Filth In*. Hi» York 
A POSTER WIDELY USED IX NEW YORK BY THE EMPIRE STATE CAMPAIGN 

COMMITTEE 



and the home," as certain good ladies are 
fond of asserting in temperance society 
meetings. Competition is actually be- 
tween beer and beer. Witness the 
square yards of newspaper space now 
used to advertise named brands ! 

I do not believe that brewery gifts to 
Pennsylvania party treasuries ever pay, 
nowadays. The time has come to cut 
them off. They would not be "good 
business" to a shoe factory or a glass 
mill ; neither are they any longer "good 
business" to this industry. Custom has 
sanctioned them. Politicians expand their 
budget estimates upon the expectation of 
them. But it is every year more appar- 
ent that brewery money given to all the 
political parties buys literally nothing. 
It is the stupidest and most avoidable of 
trade wastes. 

Women workers for suffrage in this 
state have everywhere to hear: "The 
breweries will spend a lot of money to 
defeat you at the referendum in 1915." 
When we ask why. the habitual ward 



politician explains: "If we let you 
women through, we just double the num- 
ber of votes in the county; and there'll 
be no way left of telling how the votes'll 
go. Nobody could tell what you'd do. 
And the brewers have got good money 
invested, and they owe their stockhold- 
ers a dividend, and they don't want an 
expensive uncertainty on every election 
day." 

They have an expensive uncertainty 
now, until they remove their business as 
utterly from political contests as the shoe 
mills are separated. The 1913 direct 
primary law of the state at least doubled 
the calls on them for campaign money, 
and since practice has shown how ex- 
pensively that law may be exploited, 
next year's costs will be worse. For, 
with our huge population, the average 
hundred voters cannot pick out any 
favorite for state or county office until 
the organized parties have chosen their 
men and worked the electorate up to par- 
tisan enthusiasms. But when I asked a 



42 



The Survey, October 9, 1915 



practical man if the brewers were afraid 
of effects from the direct primary law, 
he denied it. 

"Sure not. They don't mind the 
W.C.T.U. and the church vote. Those 
people don't get ont and hustle. They 
pray, and tell each other what they 
could do, if they tried. Workers,- — my 
Gawd ! Could they carry a ward ?' 

However, I had a further question to 
put : "Isn't your own objection to woman 
suffrage about like your objection to the 
direct primary, that it is too spread out 
to work well ?" 

"Something that way; yes." 

"Yet the regular parties can manage 
it, with heavy expenditure. You say- 
that if you give women the ballot it will 
cost just twice as much as at present ? 
You think it could cost twice as much? 
You think you, personally, could raise 
twice as much as you do now to swing 
your territory ? You consider it pos- 
sible?" 

"I cculd not," spoke the local manager 
frankly. "We've gone the limit in 1914, 
with the primaries and all. There's only 
so much money in the country. I 
couldn't raise my figure three hundred 
dollars next time to save my soul. 
Candidates are getting wise to the awful 
expenses, too, all over the state. A poor 
man's got to stay out. Even a rich man 
gets scared off half the time. As for 
the brewers, their crowd have bled them- 
selves all they can stand. They'll send 
for the funeral director if they give up 
much more. See ?" 

"But if the women voters were let in, 
and the expense account of all parties 
stood stationary, what then?" 

"Hush ! They wouldn't stand ; they'd 
start to drop; for you'd scare all the big 
money out of politics by the hopelessness 
of it. Nobody'd see a chance to get his 
money's worth." 

".Might not that be a good thing?" 

"Your mind is worse than the anar- 
chist's, to be thinking such ideas," re- 
buked the veteran with a frown and a 
chuckle. "May I not live to see those 
reformer days. But if it does happen, of 
course, us strong party men will have to 
think up whole new plans of governing." 

Better analysis of the woman suffrage 
movement in Pennsylvania as regards its 
prospects, its natural friends, its logical 
enemies, and the probable variety of 
"anarchy" which its success would usher 
in, I never heard put into words than in 
this conversation. The crux of the sit- 
uation, for the men who actually run 
the governing machinery of this huge 
democracy, lies in that last sentence. 
When, — and not until, — money no longer 
swings a campaign, big money, and big 
brewery money, will drop out of politics. 
Then with the purchasing power of 



candidates' legitimate subscriptions cut 
to a decimal by the very number of the 
voters, our party system will enter upon 
a new phase and our "strong party men 
will think up new ways of governing." 

The possession of political power in 
the state being personal, the incidence 
of responsibility for administration all 
impersonal, and the brewery money pan- 
partisan and as diffuse as nitrogen in 
air, what would the women voters of 
Pennsylvania want to do with their bal- 
lots in the legislative election of 1916, if 
women voters there are by that time? I 
am careful not so say, "the intelligent 
women," or "the intelligent voters," be 
it remarked, inasmuch as some of the in- 
tellectual first-choices in our history have 
made the worst administrative and moral 
failures once they were under the anaes- 
thesia of office-holding. I say "women 
voters," simply. What will they want 
to do, the huge lump of them? The 
state-wide femininity ? 

Women, more keenly than men, I 
think, — if things are so wrong in the 
state — will want to know who is to 
blame? That is intrinsically the most 
interesting question a woman can ask, 
in any catastrophe. Who-is-to-blame 
marks a great natural appetite of woman's 

Photo by Paul Thnmnxon 




111 CAN VOTE! 

A caricature statuette by Helena Smith 
Dayton shown at an exhibit of work by 
women sculptors and painters for the 
benefit of suffrage, Macbeth Galleries, New 
York. 



mind. Circumstances have developed it 
highly, through ages of civilization. 
Who-is-to blame is going to be a factor 
in Pennsylvania politics, if women get 
the ballot. And for all purposes of 
propaganda, the answer to that demand 
has got to be a living man's name. Re- 
proach will rest often, no doubt, on the 
wrong head when the women voters 
vote to punish. 

None the less, there is a real moral 
value behind the search for the wrong- 
doer, the assessing of full, honest, open 
obloquy against a human, personal man 
with a family and a social standing and 
a bank account and an admitted "pull." 
No talk of "high tariff," or of "Jeffer- 
sonian democracy," will distract the 
woman voter who has fixed her mind 
upon the man she decides to blame, once 
she has decided that he is to blame. The 
pleasantest line of masculine patter that 
is fed out to audiences in campaign time 
to distract their minds, is only the patter 
she has been used to discount all her life 
from the man who explains how shaving 
papers happen to get onto his bedroom 
floor accidentally every day of the year, 
and from the boy whose hair is for- 
tuitously wet and slick at supper time 
when he is keeping away from the river 
swimming-hole during a summer typhoid 
epidemic. That talk gets nowhere with 
a woman. She knows it beforehand, 
tone and all. She listens not to the 
words. She judges straight into the per- 
sonality of the man. And if the patter 
starts about shaving papers under the 
bed, or about prohibition under defeat, 
the logical value is all one to her in- 
stinct. Show her the man ! Show her 
the man, the man to blame, or the man 
to tie to as a re-builder of honest gov- 
ernment. 

And thus artlessly, in the slow grind 
of democracy, would woman voters grind 
the factor of personal responsibility into 
government, even as it once stood reg- 
nant in our affairs in Benjamin Frank- 
lin's day. Party leaders would write the 
dollar mark smaller, brewers would write 
it far less frequently on checks to "cash." 
Organized labor (especially on such de- 
mands as a powerful workmen's com- 
pensation law for all trades of the state, 
not excepting coal mining) would find its 
vote solider, stiffer, than ever before. 
Candidates with "records" would have to 
run on those records, willy-nilly, or not 
run at all. For the party-less female 
would not care a cold muffin for such 
boasts as men make to one another : "At 
least, I'm happy to say I've voted the 
straight Republican ticket every election 
for forty years, and you'll find me doing 
it till I die !" There is no why to such 
a course of action. And the woman, 
since Eve, loves to ask herself and fel- 
low-humans why. 




Saving the Sight of Babies 

By Carolyn C. Van Blarcom 

SECRETARY NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF BLIND- 
NESS; CHAIRMAN COMMITTEE ON PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS, AND 
MIDWIVES, NATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 



YEAR by year the subject of the 
prevention of blindness comes up 
at medical meetings and confer- 
ences of health officers, nurses 
and social workers. The assertion is re- 
iterated that more than a quarter of the 
children in the schools for the blind in 
this country are sightless because of a 
negligent accoucheur. The statement 
that ophthalmia neonatorum is both pre- 
ventable and curable has become axio- 
matic. Almost, every year there is writ- 
ten on the statute books of some state 
a law which is designed to safeguard the 
eyes of babies. And yet the percentage 
of ophthalmia neonatorum victims ad- 
mitted to the schools for the blind year 
after year varies but slightly, and we are 
forced to admit with no little chagrin 
that scarcely more than a scratch has 
been made on the surface of the prob- 
lem as a whole. 

If the sad procession of little blind 
children, with state institutions as their 
goal, is to be eliminated, something more 
definite and practical will have to be 
done than the enactment of laws which 
only become dead letters, the making of 
speeches and reading of papers before 
selected audiences. 

Unquestionably, the first step is the 
enactment of laws making compulsory 
the reporting to local health officers of 
all cases of sore eyes in infants. This 
would make possible the provision of 
medical attention for uncared-for cases. 
But, upon making a survey of the laws, 
it is learned that more than half the 
states (30) do require that ophthalmia 
neonatorum be reported. Why, then, are 
the babies still going blind? Because, ex- 
cept in a very few communities the law 
is neither obeyed nor enforced, nor is 
any official action taken when informa- 
tion upon an occasional case does find its 
way to a department of health. 

The filing of a report is valuable only 
if it instantly sets in motion machinery 
capable of meeting the needs of the indi- 
vidual baby. At present the facilities at 
the disposal of the average health officer 
for giving efficient assistance to the 
physician or the midwife are so limited 
as to be practically without value. 
Local health departments should have 



y^ T the left, a baby recently born in 
New York state. He was at- 
tended by a physician who neither 
reported the birth nor the inflamed 
eyes. The baby is blind for life. At 
the right, a baby whose sore eyes 
were reported and his sight saved by 
the prompt medical and nursing care 
thus made possible. 



a nurse to visit each midwife case and 
to secure such care as is necessary, and 
also to give visiting nursing assistance 
to those doctors who wish it. There 
should also be eye clinics to supplement 
home care and such hospital facilities 
for severe cases of ophthalmia neona- 
torum that, without an hour's delay, an 
infected baby and its mother may be 
admitted and the work of saving its 
sight begun at once. 

The value of some such practical work 
as outlined above has been demonstrated 
in a few, but deplorably few, of our 
American cities. Conspicuous among 
these is Buffalo, where each physician 
has recently been notified by the De- 
partment of Health that: 

1. Babies' sore eyes is a reportable 
disease, under the state law. 

2. It is the intention of the department 
to prosecute doctors and midwives alike 
who are found to be disregarding this 
legal requirement. 

3. As the sole purpose of the depart- 
ment in taking this attitude is to safe- 
guard the eyes of babies, it will give as 
much assistance to the doctors as they 
wish or will accept; and, therefore, 

a. Nursing service and bacteriologi- 
cal examinations are offered to 
those doctors who request this 
form of assistance, or 

b. Hospital care will be provided for 
those infants who need more at- 
tention than can be given at home. 

More than this, a nurse from the Bu- 
reau of Child Hygiene visits each mid- 
wife case reported, to ascertain, among 
other things, the condition of the baby's 
eyes. If any redness, swelling or dis- 
charge is discovered, this information is 
telephoned to the chief of the bureau, 
and a doctor is sent without delay. 

It cannot be denied that such work as 
is being carried on in Buffalo would be 
impossible for many local health officers 
to undertake because of the absence of 
legal authority to act; lack of facilities 
to carry out the law should one exist ; 
or. most important of all, lack of support 
of such public health work by the com- 



^ 




.. V 



munity. No amount of effort on the 
part of the health officer can be effective 
if, after bringing a case into court, the 
judge dares to throw it out with the re- 
mark : "Any baby may have sore eyes, 
just as anyone may fall downstairs," — 
as actually happened in Connecticut. 

The public must be so enlightened that 
the health officer will feel secure in at- 
tempting to exercise his prerogatives, 
and the courts will not dare to disre- 
gard the rights of even an infant citizen 
to the state's protection. 

But to have the co-operation of the 
public at large, which is absolutely nec- 
essary to a successful prosecution of this 
effort, one point must be clearly under- 
stood, — the people must be disabused of 
the idea that infant ophthalmia is a dis- 
grace. In popularizing medical facts, 
certain misconceptions will almost in- 
evitably gain currency, some of which 
may be harmless and others actually de- 
feat the very ends which it is desired to 
attain. One of the most serious of these 
misconceptions concerning the preven- 
tion of blindness in babies is that this 
disease is always or nearly always of 
gonorrhoeal origin. In fact, this seems 
to be the general teaching even in medi- 
cal circles. But let us see what are the 
facts in the case. Sydney Stephenson, 
in his masterly monograph on Ophthal- 
mia Neonatorum, has placed in avail- 
able form more information concerning 
this disease, its cause and prevention. 
than has been collected by any other 
person or persons, so far as we are able 
to learn. His book opens with the ob- 
servation : "Ophthalmia neonatorum may 
be defined as an inflamatory disease of 
the conjuctiva usually appearing within 
the first few days of life, and generally 
due to the action of micro-organisms." 

He does not say that it is due to the 
gonococcus or any other one organism, 
but uses the inclusive plural "micro- 
organisms." Further on he writes: 
"The above . . . shows that in the 
practice of 41 observers gonoccoci were 
found in 67.14 per cent of the 1.658 cases 
of ophthalmia neonatorum." 

On another page he says: "It may be 
stated in round numbers that of every 
100 cases of ophthalmia neonatorum, 65 

43 



44 



The Survey, October 9. 1915 




per cent will be associated with gon- 
ococci, 10 per cent with pneumococci, 5 
per cent with bacillus coli. S per cent 
with other pathogenic organisms as the 
Kocb-W'eeks bacillus, and IS per cent 
will show negative bacteriological find- 
ings." 

All the germs mentioned here are of 
innocent origin, except the gonococcus, 
and yet the family of a baby whose eyes 
have been infected with the pneumonia 
or diphtheria germ is apt to be eyed 
askance ! 

More recent figures, collected by 
American observers, suggest a still smal- 
ler percentage of cases caused by gon- 
orrhoea than the one given by Stephen- 
son. Of 167 cases of "suppurative con- 
junctivitis" reported to the New York 
City Department of Health during 1914, 
the gonococcus was demonstrated in 
but 34, while of 1,376 cases of babies' 
Mire eyes from all causes reported t'o 
the Boston Department of Health dur- 



L AWS requiring the reporting of 
cases of babies' sore eyes are not 
of themselves enough to prevent 
ophthalmia neonatorum. Public opin- 
ion must back up the local health 
departments in acting on the reports. 
And the departments must be equip- 
ped to compel the use of preventive 
drops in every baby's eyes imme- 
diately after birth (left picture) ; to 
send a nurse at once to visit all re- 
ported cases (right picture) ; and to 
provide hospital facilities for treat- 
ment of severe cases (picture below). 
The hospital should provide for both 
mother and child so that maternal 
nursing mav be continued. 



ing 1914, but 37 were of gonorrhoeal 
origin. 

In writing upon this subject recently, 
Dr. Ellice M. Alger observed that : "The 
bacteriological diagnosis [of ophthalmia 
neonatorum] is of secondary importance, 
for the treatment is the same no matter 
what the germ." But blindness follow- 
ing an infection of innocent origin is as 
endless and dark and tragic as that 
caused by gonorrhoea. 

The late Dr. Mark Stevenson of Ohio, 
writing in this connection, said : 

"It is advisable in the present stage of 
our work for the prevention of blind- 
ness from babies' sore eyes, that the 
old idea among the public that it is al- 
ways or nearly always gonorrhoeal in 
its origin, should be corrected. The 
laity should be taught the plain facts, 
that while a certain small percentage of 
cases of babies' sore eyes are caused 
by the gonococcus, the larger majority 
of the cases are produced by the vari- 
ous ordinary forms of pus-producing 
germs that are likelv to be found in 
any mother ; and that the presence of 
babies' sore eyes does not necessarily 
imply any guilt or wrong on the part of 
either parent. 

"So long as the disease is thought to 
be purely gonorrhoeal in its origin, 
there will be associated with its treat- 





ment and attempts at its prevention a 
great deal of unnecessary embarrass- 
ment to the family and the physician. 
If such a belief is prevalent the physi- 
cian will naturally be afraid, in many 
families, to suggest the use of a prophy- 
lactic, fearing that it will be considered 
a reflection on the character of the 
mother or father. Parents also would 
be afraid to suggest, let alone insist on, 
the use of a prophylactic. As a not 
necessarily gonorrhoeal disease, its pub- 
lic discussion will be much easier, it will 
receive more respectful attention, and 
will not be considered a part of the 
present almost hysterical propaganda 
with regard to sex hygiene and other 
subjects that are sometimes too freely 
discussed." 

The free public discussion to which 
Dr. Stevenson refers is our only hope 
for a successful campaign against pre- 
ventable blindness. For. after all, this 
matter will largely be settled by the atti- 
tude of the babies' parents themselves. 
To this end we say to them : Babies' 
sore eyes is an infectious disease, is 
caused by a germ; if neglected, it may 
result in blindness; that blindness from 
babies' sore eyes would practically never 
occur if a prophylactic were used in 
the eyes of every infant immediately 
after birth, and if every case of red- 
ness, swelling and discharge from the 
eyes of infants were promptly and ade- 
quately treated. 

Undoubtedly the gonorrhoeal theory 
has been a serious obstacle in the way 
of this universal prophylaxis and early 
remedial treatment, in some instances 
because of pride and in not a few others 
because of the conviction that there was 
no venereal infection present. The con- 
trol and reduction of venereal disease 
will unquestionably do a great deal to- 
ward the prevention of more than one 
kind of blindness, but it is very import- 
ant that the question of babies' son- 
should In- handled impartially, if we are 
to have every baby's eyes given the ad- 
vocated preventive treatment as a mat- 
ter of routine, and remedial treatment 
when necessary. 



Held to Account for the Eastland 

By Graham Taylor 



THE United States grand jury at 
Chicago supplies the title for the 
last chapter of the story of the 
Eastland tragedy. Public opin- 
ion, which was, of course, profoundly 
stirred over the loss of 812 lives by the 
capsizing of the overcrowded excursion 
steamer while still tied to her dock, has 
calmly suspended judgment in fixing re- 
sponsibility for the disaster, pending the 
prolonged and thorough investigation of 
the federal grand jury. 

In five indictments eight men and two 
corporations are held for trial before 
the United States District Court, all of 
them charged with negligence and dere- 
liction of duty equivalent to manslaugh- 
ter, although that term is not included 
in the statute under which steamboat 
officials are prosecuted for carelessness 
resulting in the loss of life. They in- 
clude the president, vice-president and 
secretary-treasurer of the St. Joseph- 
Chicago Steamship Company, owners of 
the Eastland; the manager of the In- 
diana Transportation Company, by which 
the steamer had been chartered when it 
capsized; these two companies in their 
corporate capacity ; the captain and en- 
gineer of the boat, and the two govern- 
ment inspectors of the Department of 
Commerce, responsible for the inspec- 
tion and licensing of the vessel. 

The corporations and the manager of 
the chartering company are not included 
in the fifth indictment, which charges 
the others with conspiracy to operate 
the boat in violation of law, the defend- 
ants knowing that "the boilers, machin- 
ery, ballast system were not of such 
shape, construction, material and ar- 
rangement, or in such condition that 
they might safely be employed on a 
steamship; that the boat was unstable, 
cranky, of insufficient water line and 
draft, topheavy, inclined to list danger- 
ously," etc. 

The captain is charged with conspir- 
ing to raise the number of passengers 
allowed from 2,183 to 2,570. The gov- 
ernment steamboat inspectors are indict- 
ed for misconduct and negligence in per- 
mitting a number of passengers to board 
the boat "greatly in excess of the num- 
ber of persons the boat could carry with 
safety, as the defendants well knew." 

This indictment effectively disposes of 
the occasion for Secretary Redfield's re- 
sentment [see page 54] against even the 
presumptive grounds on which his in- 
spectors were at first held accountable for 
not preventing the overcrowding of the 
vessel Had the secretary's bearing and 
utterances at Chicago been as unbiased 
and judicious as was his colorless formal 
report to President Wilson on the rela- 
tion of his department to the disaster, he 
would have avoided the distrust and dis- 



credit with which both his manners and 
his investigation of departmental sub- 
ordinates were universally regarded. 
Secretary Redfield's report is true as far 
as it goes, but it does not and could not 
state the whole truth regarding the situa- 
tion. It is true that his inquiry was auto- 
matically instituted under the law and 
that his part in it was taken at "his 
own initiative and without direction or 
instruction of any kind." No one dis- 
putes this. 

It is also true, however, that so far 
from being predisposed against him, or 
his inspectors, or much less the whole 
federal administration, the people and 
press of Chicago welcomed his coming, 
felt assured on that account of a more 
searching investigation, and neither then 
nor since have attempted to make any 
- political capital at his expense against 
the President's prestige. This fact is 
stated here because the criticism of the 
secretary has been accounted for repeat- 
edly as due to political animus. It is to 
the credit of Secretary Redfield, that he 
appointed representative citizens "to act 
as unofficial members of the board of in- 
quiry," but this was done after and not 
before distrust was excited by repeated 
exonerations of the inspection service 
before and during the departmental in- 
quiry into the inspectors' fidelity in the 
Eastland's inspection. 

It is true that the county bailiffs were 
guilty of inflicting an outrageous in- 
dignity in bringing the accused inspec- 
tors to the public hearings handcuffed, 
but it is also true that this in no way 
indicated the public disposition to make 
them, or the captain of the vessel or 
any others, scapegoats either to shield 
the guilty or bear away the public wrath. 
It is true, and again to the credit of 
Secretary Redfield, that steps have al- 
ready been taken to carry out the sug- 
gestions of the board of inquiry, to call 
into conference the supervising inspec- 
tors to consider the improvement of the 
service within the scope of the present 
law, and to institute a searching inquiry 
into the whole administration of the 
steamboat inspection service by represen- 
tatives of the navy and of the public. 

Had any of these assurances been in- 
timated at the start, in lieu of the self- 
justifications which gave good reason to 
fear the determination to prejudice the 
case, Chicago's stern sense of justice 
would have been satisfied. If. again, 
the secretary and his subordinates had 
been as considerate and r- ^pectful of 
others' rights at the beginning of their 
inquiry as they learned to be at and after 
the end of it. it would have been more 
"proper to state that only the most cor- 
dial relations existed" between them and 
"all other state, county, city and federal 



officers." 

Unfortunately, another official of the 
Department of Commerce has again ex- 
cited suspicion just as Secretary Red- 
field's report to the President was gain- 
ing confidence for him. The day before 
the federal grand jury presented its 
findings, a statement was reported to 
have been made in St. Paul by Edwin 
F. Sweet, assistant secretary of com- 
merce, on the information of the presi- 
dent of the Steamship Company, that 
private divers had discovered buried 
piling in the river bottom, left there by 
the negligence of the city in constructing 
the La Salle street tunnel; that this 
caused the capsizing of the vessel, for 
which, therefore, neither the steamship 
officials, nor the government inspectors, 
are to blame. 

The Chicago Daily News immediate- 
ly engaged a diver to explore the river 
bottom, who had done so repeatedly be- 
fore and after the disaster. He reported 
that he found "the top of these stumps 
on a level with the river bottom, which 
appeared shiny and rough as though 
freshly sawed. Who did that work or 
how they got there I don't know. Every 
inch of that bottom is known to myself 
and government divers and we found no 
piles. I can't explain these." The tops 
of the piles, it is said, will be produced 
by the defence as new "evidence." 

Commenting on this, the assistant dis- 
trict attorney declares: 

"There was no evidence brought out 
before the Redfield inquiry, the coron- 
er's inquest or in our own investigation 
which in any way brought out that the 
steamship rested on piling, or any other 
solid object at the time it was over- 
turned." The piling and also some un- 
accounted for pieces of rock or concrete 
are said to be in such positions that 
they do not explain the overturning of 
the vessel. On the other hand, some of 
the indicted officials are reported to have 
claimed that the discovery of these piles 
will clear them. The incident is being 
investigated by the United States dis- 
trict attorney's office. 

The case has thus far only been stated, 
not concluded. It is the right of the ac- 
cused men and corporations to have a 
suspension of judgment until they are 
adjudged guilty or not guilty. There 
is every disposition to give them the 
benefit of the doubt. But the fact re- 
mains and must be accounted for that a 
government inspected vessel, which had 
long been known to list perilously when 
heavily laden, capsized while tied to her 
dock in the Chicago river, sacrificing 
812 lives. Far more than to fix the 
blame or punish any one for it, the pur- 
pose and outcome of these trials in the 
county and federal courts should be to 

45 



46 



The Survey, October 9, 1915 



prevent the possibility of the recurrence 
of any such inexcusable catastrophe. 

Meanwhile consideration should be 
shown, in sympathy at least, for the 
Eastland stockholders, many of whom 
are said to hold very few shares in what 
was considered a local enterprise of the 
little city of St. Joseph, Mich., which 
itself is reported to own some of the 
stock. 

The relief funds of the mayor's com- 
mittee, the Chicago chapter of the Red 



Cross and the Western Electric Com- 
pany total $540,000. This sum has been 
and will be distributed to about 3,500 
relatives of the 812 men, women and 
children who were drowned. These 
beneficiaries of the fund include 319 
married couples with children, 36 
married couples without children, 145 
widows with children, 38 widows with- 
out children, 15 deserted women with 
children, 53 widowers with children. Ill 
single men, 49 single women, 21 groups 



of children only, and kinsfolk of 22 
whole families lost. 

Pending the final payment of lump 
sums, scores of families have received 
weekly allowances, medical service has 
been furnished gratuitously, the injured 
have been cared for in hospitals and 
sanatoria, expectant mothers have been 
provided for, and the troubles of some 
wage-earning members of these families 
have been adjusted, though not traceable 
to the disaster. 



ALETTA JACOBS, first woman 
physician of Holland, founder 
and head of the Dutch suffrage 
movement, who spent some 
weeks in America on a mission which 
brought her to the White House, was 
telling me how she found courage to call 
the Woman's Peace Congress at The 
Hague last spring. 

Much has been written of that re- 
markable gathering but the vigorous- 
minded woman who conceived it and 
with characteristic directness "put it 
through" is comparatively unknown to 
us in America. She is, however, one of 
a group of "international" women who 
are challenging public opinion with the 
idea of world union for peace. 

"You see," she began, "at Buda Pesth 
in 1913, it was agreed that we should 
hold the next biennial meeting of the 
Woman Suffrage Alliance in Berlin in 
1915. The German women wanted us. 
But then the war came, and early last 
winter a letter reached me, as one of 
the national suffrage presidents, saying 
that of course the war would make it 
impossible to hold the meeting in Ber- 
lin, and strongly recommending that the 
convention be given up. 

"But I thought at once, just because 
there is this terrible war the women 
must come together somewhere, some 
way, just to show that women of all 
countries can work together even in the 
face of the greatest war in the world. 
Women must show that when all Europe 
seems full of hatred they can remain 
united. I felt that the alliance had to 
do that and we should invite the alliance 
to meet in Amsterdam. But several of 
the allied countries voted against hold- 
ing an international meeting during the 
war and therefore the invitation was not 
accepted. 

"1 received, however, many letters of 
sympathy with the plan from individual 
women in belligerent and neutral coun- 
tries, and from Miss Macmillan of Eng- 
land a plan for a meeting of individuals. 
The other members of my board of the 
suffrage society did not agree on this 
plan of a congress of individuals, but I 
thought it a good plan and decided to 
do what I could personally. 

"I therefore invited as many women 
as T could reach in different countries to 



"Now I Dare to 
Do It" 

An interview with 
Dr. Aletta Jacobs, who 
called theWoman's Peace 
Congress at The Hague 

By 

Crystal Eastman Benedict 

VICE-CHAIRMAN WOMAN'S PEACE 
PARTY OF NEW YORK 



discuss together what the congress should 
be and to make up the preliminary 
program. When the answers came, so 
many were in favor that I thought, — 
'now I dare to do it.' " 

This meeting was held in Amsterdam 
on February 12 and 13. 1915. Five 
women came from Great Britain, four 
from Germany, three from Belgium, and 
several from Holland. Agreeing that 
there should be no discussion of the 
causes or conduct of the war, but that all 
minds should be concentrated on methods 
of bringing about peace, these pioneers 
made Dr. Jacobs chairman of the or- 
ganizing committee and the call went 
out to the women of all nations in her 
name. 

The next question put to Dr. Jacobs 
was this: "Was the Hague gathering 
more than a splendid expression of the 
growing solidarity of womankind the 
world over? Do you think it will lead 
to something constructive?" 

"Of course, it will," Dr. Jacobs re- 
plied. "It already has. As the conven- 
tion voted it. I went with Miss Addams 
to carry our resolutions to the govern- 
ments of Great Britain, Germany, Aus- 
tria-Hungary, Switzerland, Italy. France 
and Belgium. But when I got back to 
Amsterdam the first thing I did was to 
open headquarters for the International 
Committee of Women for Permanent 
Peace, the permanent organization form- 
ed at the congress, and to engage two 



secretaries to commence the work. 

"The work we have planned is an 
enormous undertaking. First we must 
keep up the bond between pacifist women 
in all countries. We must act as a 
clearing house through which they can 
communicate. We have already begun 
issuing bulletins. Here is one, for in- 
stance, telling what the Swedish women 
have done since the congress — how on 
June 27 they held peace meetings in 343 
places at one time — crowded, enthusi- 
astic meetings, and secured the signa- 
tures of 88,784 women to our Hague 
resolutions. News like that sent out to 
the women of other countries will in- 
spire them to act, you see, and thus the 
organization will grow. 

"Next we must help to organize the 
pacifist women in countries not yet 
roused, like Switzerland, for instance. 
Then, of course, we must have an inter- 
national organ soon to make a stronger 
bond. 

"But the immediate project for which 
we must be ready any minute, is the 
calling of a second congress. This was 
agreed on by the women at The Hague. 
As soon as negotiations for peace begin, 
we are to send out invitations for a sec- 
ond congress to be held in the city 
where peace is made. There will be 
hve women from each country to sit in 
continuous session and consider terms 
of peace and send in their suggestions 
from time to time to the negotiators. 
At the end of this session there will be a 
big congress of women going on. with 
twenty voting members from each coun- 
try." 

There was no need to ask Dr. Jacobs 
whether to her mind such a congress of 
women would have an influence on the 
deliberations of the negotiators. She 
goes further and believes the coming — 
and staying — of world peace will depend 
largely on women. When I asked her it' 
she thought we might see the end of 
war in a generation or two or if it would 
take centuries of education to bring it 
about, she said: "Oh. no. Women will 
soon have political power. Woman 
Suffrage and permanent peace will go 
together. When the women o\ a coun- 
try are eagerly asking for the vote, and 
a COuntr) is in the state oi muni to 

grant the vote to its women, it is a sign 



"Now I Dare To Do It" 



47 



that that country is ripe for permanent 
peace. 

"Yes, the women will do it. They 
don't feel as men do about war. They 
are the mothers of the race. Men 
think of the economic results; women 
think of the grief and pain, and the 
damage to the race. If we can bring 
women to feel that internationalism is 
higher than nationalism, then they 
won't stand by governments, they'll stay 
by humanity." 

There is a resolution in the Hague 
platform calling for a conference of 
neutrals to propose terms of peace. I 
was interested to get Dr. Jacobs' im- 
pressions with regard to the European 
neutrals — Holland, Switzerland, Spain 
and the Scandinavian countries — and 
their attitude toward this proposal. 

"I can only speak for Holland," she 
said. "But the other European neutrals 
must be in the same situation. The 
Dutch are strong pacifists. Of course 
there are people in my country who be- 
lieve in war, but what they preach is 
not popular. I have heard some of them 
speak, and they were hissed by the audi- 
ence — sometimes hissed right off the 
platform. But in spite of the temper of 
the people these have been critical times 
in Holland. 

"It is hard for you to realize how 
close the war is to us. It is at our 
very doors. We can hear the cannon 
and the bursting shells. The results are 
always coming over our borders. That, 
of course, makes us feel the horror of 
it more than you do here, but it means 
too that we are more closely involved." 

"So the neutral governments had 
hardly thought of using their good 
offices to stop the war, until the women 
came together and proposed it?" 

"Yes, that's it. The women thought 
of it." 

"Well," I asked, "suppose there is a 
neutral conference of some kind, don't 
you think there should be a woman on 
it?" 

Here Dr. Jacobs smiled — the knowing 
tolerant smile of a mother for her boys. 
It made her seem less of a feminist. 
"Men, you know, l^e to do things for 
themselves. They have more confidence 
in a proposal if it is made by men than 
if it is made by women. So, we don't 
care so very much about having women 
in the Conference of Neutrals, if only the 
right men can be fonnd."- 

That is after all the amazing thing 
about these women "internationalists." 
They do not seem to be driven by per- 
sonal ambition, and yet they tackle big, 
unheard-of undertakings like the Hague 
meeting and succeed with them. Sim- 
plicity, directness, the glorious courage 
of children to whom everything is possi- 
ble because it is untried, — these are the 
qualities women are bringing into the 
new world councils. They are price- 
less qualities, and the spirit of these 
women will be felt whether any of them 
receive official recognition or not. 



Personals 



HP HE tables are seldom turned with 
such pathos and decision in favor 
of an accused public official as was the 
case in a recent session of the buildings 
and grounds committee of the Chicago 
Board of Education. One of the most 
public-spirited members of the board 
had been accused of favoring a new 
site for an old public school because 
it included his own residence. After 
the charge had been preferred by a citi- 
zen of the district, the committee ap- 
proved of the new site without refer- 
ence to the charge. 

Then the member in question handed 
a letter to the secretary of the board 
and said: "I own property there, and 
I had intended to donate it to the board. 
I had a daughter who has been called to 
another sphere and I wished to give it 
as a memorial to her." 

Other members promptly stated that 
long since they had known of this in- 
tention to donate the property, in case 
this site was thought to be the best one 
for the school. The committee then 
added to its recommendation the sug- 
gestion that the newly located school 
should bear the name of Eunice Eck- 
hart, who had been one of its pupils. 



for four years was political reporter for 
the Philadelphia Record. 



QEORGE L. SPRAGUE has been 
appointed secretary of the Public 
Education and Child Labor Association 
of Pennsylvania. He is a graduate of 
McMaster University, has been in the 
ministry, and also active in industrial 
education in connection with several 
large industrial and transportation cor- 
porations, organizing shop-apprentice- 
ship systems and night classes for ap- 
prentices. He has worked with the 
United States Commission on Industrial 
Relations, and with the State Board of 
Industrial Education of Wisconsin. The 
Public Education and Child Labor As- 
sociation of Pennsylvania is a merger 
of the Public Education Association of 
Philadelphia and the Pennsylvania Child 
Labor Association. Mr. Sprague's ex- 
perience in industrial work is counted 
an important factor in carrying out the 
spirit of the new Pennsylvania child 
labor law with its continuation school 
feature. 

ROBERT D. DRIPPS, executive sec- 
retary of the Public Charities As- 
sociation has been granted temporary 
leave of absence to accept the position 
of director of public safety in Phila- 
delphia, made vacant by the resignation 
of George D. Porter. Mr. Dripps has 
been Independent leader in Councils for 
two terms, and has been prominent in 
reform politics in Philadelphia through 
five successive campaigns. Mr. Porter 
becomes Independent candidate for 
Mayor. Kenneth L. M. Pray, assistant 
secretary of the Public Charities Asso- 
ciation, is in charge during Mr. Dripps' 
leave of absence. Mr. Pray is a gradu- 
ate of the University of Wisconsin, and 



^ NNA ROCHESTER who for three 
years has been in charge of the 
publicity work of the National Child 
Labor Committee and was appointed its 
publication secretary last winter, has 
left the committee to become a member 
of the staff of the Federal Children's 
Bureau. As Miss Lathrop's private sec- 
retary she has been at work in Wash- 
ington since the middle of September. 
The National Child Labor Committee 
has appointed in her place Florence I. 
Taylor, for two years Miss Rochester's 
assistant. 

V\ OR the second time within a year 
the United Charities of Chicago has 
suffered bereavement by the death of its 
president, Benjamin Stickney Cable. 

Born in 1872 and graduated from Yale 
in 1899 and from the Columbia Law 
School, he was connected with the law 
department of the Rock Island Railroad 
until he was appointed assistant secre- 
tary of commerce and labor during the 
administration of President Taft. Last 
April he was chosen to succeed the late 
Prof. Charles Richmond Henderson in 
the presidency of the United Charities. 

With rare ability, devotion and sus- 
tained energy he mastered the adminis- 
trative details and service methods of 
the city-wide work. By daily contact 
with headquarters and the district offices 
and by personal participation in the 
practical work of the society he had al- 
ready done much to reinforce the United 
Charities under the heaviest strain of 
work and expense to which its resources 
have ever been subjected. 

When the Eastland disaster called for 
immediate and immense emergency re- 
lief, Mr. Cable enabled the United Chari- 
ties to put many of its experienced in- 
vestigators and district workers at the 
service of the Red Cross, by personally 
bearing the additional expense of tem- 
porarily providing substitutes for them 
in the society's service. 

The loss of such a life at the full tide 
of its strength and public usefulness is 
keenly felt not only by the United 
Charities, but by many other public and 
private interests in which Mr. Cable's 
fellowship and service were most highly 
appreciated. The Chicago Herald in an 
editorial entitled, He Was Answering 
the Call, expresses this appreciation : 

"It often seems hard for a young man 
of inherited wealth, free from the need 
to seek material gain, to know how to 
be useful in any broad sense. Mr. Cable 
had learned how and was showing how. 
He was answering the call to service to 
fellowmen. And his loss is peculiarly 
distinct because he was of the temper 
of those who 'do good by stealth and 
blush to find it fame.' " r T 



Little Dialogues of a Big City 

Walter Leo Solomon 



i 

Exterior of a motion-picture theater at night; a glare of 
light, an insistent phonograph; a little girl, hatless, absorbed 
in the lurid posters. A second little girl joins her. 

Second Child: "Coin' in?" 

First Child: "Naw; got no nickel." 

Second Child: "You don't need no nickel." 

First Child: "What do you mean? Do they let you in for 

nothin' ?" 
Second Child: "Sure not! But just wait around till some 

sport goes in. He'll take you with him." 
First Child: "For nothin'?" 
Second Child: "Oh! he just fools around with you when 

the lights go out. It ain't nothin'. My sister's got a 

steady. He takes her everywhere. Sometimes she 

don't come home till three in the mornin'. My ma gets 

mad, but sis has packs of fun." 
First Child: "Do you think any feller'd take me in?" 
Second Child: "Sure! Here comes one — him with the 

swell diamond. Ast him." 

II 

The Juvenile Court. A large bare room. The judge, the 
probation officer, the interpreter, a shawled woman, a bold- 
eyed boy. 

Judge: "Is this the mother?" 

Probation Officer: "Yes, sir." 

Judge: "Come here. Do you know that your son stole this 

coat?" 
Woman (speaks through the interpreter) : "I did not know. 

He is a good boy at home." 
Judge: "Why is he out so late, so late at night?" 
Woman: "He does not stay out late: almost always he 

comes home at eleven." 
Judge: "Eleven! That's too late for a fifteen-year-old 

boy." 
Woman : "Yes, I tell him. But he says in America it is 

different." 
Judge: "Doesn't he obey you? Can't you control him?" 
Woman: "He is a good boy at home." 
Judge: "Yes, but he associates with bad boys; he frequents 

the pool-room." 
Woman : "I did not know. I have seven younger." 
Judge: "Don't you care who his companions are? Why 

don't you look after him ?" 
Woman: "I care, but what can I do? I have eight. I did 

not know." 
Judge (to boy) : "Why don't you keep away from that pool- 
room ?" 
Boy (half defiant, half sullen) : "The fellers hang out there. 

I got to go somewhere ; I can't stick in the house." 
Judge (to mother) : "But what's the matter with his father? 

Why doesn't he look after the boy? He needs a man." 
Woman : "Oh, no, he could not ! My man comes home 

late from the shop. He is very tired. He must sleep 

or he cannot work the next day. We have eight. It 

is hard." 
Judge: "Well, if he gets into trouble again, I'll have to send 

him away. If I give him another chance, will you take 

better care of him?" 
Woman: "Yes, yes! I will be careful. I will tell him to 

stay home. I did not know." 
Judge: "Suspended sentence." 
Probation Officer : "Next case." 

48 



-" III 
A boys' club. A noisy group of fourteen-year-olds just 
going out. One holds back, zcaiting to speak to a young 
man, evidently the club leader. 

Young man : "Good night, fellows. It was a splendid game. 

I'm proud of you. You captained the team in great 

shape, Ben. Aren't you going? Come in if you want 

to." 
Ben : "I'd like to talk to you for a couple of minutes, if 

you've got time." 
Young man: "Of course I've got time. Make yourself 

comfortable. Lessons going well? High School life 

seems to agree with you. You like it, don't you?" 
Ben (impulsively: "I love it." 
Young man : "That's the talk. No reason why you should 

not go through — and go to college too." 
Ben : "That's what I wanted to tell you. I thought you 

ought to know. I've got to leave school." 
Young max: "Leave school! Now? Why?" 
Ben : "My father ! They brought him home from the shop 

today. He'sick." 
Young man: "But what's the matter with him? He'll get 

better, won't he?" 
Ben : "The doctor said he had worked too hard. He's never 

had a vacation. He's been in that shop sixteen years." 
Young man : "Sixteen years ! Won't they help him now — 

his employers?" 
Ben : "They paid him for the full week. They were very 

nice. They said when he is better he can come back." 
Young max : "But you — you cannot earn enough. Ben." 
Ben: "I must help. If my father could make six dollars a 

week, I could go to school. But now I must help." 
Young max: "Isn't there some other way you could man- 
age? Its a great pity for you to leave now. You are 

doing so well." 
Ben: "There's no other way. But don't you bother. I just 

thought I'd like you to know. That's all. Good night." 

IV 
A tenement roof. In the darkness, rii'o boys lie close 
together on a thin quilt. 

First Boy: "Gee, it's hot! I can't sleep. Are you awake?" 

Second Boy: "Yes. It's too hot. Look up there." 

First Boy: "Ain't it swell: — Just like Luna Park. What 

makes the stars?" 
Second Boy : "Teacher says stars is suns and worlds." 
First Boy : "Look at that one, all shiny like silver. What 

makes them look so close to-night?" 
Second Boy: "It's dark here. They never look so bright 

when you see 'em down in the street. Say, do you re- 
member that night at the show?" 
First Boy : "You bet." 
Second Boy: "When the lights went out and the curtain 

was down, there was three little holes in the curtain. 

and you could just see a squinty light coming through." 
First Boy : "Yes. why ?" 
Second Boy: "Don't it look as if the sk\ was just a curtain 

and the stars little holes with the light peeking through -" 
First Boy: "Urn hum. That shiny, silver one is winkit 

just like moving-pictures." 
SECOND Boy: "They're all winking. I guess if you could 

get in hack of the sky it would he all like gold ami silver 

and diamonds and — and things I" 
First Boy: "Ain't Heaven behind the sky ?' 
Sk.cond Boy: "I guess so. Maybe it's little bits of Heaven 

coming through. Are you asleep! Gee, it's hot! 

Little hits of God!" 

THB Scbviy, October ••, MIS 



Social Agencies 



49 



1 


Social Agencies 





SCHOOL BELLS RING FOR 22 
MILLION 

In round numbers there were 22,- 
000,000 persons enrolled in educational 
institutions in the United States in 1914, 
according to the annual report of the 
federal commissioner of education, 
just issued. Of these over 19,000,000 
were in elementary schools; 1,374,000 
were in secondary schools, both public 
and private; and 216,000 in colleges and 
universities. Close to another 100,000 
were in normal schools preparing to be 
teachers, 67,000 were in professional 
schools, and the remainder were scat- 
tered through other types of institu- 
tions. The teachers for this educational 
army numbered 700,000, of whom 566,- 
000 were in public schools. 

The cost of education for the year, as 
nearly as the Bureau of Education 
could estimate it, was $750,000,000. This 
three-quarters of a billion, declares the 
report, is a relatively small amount 
when compared with other items in the 
public expense. It is less by $300,000,000 
than the cost of running the federal gov- 
ernment; it is not one-third the nation's 
expenditures for alcoholic-liquors ; it is 
only a little over three times the esti- 
mated cost of admissions to motion pic- 
ture theaters in the United States for 
the same year. Measured in terms of 
products of the soil, the United States 
spent somewhat more for education in 
1914 than the value of its cotton crop, 
somewhat less than the value of its 
wheat crop, and less than one-half the 
value of its annual harvest of corn. 

It is estimated that there were 25,- 
587,331 children of school age (5 to 18) 
in 1913, as compared with 25,167,445 in 
1912. The enrollment in elementary and 
secondary schools increased from 19,- 
922,261 in 1912 to 20,431,609 in 1913. 
School population, like the general pop- 
ulation, remains predominantly rural. 
By the census estimates for 1913, 53.7 
of the whole population of the country 
was rural, and 58.4 of the population 6 
to 20 years of age was rural. 

Very little increase is yet to be noted 
in the average term for public schools. 
Between 1910 and 1913 the increase was 
from 157.5 days a year to 158.1— a 
growth of only six-tenths of a day in 
3 years. Attendance has improved, how- 
ever, the average number of days at- 
tended by each enrolled person increas- 
ing from 113 in 1910 to 115.6 in 1913. 

Investigations of the year, the report 
points out, have emphasized the fact that 
the rural school problem is not confined 
to any one section, though the southern 
states, with an overwhelming rural pop- 
ulation, show the most active efforts for 
improvement. New York reports that 
of the 11.642 elementary schools in the 
state 8.430 are one-room schools; that 
in 3,580 of these the average attendance 
was 10 or less; and in nearly one-half 
the maximum tax yield, at one per cent 



for school purposes, would be $400. Of 
Colorado's 1,725 "third-class" school 
districts, 281 contain fewer than 15 chil- 
dren of school age. 

In point of rapid growth the public 
high school still yields the most impres- 
sive figures. There were 13,714 public 
and private high schools in 1914, with 
1,373,661 students. The number of 
students was an increase of 90,652 over 
the preceding year, and an increase of 
more than 100 per cent since 1902. En- 
couraging features are the increased 
number of high schools having full 
four-year courses, and the constant bet- 
terment in the proportion of students 
completing the high school course. In 
1914 the fourth-year students numbered 
194,704, or 14.27 of the total enrollment, 
as compared with 13.94 in 1913, 11.68 
in 1907. Of the 11,515 public high 
schools, 8,275 have four-year courses 
and contain 1,126,456 students, or 92.42 
of the public high school enrollment. 
There were 216,493 students in colleges, 
universities and technological schools in 
1914, an increase of 14,262 over 1913. 

Men still outnumber women in higher 
education. There were 139,373 men in 
1914 and 77,120 women, as compared 
with 128,644 men and 73,587 women in 
1913. Despite rising standards of ad- 
mission and graduation college enroll- 
ment has more than tripled since 1890. 

The number of students in profes- 
sional schools increased from 65,585 to 
66,873. Practically all of this increase 
was in the schools of dentistry where 
there were 9,315 students, as compared 
with 8,015 in 1913, an evidence, says the 
report, of the increasing interest in 
dental hygiene as part of the public 
program for good health. 



Although the commissioner found it 
practically impossible to make any re- 
liable deductions as to the present pro- 
portion of trained teachers in the 
schools, he has no hesitancy in declar- 
ing that the supply of professionally 
prepared teachers is not yet sufficient 
for the number of teaching positions 
that must be filled every year. The 
need is felt most keenly in the rural 
schools ; it is felt also in the high schools 
where the requirement of special peda- 
gogical training is now being added to 
that of college graduation, and states 
are offering subsidies, especially I jfor 
teachers in vocational subjects. It* is 
noteworthy that between 1910 and 1914 
the number of institutions engaged in 
training teachers increased from 1,397 
to 1,620, and the students in these schools 
from 115,277 to 122.446, the latter figure 
not including students in colleges and 
universities. 

The whole teacher training situation 
is declared to be rendered still more en- 
couraging by the continued remarkable 
development of summer school work; of 
the more than 200,000 persons in attend- 
ance at all kinds of summer schools in 
1914, it is estimated that fully one-third 
were teachers intent upon bettering 
their professional preparation. 

JOHNS HOPKINS COURSES FOR 
SOCIAL WORKERS 

As the result of a demand ex- 
tending over several years and more im- 
mediately as one outcome of the interest 
aroused in Baltimore last winter by the 
lectures and study classes conducted by 
Edward T. Devine under the auspices 
of the Social Service Corporation, Johns 
Hopkins University has announced cer- 
tain courses for social workers. These 
will be given as an extension of the col- 
lege courses for teachers, and will be 
carried on in co-operation with Goucher 
College. 

Prof. Jacob H. Hollander and George 
E. Barnett of the university, both of 
whom have been prominently identified 
with practical social work, will give a 




III" ■ M»M»M1 



WHERE "LITTLE WANDERERS" IN NEW ENGLAND FIND REST 

HT HIS new receiving home of the New England Home for Little Wander- 
ers, dedicated the past summer, will center its effort on intensive, scien- 
tific, thorough-going child study. The home receives destitute children from 
all parts of New England and places them in private families. The capacity 
of the new building, located at 161 South Huntington Avenue, Boston, is 
sixty. Its three stories are of dull, red brick with stone trimmings, designed 
in the Georgian style. 



50 



The Survey, October 9, 1915 




I I 1 Li I'oUlN lAli\ Kjl tOC lit 

T N this day and age the fountain of youth is a bubble fountain, whence 
clear, cool waters flow for use without the dingy mediation of the com- 
mon drinking cup. The fountain shown here is at Clifton Park Playground 
in Baltimore. The picture of it is from the annual report of the Baltimore 
Children's Playground Association — a report made up almost entirely of 
pictures of children at their play, interspersed with occasional bits of terse 
information, such as for instance, the growth of playgrounds from 1897, 
when there was one, with an enrollment of 75 and an attendance of 3,400, 
to 1914, when there were 59, with 25,000 youngsters enrolled and an attend- 
ance of over 650,000. 



course on social problems, including 
poverty, unemployment, trade unionism 
and social insurance. Another new 
course will cover social psychology, and 
existing courses on the subnormal child, 
economics, education, hygiene and psy- 
chology will be more closely related than 
heretofore to the every-day needs of 
those engaged in social work. 

The Hopkins courses will be open to 
both men and women without restriction 
except as to a reasonable standard of 
previous education. A two year's, and 
later a three year's, graded course can 
be arranged, and a special degree is in 
contemplation. This year the field work 
will probably be handled by division 
among various social agencies, but there- 
after a central director of field work 
may be engaged. 

LLINOIS TO CONTINUE THE 
HONOR SYSTEM 



I 



Long after asylums for the in- 
sane and other state charities are con- 
sidered non-political in their manage- 
ment and are placed under the merit 
law, penal and even reformatory insti- 
tutions remain the perquisites of politics. 
Where this is the case, however, there 
is a tendency nowadays to make such 
political appointments as do not sacrifice 
public interests or outrage public senti- 
ment. 

The selection of Michael Zimmer for 
the wardenship of the state penitentiary 
at Joliet, 111., is held to be of this sort, 
for while strengthening the faction in 
the democratic party to which Governor 
Dunne belongs, Mr. Zimmer's appoint- 
ment places in the wardenship a man as 
well qualified for its duties as anyone in- 
experienced in prison management 
whose appointment could have had 



political significance. He served five 
terms as alderman in the Chicago City 
Council, with the endorsement of the 
Municipal Voters League, and by his in- 
itiative the School for Crippled Children 
was added to the public schools. He has 
been sheriff of Cook County and city 
comptroller in Mayor Harrison's last 
administration. 

His attitude towards the honor sys- 
tem recently introduced at the Joliet 
prison attracts public interest. The mur- 
der of the former warden's wife has 
raised the question of its continuance, 
but without reason, for no "honor pris- 
oner" is suspected of the crime, the ac- 
cused Negro being only a "trusty" serv- 
ant in the warden's apartments. Some 
breaches in discipline following former 
warden Allen's leaving are also urged as 
a reason for returning to the more rigid 
discipline. 

Governor Dunne stoutly defends the 
honor system and Warden Zimmer has 
publicly announced his confidence in it 
as administered "without theatrical dis- 
play." Although his administration is 
expected to be cautious, he will disap- 
point the hopes of his friends if he does 
not welcome the ideals and standards of 
modern penology. 

The resignation of former warden Al- 
len was tendered and accepted because 
the governor would not consent to the 
removal of his residence from the pris- 
on to Chicago. 

Governor Dunne, at the conference of 
governors, clinched his argument for the 
abolition of capital punishment with 
this contrast between his own state and 
Wisconsin, not taking into account, how- 
ever, the disadvantage in the rating suf- 
fered by Illinois because of the great 



city's crime-producing and criminal-at- 
tracting factors: 

"Illinois was disgraced by 651 homi- 
cides in 1910, after a century of en- 
forcement of capital punishment ; while 
in Wisconsin, where it had been abol- 
ished, the homicides have not been much 
over 50 per cent per capita of those 
committed in Illinois. 

"Up to 1913 six states had abolished 
capital punishment and Washington fol- 
lowed in that year. The United States 
statistics of 1910 show that five of these 
are among the twenty with the lowest 
per capita of homicides, each with a 
percentage of .08 in each 10,000 of 
population. The non-capital punish- 
ment state — Kansas — had the same per 
capita of homicides as Illinois and 
Maryland, both capital punishment 
states. 

"Capital punishment is wrong in 
theory and in act. Society becomes 
criminal when it seeks by violence and 
the blood of its victims to right a wrong 
committed against it by products of its 
own neglect. For this class we cannot 
conceive of execution performing any 
function. The hanging of hundreds of 
thousands of them, even the massacre of 
their young, would not decrease the 
crime that springs from the slums and 
the tenements, so long as the slums re- 
main under the tolerance of an intelli- 
gent society." 



H 



ARVARD COURSE ON PLAY 
AND RECREATION 



An advance in the recognition 
given to the growing field of recreation 
is marked by new two courses of study 
offered this fall by the Division of Edu- 
cation of Harvard University. The 
courses will be given by George E. 
Johnson, formerly Director of Play- 
grounds, Pittsburgh, and for the past 
two years in charge of the course in 
play and recreation at the New York 
School of Philanthropy. Mr. Johnson 
will have the co-operation of Joseph 
Lee, president of the Playground As- 
sociation of America and author of 
Play in Education, and of Dr. Joel E. 
Goldthwait, lecturer on orthopedic sur- 
gery in the Graduate School of Medi- 
cine, Harvard. 

One of the courses, Play and Recrea- 
tion, will deal with the twofold problem 
of play as related to growth, develop- 
ment and education in childhood and 
early youth, and of recreation as related 
to the right use of leisure in youth and 
adult life. The prospectus announces 
that this course will be of interest first 
to those who are responsible for the 
education of children or the social life 
of adolescents and adults, whether in 
the capacity of executive, supervisor, 
teacher or play leader. 

The other course, Play in Education. 
will be of special interest to prospective 
or active superintendents of schools, 
principals and teachers who desire to 
make a wider application of play in 
their educational work, or to partici- 
pate in play and recreation work either 
in connection with a school system or 
with a municipal system of play and 
recreation. This course will present 
the more general biological, educational- 
and social aspects of the subjects. 



Book Reviews 



51 





Book Reviews 





To Harness 

History 
For Service 



APPLIED HISTORY VOLS. I AND II 

By Horack, Patton and others. The 
State Historical Society of Iowa. 638 
pp. Price $3; by mail of The Survey 
$3.25. 

HISTORY OF SOCIAL LEGISLATION IN IOWA 

By John E. Briggs. The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa. 444 pp. Price 
$2; by mail of The Survey $2.19. 

Iowa legislators 
and other citizens 
need not suffer soci- 
ally or politically 
from lack of knowl- 
edge. The State His- 
torical Society is fur- 
nishing them a fund 
of scientific knowl- 
edge and expert ad- 
vice of the highest 
order and, at the same 
time, an impressive 
example of usefulness and progressive- 
ness. This is embodied in three series 
of publications, — Iowa Economic His- 
tory Series, Iowa Social History Series 
and Applied History. The two vol- 
umes of the last series are an attempt 
to harness history for service. Applied 
History is defined as the effort to solve 
the present human betterment problems 
through the application of scientific 
knowledge of history and experience, 
obtained by "impartial investigation, 
scientific interpretation, expert defini- 
tion and application of standards" by 
qualified experts. 

The same purpose and plan character- 
ize all sixteen subjects treated with 
such individual modifications as nine 
authors would present. The plan for 
each subject includes (1) a presentation 
of the history of legislation and ex- 
perience in Iowa, the contemporary ex- 
perience and efforts of other states with 
relevant foreign data, (2) expert inter- 
pretation of material, definition of stand- 
ards of regulation, legislation and ad- 
ministration, and application of these 
standards to the needs and conditions of 
the hour. The effort to present the re- 
sults of this scientific research and ex- 
pert analysis in popular language and 
form is generally successful. The con- 
ception and consummation of the plan 
reflects great credit on the superintend- 
ent and editor of the society, Benjamin 
F. Shambaugh. 

All the papers focus on some policy 
for Iowa; some openly advocate, some 
lean and lead toward without open advo- 
cacy, some present alternatives without 
bias. Of the sixteen subjects, nine are 
political. Three are by Frank E. 
Horack of the State University: Pri- 
mary Elections in Iowa leads up 
to a regulated, state-wide, open, direct 
primary with the short ballot and can- 
didates' convention ; Reorganization of 
State Government in Iowa is most 
urgently needed in the executive 



branch, for which he advocates cen- 
tralization of authority and location 
of responsibility; he makes a bal- 
anced unbiased presentation of the 
pending question of Equal Suffrage in 
Iowa. Henry J. Peterson of the Iowa 
State Teachers' College, contributes 
Corrupt Practices Legislation in Iowa, 
calling loudly for more comprehensive 
legislation, better definition, clearer pro- 
cedure, ampler penalty and more pre- 
vention : from the same pen comes Se- 
lection of Public Officials in Iowa, which 
focuses on the short ballot. 

O. K. Patton of the State Uni- 
versity, discusses the extension of the 
recall system; if extended, his Removal 
of Public Officials in Iewa would apply 
it to all elective offices. His other pa- 
per, on Home Rule in Iowa, calls for 
clearer delimitation of state and local 
functions, suggesting the salient features 
for a home rule plan for Iowa munici- 
palities. The initiative and referendum 
principle has been in vogue in the gov- 
ernmental sub-divisions of Iowa for 
years; this and other historical data is 
followed by a fair resume of the argu- 
ments pro and con by "Jacob van der 
Zee, of the State Historical Society, in 
Direct Legislation in Iowa; in his other 
appearance, he is a strong champion of 
The Merit System in Iowa, as opposed to 
the old and still-existing spoils system 
of his state. 

Four of the articles are politico- 
economic. In two papers on Road Leg- 
islation in Iowa and Tax Administration 
in Iowa, John E. Brindley of the State 
College of. Agriculture, shows himself 
to be an authority on subjects not easily 
moulded to popular authorship; central- 
ized administrative authority is the key 
need in each. In Urban Utilities in 
Iowa, E. H. Downey, of the University 
of Wisconsin, steers between the Scylla 
of municipal ownership and the Cha- 
rybdis of unregulated monopoly and 
charts the strait of effective state super- 
vision with general administrative au- 
thority. The same writer severely ar- 
raigns the present laws regarding 
Work-accident Indemnity in Iowa, elu- 
cidating and endorsing the Iowa Em- 
ployers' Liability Commission's recom- 
mendations. 

Only three papers are politico-social. 
Fred E. Haynes of the State Historical 
Society, finds his state neither good or 
bad in the matter of Child Labor in 
Iowa, but somewhat lukewarm in inter- 
est and with need of new legislation 
both by further prohibition regarding age 
and hours and by promotion of voca- 
tional schools and school attendance. 
"Honorable mention" sums the verdict 
of John L. Gillies of the University of 
Wisconsin in Poor Relief Legisla- 
tion in Iowa. A few legislative 
changes, however, should displace the 
present divided authority and haphazard 
efforts of untrained officials bv corre- 



lated effort under full supervision of 
state experts. 

The most inclusive politico-social pa- 
per is that by John E. Briggs of the 
State Historical Society, on Social 
Legislation in Iowa, an abbreviation of 
his monograph, History of Social Legis- 
lation in Iowa in the Iowa Social His- 
tory Series. With the various official 
codes as landmarks, Iowa's social legis- 
lation is carefully selected, chronologic- 
ally outlined, popularly paraphrased and 
logically arranged, presenting the his- 
torical development and a general view 
of the field. The value of this work 
for the present and future lies, as the 
author avowedly purposed, in the revela- 
tion of gaps in present legislation and 
in its suggestiveness. With little open 
advocacy or direct application, he suc- 
ceeds in his purpose of pointing out and 
emphasizing the desirability of the 
trend away from the general laissez 
fairc attitude and governmental non- 
interference watchword toward central- 
ized administrative authority, and, by 
marshalling features of the Iowa situa- 
tion, further succeeds in pointing si- 
lently to the next steps in furthering 
that trend. 

The ninety-five pages of notes, refer- 
ences and index are indispensable and 
greatly enhance the value of the book. 
Ample notes and indexes characterize 
also the Applied History Papers. 

Throughout the three volumes under 
review, the struggle between decentral- 
ization and democracy on one hand and 
centralization and efficiency on the other 
is constantly to the fore, with, gener- 
ally, centralization consistently gaining. 
Practically all the writers are central- 
izationists in the interest of efficiency, 
but always concerned to preserve democ- 
racy as far as possible without wasteful 
decentralization. 

This composite social photograph 
shows Iowa to be a conservatively 
progressive state, not often pioneering, 
usually quick to test and apply, but oc- 
casionally lagging. 

The books are indispensable to Iowa 
legislators, invaluable to Iowa citizens 
and highly interesting and profitable for 
any legislators or citizens. 

Charles W. Flint. 



WHAT EVERY MOTHER SHOULD KNOW 

By Charles G. Kerley. Paul B. Hoe- 
ber. 107 pp. Price $.35; by mail of 
The Survey $.40. 

Into a little book 
of a hundred pages 
is condensed much 
practical information 
about the physical 
well-being of children 
up to their sixth year. 
The chapters discuss 
feeding, especially; 
also dentition and 
sudden ailments, and 
give some first-aid 
u directions. A num- 



How to 

Grow 

Children 



ber of formulas — the mere housekeeper 
would call them simple receipts — are 
given at the close. A valuable feature 
of this little book is the blank page at 
the left throughout, for individual anno- 
tations. 

Dr. Kerlev brings to this book, which 



52 



The Survey, October 9, 1915 



he prepared for "a child's welfare or- 
ganization," his fine experience as pro- 
fessor of children's diseases at the New 
York Polyclinic Medical School and 
Hospital. 

G. S. 

THE AMERICAN NEGRO. AS A DEPENDENT 
DEFECTIVE AND DELINQUENT 

By Charles H. McCord. The Mac- 
millan Company. 342 pp. Price $2; 
by mail of The Survey $2.16. 

If a book may be 
pre-judged by the ti- 
tle, the above will be 
regarded with consid- 
erable distrust both 
by the special student 
and the intelligent 
general reader. Nor 
is the writer's treat- 
ment of the theme 
reassuring. He ad- 
mits a pessimistic 
feeling concerning: the 
future of the American Negro and 
of the country compelled to harbor 
but recognizes that the prob- 
must be faced. He describes 



From Temper- 
ate and 
Torrid Zones 



: Tt i£)fo &> 



him 
lem 



our civilization, in the words of an- 
other writer, as one which unites "un- 
der one flag two strains of racial hered- 
ity, originating in the temperate and 
torrid zones. "Before meeting here one 
had evolved a hereditary endowment, 
delicately adjusted to the highest civili- 
zation in history, the other remained in 
benighted savagery." As we never think 
of estimating the Caucasian race apart 
from the historical and social antecedents 
which have created it, so must we meas- 
ure our hopes of the American Negro 
by the testimony or data offered in the 
jungle life of his distant forbears, "those 
conditions which molded him through 
and through long before we took him In 
hand." We are thus left "to deal with 
a compound the proportion of whose ele- 
ments we do not know." 

Upon this basis of the known and un- 
known, the known made up of the small- 
est and poorest available data, and keep- 
ing steadily to the backward view, the 
writer develops his thesis. 

There are many professed scientists 
and special students whose conceptions 
■of science and the scientific method are 
as literal and mechanical as Mr. Mc- 
Cord's. One recalls the cautionary words 
of Professor Royce respecting those sci- 
entists who use their science in support 
of their personal prejudices. "What I 
propose to show" says the writer, "is 
that the Negro cannot adapt himself to 
our standards." Without going into the 
question of superiority or inferiority of 
either race ,"it is necessary to recognize 
the fact that they are different." This 
difference is first pointed out in biologi- 
cal terms of structure and function, and 
the author argues that when physical 
characteristics are so marked, psychical 
traits must be as great and ineradicable ; 
are, in other words hopelessly "racial 
and inherent." 

Mr. McCord uses the term "race" with 
mathematical certitude .where prominent 
experts like Boas, Wilder, Thomas and 
Park find it one of the most relative and 
fluctuating terms in our scientific vocabu- 
lary, of little absolute value. Keeping 



Preparation 

for a 
Life Career 



this fixed and definite sense in mind, it is 
not strange that the writer believes race 
prejudice to be "mutual and as perma- 
nent as the races themselves." 

Such are the main principles laid down 
in Mr. McCord's book, whose discussion 
of the general theme is not, however, al- 
together unfriendly. He recognizes 
many evils in our treatment of the ex- 
slave, and the white man's responsibility. 

The book is of readable style and 
covers a wide range of study, but the 
treatment does not convey that impres- 
sion of first-hand investigation and re- 
search imparted by works of known ex- 
perts like those we have mentioned and 
others of similar rank. 

Celia Parker Woolley. 

profitable vocations for boys 

By E. W. Weaver and J. Frank By- 
ler. The A. S. Barnes Company. 214 
pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The Sur- 
vey $1.08. 

This is the second 
book in a series on 
vocations for young 
people urging the 
importance of early 
comprehending and 
establishing in the 
young person's mind, 
what ex-President 
Eliot of Harvard 
calls "the life career 
motive." "This calls 
for careful planning, 
and long-enduring effort. The young 
man who would win. like the wise 
general, must fix his goal in his 
own mind, take careful account 
of his equipment, plan his campaign, 
and push his advance at every oppor- 
tunity. He studies himself, surveys his 
field of opportunities, seeks some satis- 
fying employment which will permit the 
free exercise of his best powers, de- 
termines upon the acquisition of some 
skill or the accumulation of some ex- 
perience which will enable him to make 
reasonable terms with some employer, 
and land him in a position in which he 
may be the master of his own destinies." 
The general problem of vocational 
analysis is discussed in a sane and prac- 
tical manner in the first few chapters 
under such headings as The Prelimin- 
ary Survey, A Brief Self-Examina- 
tion, Choosing an Employer. Getting 
Ahead, Scientific Management and La- 
bor Laws and Labor Contracts. 

There follow thirty-two chapters on 
the principal trades and professions. 
giving briefly but in most interesting 
and readable form, general information 
on conditions, wages, training neces- 
sary for entrance, and future opportun- 
ities in each. The final chapter of the 
book lists by occupations a number of 
special schools in New York and Phila- 
delphia. 

The seeds of vocational guidance 
have long been existent in the schools, 
but they have not developed in definite 
force until recently and indeed the 
period of florescence is still some time 
away. In only a very few schools or 
cities is the vocational counsellor an es- 
tablished agent. The increasing number 
of industrial education surveys gives in- 
dication that there will be a rapid ac- 



cumulation of important literature, out 
of which "there will be formed ulti- 
mately some definite rules for the sci- 
entific management of the individual by 
the aid of which the prospective work- 
er may be enabled to choose wisely, pre- 
pare thoroughly and advance himself 
rapidly." 

Meanwhile the discussions in this book 
with the use of the wide-range of ref- 
erences which it offers, will do much 
toward aiding teachers, parents and so- 
cial workers and others interested to 
give young people who are about to 
leave school "a general survey of the 
field of occupations, helping them to 
form a definite purpose showing them 
how to investigate questions which deal 
with the choice of a career and the best 
methods of preparation for success 
along particular lines, directing atten- 
tion to the vocational training facilities 
of the community, showing how to 
utilize them and placing before them 
an index to available vocational liter- 
ature." 

Alvin E. Dodd. 

BOOKS RECEIVED 

Colon Hygiene. By J. H. Kellogg. The 

Good Health Publishing Co. 393 pp 

Price $2 ; by mail of The Survey $2.10. 
TnE Mighty and the Lowly. By Katrina 

Trask. The Macmillan Co. 155 pp. Price 

$1 : by mail of The Survey $1.05, 
Economic Aspects op the War. Bv Edwin 

.T. Clapp. Yale University Press. * 36o pp 

Price $1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $L62. 
Mothers' Pensions. By Edna D. Bullock 

The H. W. Wilson Co. 188 pp. Price $1 : 

by mail of The Survey $1.08. 
Short Ballot. By Edna D. Bullock. The II 

W. Wilson Co. 160 pp. Price $1 ; by mail 

of The Survey $1.08. 
Immigration. By Mary Katharine Reely 

The H. W. Wilson Co. 315 pp. Price $1 : 

by mail of The Survey $1.10. 
The Tin-Plate Industry. By Donald Earl 

Dunbar. Houghton, Mifflin Co. 122 pp. 

Price $1 : by mail of The Survey $1.08. 
Marriage and Divorce. Bv Felix Adler. D. 

Appleton & Co. 91 pp. Price $.75; bv mail 

of The Survey $.80. 
Educational Hygiene. By L. W. Rapeer 

Charles Scribner's Sons. 650 pp. Price 

$2.25 ; by mail of The Survey $2.43. 
Sure Pop and the Safety Scouts. Bv Rov 

Rutherford Bailey. The World Book Co 

130 pp. Price $.42 ; by mall of The Sur- 
vey $.47. 
Violette or Pere Lachaisb. Bv Anna Strun- 

sky Walling. Frederick A. Stokes Co. 10^ 

pp. Price $1: by mail of The Survey (1.08. 
The House Fly. By F. W. Fltzsimons. Long 

mans, Green & Co. 89 pp. Price $.86; in 

mail of The Survey $.39. 
The World Crisis and Its Meaning. Bv 

Felix Adler. D. Appleton & Co. 288 pp. 

Price $1.50; by mail of The Sik\ii $1.80. 
A History of Economic Doctrims r. 

Charles Glde and Charles Rist. D. C. 

Heath & Co. 672 pp. Price $3; bv mail 

of The Survey $3.20. 
Trades and Professions. By George Her 

bert Falmer. Houghton, Mifflin Co. 34 pp. 

Price $.50; by mail of The Survi \ $.53. 
Economic Origins of .Teffersoman DEMOCR4 

cy. By Charles A. Beard. The Ma'-mlllan 

Co. 474 pp. Price $2.50; bv mall of Tin 

Sl'RVEY $2.70. 
The Cultivated Man. Bv Charles W. Eliot. 

Houghton, Mifflin Co. 25 pp. Price $.60 

by mail of The Subvbi $.68 
('aim Yourself. Bv George Lincoln Walton 

Houghton, Mifflin Co. 46 pp. Price - 

by mall of The Sirvky $.53. 
The Amateur Spirit. Bv Bliss lVrrv 

Houghton. Mifflin Co. 3 4 pp. Price - 

by mail of The Survey 
Self-Cultivation in English. Bj <• 

Herbert Palmer. Houghton. Mifflin 

41 pp. Price $.50: bv mall of The Si 

$.53. 
The Glory ok the Impkrfbct. By George 

Herbert Palmer Houghton, Mitllin ( ',< 

pp. Price $.50: by mail of The Si i:vm 

$.68. 
The Passport. Bv Emilo Voute. Mitchell 

Kennerley. 362 pp. Price $1.36 : bv mail 

of The Survey Si. 45. 
The Means and Methods ok &.QBIC1 i tirai 

I'm cation. Bv Albert Leake. Houghton. 

Mifflin Co. 273 pp. Price $2 : bv mall of 

Tin Survey slm:; 



Conferences 



53 



Conferences 



THE American Public Health 
Association has grown so large 
that it is no longer possible at 
the annual conference to cover 
all the departments with which it deals 
in general sessions. Specialization has 
had to come in with the formation of 
separate sections, all holding their meet- 
ings at the same time. In Rochester 
during the recent conference, reports 
Dr. Alice Hamilton, there must have 
been many who experienced the fami- 
liar baffled and irritated feeling that, 
even by the utmost effort, a third of the 
papers they had marked on the program 
as especially interesting could not be 
heard. 

The industrial hygiene section claimed 
her dutiful attendance, but fortunately, 
Dr. Hamilton says, there were some free 
half-days for general sessions on sub- 
jects of universal interest. One general 
session was given up to the discussion 
of public health education, the value of 
which was shown beyond possibility of 
doubt, and yet one could have wished 
for a little more criticism of present- 
day methods of publicity, warnings 
against overzeal in the use especially of 
what is as yet not absolutely proven, 
against overemphasis of the relatively 



unimportant, against exaggeration and 
sensationalism. 

The symposium most widely reported 
in the daily press was that on the death- 
rate of the higher age groups. Two 
papers were presented by the Life Ex- 
tension Institute, showing that though 
the death-rate of babies, children, and 
young adults has fallen very decidedly, 
that for the middle-aged has risen. 

Even more interesting was a report 
presented during the same session by the 
standing committee on habit-forming 
drugs, the first report since the new 
federal law went into operation. The 
law is evidently far from perfect and 
will need strengthening in several re- 
spects, especially with regard to the con- 
trol of unscrupulous physicians. J. F. 
Chase, of the New England Watch and 
Ward Society, spoke strongly in favor 
of making the same efforts for the sup- 
pression of the drug evil as have for 
many years been made in the campaigns 
against drink and vice. He said that so 
far all efforts had been directed toward 
suppressing the sale of habit-forming 
drugs, not toward lessening the demand 
for them. 

The section on industrial hygiene 
held a good session with the sociological 



and the vital statistics sections. Two 
large private companies, the Metropoli- 
tan Life Insurance Company and the 
Life Extension Institute, presented in- 
dustrial statistics, the former on mor- 
tality rates in industrial classes, the lat- 
ter on evidences of disease in certain 
classes of industrial workers. It would 
be hard to over-estimate the importance 
of this field of study, for in this country 
we have so little accurate data on the 
health hazards in different industries. 
Physical examination of hundreds of 
working people is by far the best method 
of determining these hazards, yet there 
is a growing opposition to such examin- 
ations when instituted by the employers 
and carried out by physicians paid by 
the employers. 

John B. Andrews undertook to ex- 
plain this opposition of the workers, 
showing how inevitably suspicion arises, 
that the employer is using this means to 
weed out not only the physically unfit 
but also the aggressive trade unionist, 
and showing also the great hardships 
which result in a country where there is 
no sickness or invalidity insurance when 
a man still able to work is thrown on 
the scrap-heap because examination has 
revealed some physical defect. Prob- 
ably the best way to avoid the first of 
these objections is to have such exami- 
nations made by physicians in public 
health work and therefore above sus- 
picion of partisanship. 

Two admirable reports of this sort of 
work were read by Dr.J.W. Schereschew- 
sky of the United States Public Health 
Service, who told of the physical ex- 
aminations conducted among garment 
workers in New York and Dr. L. I. 



REST and RE-CREATION 

The Average Individual Needs 
8 hours sleep 




Night 



Nervousness and irritability are danger signals. 
They mean the body is being overtaxed. 



Average Amount of work Accomplished per Hour 

In a 9 Hour and an 8 Hour Day 

(Zeiss Optical Works) 




/ 



THE PROBLEM of MENTAL 
DISEASE 

IN NEW YORK STATE 



Deaths 

from genera) paresis I 
locomotor ataxia, and 
softening of the brain 
in 1913 ► 



EEE1 E3 



Deaths 

| from Typhoid Fever 
■< in 1913 



PREVENTABLE CAUSES of MENTAL DISEASE 



Bad Mental Training 
Malnutrition 
Overwork 
Worry 



Number of Insane 

in Institutions 

in 1913 

35,030 




Venereal Disease 
Alcoholism 
The Drug Habit 
Industrial Accidents 



/Number of Students 

' in Colleges of 

New York State 

in 1913 

30,992 



PANELS FROM THE EXHIBIT AT THE ROQHESTER MEETING OF THE AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION 



54 



The Survey, October 9, 1915 



Harris of the Industrial Hygiene Divi- 
sion of the New York City Department 
of Health, who told of a similar study 
in two much more dangerous trades, the 
furriers' and the hatters.' 

At this same session Dr. Lanza of the 
Public Health Service presented a re- 
port, for which some of us have been 
waiting eagerly, on the diseases and 
health hazards of metal miners, based 
on studies in the zinc mines of Missouri. 
For some reason metal miners have 
never attracted the attention of sani- 
tarians as have coal miners, though they 
need it much more, especially since, as 
Dr. Lanza showed to be the case in 
Missouri, the mining of the metal in- 
volves exposure to large quantities of 
flint dust, which has for centuries been 
recognized as the chief cause of potters' 
consumption. 

An excellent argument for workmen's 
compensation laws was given in the 
paper of Dr. C. G. Farnum of the Avery 
Company of Peoria, 111., who described 
the admirable work of this company in 
accident prevention, in finding work for 
the handicapped, and in fitting the man 
to his job by thorough physical tests. 
Dr. Farnum said that when the Illinois 
compensation law was passed in 1912, 
an insurance company looked over the 
plant and offered to insure at a rate of 
$3.35 per hundred dollars of payroll. 
This, seeming excessive, the company 
resolved to carry its own insurance and 
to see what could be done toward les- 
sening the hazards. Dr. Farnum was 
put in charge and now three years later 
the same company offers to insure at 
$.17 per hundred dollars, with an inti- 
mation that a rate even lower may 
eventually be worked out. All of which, 
comments Dr. Hamilton, goes to show 
the educational value of workmen's com- 
pensation laws. 

V\/*AYWARD girls of sixteen are to- 
day sent to the state penitentiary 
in South Carolina. Even first offend- 
ers there mingle with women experi- 
enced in crime. Feeble-minded of both 
sexes and all ages are allowed to pur- 
sue their unrestricted course through 
society, taking toll of the rest of the 
communitv in all the ways that mental 
irresponsibility can lead to. 

Neither condition will last long, if 
the spirit that prevailed at the recent 
joint session of the State Conference of 
Charities and Correction and the State 
Conference for Common Good is any 
indication. When the governor, lieu- 
tenant governor, and speakers of both 
branches of the legislature attend every 
session of a conference on such topics, 
as occurred in Columbia, and when a 
speaker from outside the state is pressed 
to return and address the coming ses- 
sion of the legislature on the care of the 
feebleminded, as happened to Alexander 
Johnson, lecturer for the Training 
School at Vineland, N. J., there is hope 
for social progress. 

The state of South Carolina has a 
school for wayward boys. A law estab- 
lishing one for girls failed to pass at 
the legislature last year and will be 
brought forward again in January, 1916. 
So, too, with provision for the feeble- 
minded. Few southern states have such 
provision at present, exceptions being 



Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Texas and Missouri. 
The South Carolina State Federation of 
Women's Clubs has announced its in- 
tention to help in this matter, and other 
organizations have lined up aggressively 
for the campaign. 

The new Board oi State Charities in 
South Carolina promises hope for the 
future also. This was created by this 
year's legislature and the members were 
immediately appointed by Governor 
Manning. The secretary, Albert S. 
Johnstone, has had experience as 
Y.M.C.A. and chamber of commerce 
secretary. 

The state hospital for the insane has 
been taken out of the hands of poli- 
ticians and put into the hands of a well- 
prepared superintendent, who has had 
experience both as physician and execu- 
tive. 

T^HE task — "attempting to improve the 
condition in home, school, community 
and institution" — with which the Amer- 
ican Home Economics Association finds 
itself confronted is no modest job. That 
the members have a good grasp of the 
situation was reversed at the recent an- 
nual meeting of the association held at 
Washington University, Seattle, recent- 
ly, writes Alice M. Loomis. 

Besides interesting reports and ex- 
haustive discussions of such subjects as 
municipal markets, nutrition and hy- 
giene and the teaching of textiles, the 
meeting made some constructive ad- 
vances in organization. A science sec- 
tion was created and plans made to en- 
courage research work in the field of 
home economics and to keep teachers in 
touch with advances made. An exten- 
sion section was organized and a com- 
mittee appointed to consider the training 
of workers in this field. 

One of the most helpful addresses 
given was by Alice Ravenhill, acting sec- 
retary of the Advisory Board of Women's 
Institutes, British Columbia. Miss 
Ravenhill lectured widely in England in 
London University and other schools. 
Her subject was The Economics of Ef- 
ficiency. She quoted the definition of 
efficiency as "That science whose meth- 
ods enable us to avoid waste in material 
and in human effort to the general bene- 
fit of all concerned." 

Martha Van Rensselaer, professor of 
home economics at Cornell University, 
well known as one of the first organizers 
of home study courses, was re-elected 
as president of the association. 

I T puts a state in interesting position 
when a league of its progressive 
cities convenes for its annual session in 
a million dollar municipal auditorium. 
Such a state is California and the hand- 
some municipal building is at Oakland 
where the eighteenth annual meeting of 
the League of California Municipalities 
was held during five days in early Sep- 
tember. 

In an address on the City-Planning 
Idea, Ex-President Taft gave an inter- 
esting account of city planning in the 
Philippine Islands, and also told of the 
work along these lines in Washington, 
D. C. 

William J. Locke, president of the 
Municipal Reference Bureau of Ala- 



meda, Calif., spoke on The Value of the 
New City Planning: Laws. Mr. Locke 
gave a synopsis of the new California 
law providing for the creation and main- 
tenance of city planning commissions, 
also of the amendment to the new map- 
filing law, which requires that all maps 
of new tracts or subdivisions of lanjls 
within municipalities or within three 
miles therefrom be approved by the city 
planning commission before they may be 
filed with the county recorder. 

Harold S. Buttenheim, editor of the 
American City contributed a paper on 
Preparing the Public for Progress. He 
declared that the public are often asked 
to vote an indebtedness without being 
sufficiently informed regarding the 
nature of the improvement proposed, 
and advocated a thorough campaign of 
education before submitting a proposi- 
tion to vote. Mr. Buttenheim's paper 
was read by Roy S. Smith, vice-presi- 
dent of the American City Bureau. 

Other interesting addresses were on 
Street Trees, and the Municipal Water 
Supply of the City of Los Angeles, 
which was illustrated by a large model 
of the citv water works. 





COMMUNICATIONS 





VENEREAL HOSPITAL NEEDED 

To the Editor: In reference to the 
abstract of Dr. Kirby's address published 
in The Survey for September 11 under 
the title, Syphilis the Scourge of So- 
ciety, I would like to emphasize the ex- 
tremely important fact that, in the pre- 
vention of paresis, we have a second 
line of defense. 

The first one is the prevention of syph- 
ilis, but it seems to me very essential 
that the public generally should know 
that, even though syphilis has been ac- 
quired, paresis may still be prevented by 
early, continued and successful treat- 
ment of the original infection. 

Our public facilities for the treatment 
of syphilis are absurd. Many public 
hospitals in this city refuse to treat per- 
sons with syphilis unless they are able 
to pay for the salvarsan required. In the 
light of Dr. Kirby's findings, no more 
short-sighted policy could be devised. 
There is an urgent need in this city for 
hospitals and dispensaries especially for 
the treatment of venereal disease, and I 
doubt whether the city, the state or phi- 
lanthropic individuals could make any 
expenditure in any field whatsoever 
which would bring so rich a return as 
the establishment and support of such 
institutions. Dr. Kirbv mentioned the 
fact that 45 per cent of a series of 100 
children of paretics were found to be 
themselves mentally or physically defect- 
ive and that 30 per cent of them were 
actually infected with syphilis. Certainly 
the commuinty owes something to those 
innocent victims of their parents' faults, 
and yet, T doubt whether, if the matter 
were carefully inquired into, it would be 
found that even the children in th«se 
series (with which I am familiar) have 



Communications 



oo 



all, or nearly all, received efficient treat- 
ment for their disease. 

All this is a different phase of the 
subject from that which Dr. Kirby dis- 
cussed. I would like very much indeed 
to have The Survey make a study of 
the facilities for the treatment of syph- 
ilis in this city and publish the results. 

Thomas W. Salmon, M.D. 
[Medical director, the National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene.] 

New York. 

SECRETARY REDFIELD'S LETTER 

To the Editor: My attention has been 
called to the issue of The Survey for 
August 7, 1915, and to the article therein 
entitled The Eastland Disaster by Gra- 
ham Taylor and to the editorial on page 
428, etc. [See also page 45 of this issue.] 
I shall not attempt myself to character- 
ize either, but will merely offer certain 
suggestions for your consideration. I 
take from page 430 these words : "The 
administration called for a departmental 
investigation and Secretary Redfield 
took it in hand personally." (Page 410). 

The facts cannot have been clear to 
the writer. The inquiry mentioned is 
one especially required by the United 
States statutes. It was not "called for" 
by any one. It took place under the au- 
tomatic operation of the law without any 
call whatever. Neither the President 
nor the administration suggested or con- 
voked it. It was a regular and usual 
procedure taking place in the case of 
every accident involving loss of life or 
property or in which the conduct of li- 
censed officers is concerned. My pres- 
ence was of my own motion, without any 
one's direction, and was merely because 
of the gravity of the occasion. 

I assume you may have seen the state- 
ment issued by the board of inquiry at 
its adjournment, but I enclose a copy 
of it, together with a note which will 
show you that it was prepared with the 
aid and approval of officers of the De- 
partment of Justice, the Naval Depart- 
ment, and the Department of Commerce. 
Among the names signed to the report is 
that of the lieutenant governor of Il- 
linois; also the chairman of the com- 
mittee on steamboat inspection service 
of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States, and two well known citi- 
zens of Chicago. 

I presume you know, though Mr. Tay- 
lor's article does not say so, that the 
inquiry was thrown widely open, and 
that the state's attorney, the assistant 
corporation counsel, the public adminis- 
trator, the lieutenant-governor, the con- 
gressman of the district most concerned, 
and others took a constant and an active 
part. 

Without commenting upon Mr. Tay- 
lor's article, may I ask him, through you, 
a few questions? 1. Did he call upon 
me during the ten days I was in Chicago 
to learn any facts? 2. Did he attend 
the hearings of the board of inquiry? 
3. Has he read the testimony taken by 
the board of inquiry? I venture to think 
had he done so his article might have 
borne a modified tenor and that certain 
omissions of fact, as well as statements 
of things which are not facts, might 
thereby have been prevented. 

It is a pity, do you not think, that one 
should print portions of letters to a de- 
partment without suggesting that a reply 



was made and telling its nature? Since 
also nothing appears in the article on 
behalf of the service which is attacked, 
does it not seem a little like the pro- 
cedure which in holy writ gave rise to 
the question, "Doth our law judge any 
man before he hear him?" 

Finally, one wonders why it was not 
thought well to print the brief statement 
with which the inquiry was opened, 
which is a matter of public record, and 
why, out of almost or quite a thousand 
pages of testimony, three brief para- 
graphs are extracted. 

May I say in conclusion that so far 
as Judge Landis administering a rebuke 
is concerned, we had a delightful con- 
ference together in which he and I 
agreed cordially, and our action was 
throughout entirely harmonious. The 
incident of which Mr. Taylor writes 
came up between the justice and myself, 
and we were in accord upon it. 

William C. Redfield. 
August 10, Washington, D. C. 

"WHAT ROCKEFELLER KNEW" 

To the Editor : I have been a sub- 
scriber to The Survey for a good many 
years but I never felt my indebtedness 
to its editor and his associates more 
keenly than when the issue for August 
21 came to hand and I read the analysis 
of the testimony concerning John D. 
Rockefeller, Jr., before the United States 
Commission on Industrial Relations. 

I consider this article one of the most 
important and illuminating of all the 
good things The Survey has done. 
There is a large and growing body of 
people in America who are trying to 
make up their minds on this question 
of industrial relations, responsibility for 
social disturbances, etc. We want the 
facts and so often we are obliged to 
depend upon reports which we feel are 
biased or unfair. The situation is seri- 
ous enough without having the whole 
question fuddled and intensified by dis- 
tortions, concealments and partisan state- 
ments. 

It gives me much pleasure to write of 
my deep appreciation of your service in 
this one instance and to acknowledge 
with gratitude my constant dependence 
upon The Survey for a knowledge 
and an interpretation of the events 
which come within the scope of such a 
magazine. And by the way, it is a broad 
field you are working in. The Survey 
is not narrow or technical. It is human, 
— hence, intensely interesting and help- 
ful. 

Ray F. Carter. 
[Pastor Hollywood Congregational 

Church.] 

Los Angeles, Calif. 



N 



ational Consumer's 
League Annual Meeting 

CLEVELAND. OHIO. 
November 4th and 5th, 1915 

For information, apply to the 

General Secretary. Mrs. Florence Kelley, 

289 Fourth Avenue, 
Room 43 1 . New York City. 



n 



JOTTINGS 



Baltimore, the monthly organ of the Mer- 
chants' and Manufacturers' Association of 
that city, has added a new section on social 
progress, the material for which will be 
supplied by John Daniels, director of the 
Social Service Corporation. 



The workmen's compensation law which 
became operative in Oklahoma on Septem- 
ber 1 covers "accidental personal injuries 
arising out of and in course of employment 
and such diseases or infections as may re- 
sult therefrom." The commission is work- 
ing out a scheme of rates and fees. 



Two courses in public health are an- 
nounced by the College of Medicine of 
Syracuse University. One course is offered 
by correspondence, the final week being 
required at Syracuse; the other, given in 
residence, will include lectures, readings, 
laboratory and field work. Both a;e con- 
ditioned upon the registration of at least 
fifty physicians. 

Since it was appointed on August 1, the 
New York city Board of Child Welfare 
has received applications for pensions from 
1,400 widows, with 4,200 children— an aver- 
age of three to each family. Should all 
prove eligible they would make up an an- 
nual pension roll of about $550,000. The 
board has asked for an appropriation for 
the remainder of 1915 sufficient to investi- 
gate the applications, and for 191(> will seek 
a regular budget appropriation. 

Residents in Riverside Drive, New York 
city, have bridged the Hudson with their 
noses and discovered in New Jersey a mod- 
ern interstate form of the "two and seventy 
stenches" and "several stinks" which Cole- 
ridge counted at Koln on the Rhine. Chem- 
ical works along the Palisades have for 
years eructated gases past endurance on hot 
nights, but it was not until residents of 
both sides the river entered a joint com- 
plaint that the New Jersey Department of 
Health took a smell and called a - hearing. 

STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, 
CIRCULATION, etc., of The Survey, published weekly at 
New York, N. Y„ for October 1, 1915 as required by the Act 
of August 24, 1912. 

Name of Post-office address 

Editor, Paul U. Kellogg, 105 E. 22d St., New Yerk. 

Managing Editor, A. P. Kellogg, 105 E. 22d St., New York. 
Business Manager, J. P. Heaton. 105 E. 22d St.. New York. 
Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc. 105 E. 22d St, New York. 

Owners: (If a corporation, give names and addresses of 
stockholders holding 1 per c^nt or more of total amount of 
stock.) Survey Associates, Inc., 105 E. 22d St., New York. 
A non-commercial corporation under the laws of New York 
State with over 900 members. It has neither stocks nor 
bonds. The following are the directors : 



Post-office address 
30 Broad St., New York, N.Y. 
1 30 E. 22d St., New Yo-k, N.Y. 
346 Founh Ave., New York N.Y. 
800 So. Halstead St , Chicago, III. 
51 Wall Street, New York, N.Y. 
105 E. 22d St., New York, N.Y. 
U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, 

Chicago, III. 
68 Broad St., N = w York, N.Y. 
2 Wall Street, New York, N.Y. 
University of Penn., Phila., Pa, 
265 Henry St., New York, N.Y. 
14 Wall Street, New York, N.Y. 
Secretary of Board of Directors 
Arthur P. Kellogg 105 E 22d St., New York, N. Y. 

Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security hold- 
ers, holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities: None. 

(Signed) JAMES P. HEATON, Business Manager. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 29th day of Sep- 
tember, 1915. Edward B. bruch, Notary Public, West- 
chester Co. Certificate filed in New York Co. New York Co. 
Cik. No. 187. Register No. 7228 (My commission expires 
March 30, 1917.) 



Names of Directors 
Robert W. de Forest, Pres. 
John M. Glenn, Vice-Pres. 
Frank Tucker, Treasurer 
Jane Addams 
Robert S. Brewster 
Edward T. Devine 
Julian W. Mack 

V. Event Macy 
Cha.les D. Norton 
Simon N. Patten 
Lillian D. Wald 
Alfred T. White 



Columbia {Slmbera.ttj> 
intl)cautt>irflfato#0rR 



The Institute of Arts and Sciences 
A System of Popular Education 

(4:15 p.m. and 8:15 p.m., October to April) 
PROGRAM FOR 1915-1916 

Music — 

36 Concerts, Recitals, etc. 

Art and Architecture — 

34 Ledtures (30 Illustrated) 

Drama and Literature — 

14 Dramatic Recitals 
40 Lectures 

Efficient Government, State 
and Labor, 14 Ledtures 

Travel — 

22 Illuslrated Ledtures 

Science — 

1 9 Ledtures ( 1 3 Illuslrated) 

Household Arts — 

6 Ledtures 

European War — 

1 5 Lectures 

Social Science, Philosophy and 
Economics — 

50 Ledtures (approximately) 
by well-known Columbia pro- 
fessors and others. General 
discussion (Forum) on Tues- 
day evenings. 

^ Program of about 250 meetings, as 
outlined above, subscribed for as a 
whole, on a membership basis of $1 
a year (enrollment fee $5.) Ticket 
transferable; admits one in afternoon 
and two in evening. Third year begins 
October 12, 1915, 8:15 p. m. 

•fl If you desire to receive the An- 
nouncement III, giving details of the 
program, send name and address to 
The Institute of Arts and Sciences, 
Columbia University. 



CIVIL SERVICE 



Classified Advertisements 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



PRIVATE SECRETARY. Is there op- 
portunity in your New York office for 
well educated, intelligent woman, accurate 
stenographer, experienced in secretarial 
work? Address 2204 Survey. 

GRADUATE R. N. of large general hos- 
pital, executive position for last twelve 
years desires position as superintendent in 
or near Philadelphia. Address 2205, Sur- 
vey. 



YOUNG man, college and school of 
philanthropy graduate, several years experi- 
ence in social work, desires position. Ad- 
dress 2206 Survey. 



Are You a Social 
Investigator? 

Here's Your Opportunity 
Salary $1,080 to $1,380. 

Must be familiar with laws governing 
care and relief of needy persons and 
children ; of methods, agencies and in- 
stitutions devoted to welfare service and 
charitable relief work. If you lack this 
do not apply. Subjects and weights : 
General paper 4 ; Training and Experi- 
ence 4 ; Oral, 2. Applications will be 
issued from and received at Room 1400, 
Municipal Building New York City from 

October 6 to October 21 at 4 p.m. 

Age limits from 21 to 50 years. 

Applications filed for this position be- 
tween September 13 and September 27 
need not be duplicated. 

Requests for application blanks by 
mail must be accompanied by a self- 
addressed stamped envelope (9% x 4% 
inches) bearing four cents in postage. 

MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION 



A Training Class for Volunteers 
in Work with Girls 

CONDUCTED CY 
NELLIE M. SMITH, A. M. 

Will be held on Tuesday and Thursday 
mornings at ten o'clock at 21 I West 56th 
Street, beginning November 9. 

The course will include lectures, visits, round 
table discussions, and field work. 
Fee, $10.00 for thirty sessions. 
Send for booklet to 

MISS NELLIE M. SMITH 
498 West End Avenue, New York 



P 



ennsylvania Conference of 
Charities and Correction 

SCRANTON, PA. 
October 21, 22, 23, 1915 

ALL SOCIAL WORKERS IN PENNSYLVANIA 
CORDIALLY INVITED 

For further information address, Maurice Willows, 
Assistant Secretary, Local Committee, 346 Adams 
Avenue, Scranton, Pa. 



Colon Hygiene 

A New Book, fully illustrated, nearly 4<K> pases, by 

Dr. J. H. KELLOGG 

Superintendent Battle Creek Sanitarium. 
Describes causes and results of chronic constipa- 
tion and new and successful methods of home 
treatment. Any reader of this magazine may. by 
sending ti., secure the book for examination with 
privilege of return in two days for refund. Send 
order to— Good HEALTH PrnLisHlNG Co.. '-'fiio 
W. Main St., Battle Creek, Michigan. 



BUY YOUR BOOKS 

FROM THE 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

105 East 22d Street, New York. 
Publishers for the 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION 

and dealers in books on 
SOCIAL, CIVIC and ECONOMIC PROBLEMS 



Mr. Social Worker, 
Dear Sir : 
Jlre you a press agent 
for social progress? 

You don't catch the drift 
of this abrupt remark, do 
you ? Yet it is simple. 

Are you not striving for 
public appreciation and 
support of your work ? An- 
nual and special reports, 
correspondence and news- 
paper interviews and per- 
sonal visits are but press 
agent work, or the adver- 
tising of social service ac- 
tivities. 

How can you play your 
part effectively in influen- 
cing the public without a 
knowledge of what social 
workers are doing not alone 
in your own town but 
throughout the land? 

Social progress must ad- 
vance along the whole line. 
An advance gained at one 
end of the trenches is not 
secure until the whole line 
comes abreast. 

To get perspective, to aid 
in the general advance, you 
need The Survey, not every 
once in a while, but every 
week in the year. 

Fifty-two issues full of 
the spirit and enthusiasm of 
service in all causes will fit 
you better for your job. 

Very sincerely, 

THE SURVEY. 



TYRRKI. PRINT, NEW YORK 




semvey 

A f~** T T A T T I ' A T f~^ r ' r T~ , /^\ A /~> r I ' TS^\ 7V 7" 



,4 CHALLENGE TO ACTION 

To the people and governments of the chief neutral nations — 
especially to the people and government of the United States 
— to turn a "barren disinterestedness into active good will' 

ITHAT THE NATIONS NOW AT WAR would look without disfavor upon a con- 
ference of neutral nations as a possible medium for the settlement of the conflict, and that 
the neutral nations of Europe are prepared for such a conference provided they can get the 
co-operation of the United States, is declared in a joint public statement issued by the envoys 
to the governments from the International Congress of Women at The Hague. 

"JDEVIEWING THE SITUATION," says the report, "we believe that of the five 
European neutral nations visited three are ready to join in such a conference, and that 
two are deliberating the calling of such a conference. Of the intention of the United States, 
we have as yet no evidence. " 

"M Y COUNTRY WOULD NOT FIND ANYTHING UNFRIENDLY in 
such action by the neutrals, " are the words credited to a foreign minister of one great 
belligerent, with respect to the proposed continuous conference. "My government would place 
no obstacle in the way of its institution, " said the minister of an opposing nation. "What are 
the neutrals waiting for?" asked a third, whose name, it is stated, ranks high, not only in his 
own country, but all over the world. 

"FOR THE FORCES OF PEACE TO BE UNPREPARED when the hour 

comes is as irretrievable as for a military leader to be unready. " 

i(r THE EXCRUCIATING BURDEN OF RESPONSIBILITY for the hopeless 
continuance of this war no longer rests on the will of the belligerent nations alone. It 
rests also on the will of those neutral governments and people who have been spared its shock 
but cannot, if they would, absolve themselves from their full share of responsibility for the 
continuance of war. " 



Price 10 Cents 



October 16, 1915 



Volume XXXV, No. 3 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 



PUBLICATION OFFICE 

105 East 22d Street 

New York 



PUBLISHERS' 

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Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary Frank Tucker, Treasurer 



WESTERN OFFICE 

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Vol. xxx r. No. ? 



Contents 



October 16, 1015 



THE COMMON WELFARE 

SOME THINGS AMERICAN CITIES DO NOT KNOW 57 

ARMENIAN APPEAL TO AMERICA FOR HELP . 57 

THE STRIKE OF THE CHICAGO CLOTHING WORKERS .58 

A NEW NATIONAL TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT 59 

EIGHT-HOUR DAY FOR 10.000 STANDARD OIL WORKMEN 59 

PEACE MANIFESTO SUBMITTED TO THE NEUTRAL NATIONS 60 

CHARTING A CITY'S SOCIAL NEEDS .... 62 

RESULTS OF ALABAMA'S LEGISLATURE .62 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

"PLUCKING THE GOOSE" AS TOWN POLICY . 63 

"SILVER LINING." THE WAR CLOUD OF WESTERN EUROPE AS VIEWED BY 

AN AMERICAN MISSIONARY IN THE ORIENT William Nesbitt Brewster 64 

A SURVEY OF SICKNESS Joseph J. Weber 65 

ANTI-ALCOHOL ARGUMENTS IN SILHOUETTE 66 

THE MAN WITH THE GUN, a poem Roy Temple House 69 

HEALTH 

A WORD WITH THE PUBLICITY AGENT 70 

VACCINATION DAY IN AN INDIAN VILLAGE 70 

HEALTH KNOWLEDGE FOR ONE AND ALL 71 

MEASURES FOR PROPHYLAXIS IN GERMANY 71 

THE ROCKEFELLER PLAN 72 

JOTTINGS ™ 

PAMPHLETS • " 



Price 



Single copies of this issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular 
subscriptions $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Issued weekly. 
Changes of address should he mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing 
commercial practice when payment is by check a receipt will he sent only upon request. 



19IS, BY SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC 
AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, 



THE SURVEY'S ANNUAL 
MEETING 

A LL members of Survey Associates, Inc., — life mem- 
■**■ bers and co-operating subscribers who have paid 
$10 or more since October 1, 1914, toward the mainte- 
nance of The Survey — are entitled to vote at this year's 
annual meeting. 

THE meeting will be held on Monday, October 25, at 
4 P. M. in Room 901 (ninth floor), 105 East 22d 
Street, New York city. Four members of the Board of 
Directors will be elected to succeed Jane Addams, Robert 
W. de Forest, Julian W. Mack and Frank Tucker, whose 
terms expire, and to transact such other business as may 
come before the meeting. 



The GIST of IT— 

T^HE Dutchess County Survey of Sickness 
counted all the sick, found out why they 
sickened, what care they got and why they 
didn't g~et more. And from such bedside 
data it drew up a plan for organizing the 
county for the cure and prevention of 
sickness as carefully as it is organized to 
cast ballots on pay taxes. Page 65. 

QNE of the penalties or privileges (cross 
out one) of non-resident capitalism 
on the Mesaba iron range is to shoulder 
the tax-roll. Page 63. 

■yHE wealth piled up by the exploited toil 
of Europe's millions will be burned up 
by this war as America's slave-created 
wealth was consumed by the Civil war, and 
out of it, argues an American missionary, 
will come a brighter way. Page 64. 

Y) TRT is dirt and none so poor to do it 
honor, but dirt is not disease, says 
Dr. Chapin, or words to that effect, in a 
sprightly sermon to health officers and 
health editors. Page 70. 

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER. JR.'S plan 
J for the Colorado Fuel and Iron Com- 
pany concedes three and a part of the 
fourth of the seven demands made in the 
strike of 1913-14. Complete control re- 
mains in the hands of the company. Full 
text of the plan. Page 72. 

JT'S up to the neutrals — that, pretty clearly, 
is the gist of the manifesto issued by 
the International Committee of Women for 
Permanent Peace. They tried out their plan 
for a continuous conference of neutrals in 
fourteen European capitals. They found 
that the belligerents would not consider it 
unfriendly; the European neutrals would 
join in heartily; the United States has not 
said yea or nay. The next step is to start — 
it's somebody's move. Between the lines of 
the circumspect diplomatic manifesto there's 
a sound like someone beating a tattoo on 
Uncle Sam's ear drums. Page 60. 

J N its leadership and orderliness Chicago's 
big clothing strike is a great contrast 
to its predecessor. Page 58. 

A N American committee is organizing to 
raise relief for Armenia on a big 
scale. Every new bit of information from 
the East adds to the grisly completeness of 
the wiping out of the Armenians. Page 57. 

ALABAMA'S two-term legislature finally 
enacted a grist of important laws, 
though but three of the ten bills of special 
social significance were passed. Page 

L OOKING ahead and making plans to 
combal the spread of venereal dis- 
ease-- after the war. Page 71. 

J-JOW many houses unfit for human habi- 
tation does your city contain- Some 
Figures indicative of the ignorance oi our 
cities on matters of vital impon 
Page 57. 





€0929001 




SOME THINGS AMERICAN CITIES 
DO NOT KNOW 

In these days of investigations 
and surveys it would seem that Amer- 
ican and Canadian cities should be fairly 
well acquainted with themselves. The 
National Housing Association, however, 
is issuing a little pamphlet which ef- 
fectively dispels any such notion. The 
pamphlet is based on answers to ques- 
tions received from sixty-five cities. 
Not only the largest cities, but progres- 
sive cities of a size more manageable, 
and others not so large, in which a 
knowledge of facts would not seem dif- 
ficult to get, contribute to this proof 
that our cities do not yet know them- 
selves. And yet these 65 cities are prob- 
ably the best informed in the two coun- 
tries, for out of 128 invited only these 
gave any of the information sought. 

After years of agitation by anti-tuber- 
culosis societies, of preaching about 
light and fresh air, practically no city to- 
day knows how many dark, windowless 
rooms there are in its houses and only 
one or two cities are making any con- 
sistent effort to reduce the number. New 
York is in a class by itself so far as 
record of accomplishment goes. Ten 
years ago it had 256,515 dark rooms. 
Last year it had only 6,222. 

Recognizing that privy vaults are a 
source of such fly-borne diseases as ty- 
phoid, many cities have armed them- 
selves to swat the fly, but few have 
taken any effective measures to abolish 
the place from which he draws his 
poison. Several cities have become 
alarmed, however, and have made in- 
vestigations, with such discoveries as 
these: St. Louis finds that it has 20,000 
vaults: Philadelphia, 39,078; Minne- 
apolis. 17,000; Grand Rapids, 4,400; Co- 
lumbus, 1.800; Detroit, 5,800; Cleveland, 
2,835. 

A city awakened to a peril nearly 
always sets to work to remove that peril. 
Toronto which had 17,181 vaults in 1912, 
abolished 12,291 within two years. Phil- 
adelphia abolished an even greater num- 
ber. St. Louis and Minneapolis, while 
agitated, have no records to show what 
they have accomplished. Grand Rapids 
removed about 1,000 last year; Cleve- 
land, 494; Detroit, 213; Columbus, 642. 

Volume XXXV, No. j. 



New York's figures refer only to tene- 
ment houses. Ten years ago it had 7,000 
vaults; now it has only 194 in its four 
largest boroughs. 

These figures are indicative of the ig- 
norance of our cities on matters that 
affect them vitally. They do not know 
how many houses they contain which are 
unfit for human habitation', though they 
are beginning to enumerate those which 
constitute a fire hazard. They do not 
know how many inhabited cellar and 
underground living rooms they contain. 
They do not know whether their supply 
of housing is adequate. They do not 
know the number of their tenement 
houses, nor how fast this number is 
growing. Yet it is acknowledged that 
the tenement house is in itself a menace. 

During the past five years there has 
been a housing awakening; of the 65 
cities reporting, 25 had secured legis- 
lation setting better standards before 
last year, and 16 more then followed 
suit. In 25 there is more vigorous en- 
forcement of law. Thirty-six cities re- 
ported that. their health department had 
been strengthened, only 8 that it had been 
weakened. 



New York Trihune 



M-\' 




THE HIGH COST OF LATE SHOPPING 

""PHE Consumers' League has al- 
ready started its campaign for 
early Christmas shopping in behalf 
of all who sell and ship holiday goods, 
— the twenty- tilth campaign. 



A 



RMENIAN APPEAL TO AMER- 
ICA FOR HELP 



Inhumanity and ruthless- 
ness, not of enemy invaders but of gov- 
ernment officials, have spurred the latest 
appeal for American relief funds. This 
plea comes from the American Commit- 
tee on Armenian Atrocities, consisting 
of Samuel T. Dutton, Cleveland H. 
Dodge, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Freder- 
ick Lynch, Norman Hapgood, James L. 
Barton, Bishop David H. Greer, Oscar 
S. Strauss and others representing 
American interests and sympathies in 
the Turkish Empire. James L. Barton, 
secretary of the American Board of 
Foreign Missions, is president and 
Charles R. Crane is treasurer. Samuel 
Dutton of the American Peace Society 
is secretary, with headquarters at 70 
Fifth avenue, New York city. 

When the first reports of the massacre 
and exile of Armenians in Turkey 
reached United States, this committee 
organized and made careful study of 
the evidence bearing on Armenian per- 
secution which was sent by missiona- 
ries, refugees and non-partisans to 
American friends and the State Depart- 
ment at Washington. The result is a 
report just released by the committee, 
a veritable blue book of atrocities. It 
is a record of a peaceful people driven 
under the whip like beasts from their 
homes into exile among populations of 
different race, religion and language; of 
men bound and shot; of tortured prison- 
ers ; of women outraged, children 
drowned, and old men beaten to death ; 
of starvation and suffering, loot and 
massacre. 

The documents analyzed by the com- 
mittee have since been substantiated by 
missionaries returning from Turkey, 
who have themselves witnessed the 
brutal extermination of the Armenian 
race. Among these missionaries the 
latest arrival is Ernest Yarrow, who 
was located at the Congregational mis- 
sion at Van. 

Dr. Yarrow describes the Armenian 
massacres as an "organized, systematic 
attempt to wipe out the Armenians." 
The pretext, he says, is disloyalty of the 
Armenians toward the Turkish govern- 

57 



58 



The Survey, October 16. 1915 



Donahcy in the Cleveland Plain Dealer 




civilization: "so you think you've discovered something, do you? well, just 

take a squint at me" 



T 



HB STRIKE OF THE CHICAGO 
CLOTHING WORKERS 



ment, but the real cause is jealousy and 
religious differences. As for disloyalty, 
he declares that many Armenians will- 
ingly served in the Turkish armies, but 
that the treatment they have always re 
ceved from the Turkish government 
tends to destroy their allegiance. 

Dr. Yarrow describes the attack of 
the Armenians at Van as regular trench 
warfare. The first actual bloodshed he 
witnessed from the mission window. 
Some Armenian women were crossing 
a field and Turkish soldiers brutally laid 
hold of them. When some of their men 
folk in trying to prevent insult were 
killed the signal for the hostilities 
began. 

Thereafter cannon were trained on 
the Armenian quarter, while the Arme- 
nians on their side fortified their houses 
and dug trenches about them. Mean- 
while 100,000 to 150,000 refugees from 
neighboring villages fled to Van before 
the Turks. Many of these were former 
orphans housed at the mission. Among 
them were little children treated at the 
mission hospital for dagger slashes in 
the abdomen. Others came stripped of 
clothing, one woman in particular who 
had wandered in the mountains for ten 
days without a shred of clothing and 
who finally died of exposure. All testi- 
fied that the Turks battered down 
village after village with their cannon, 
killing all Armenian inhabitants they 
could find. 

This siege of the Armenians at Van 
lasted twenty-eight days according to 
Dr. Yarrow. Then came rumors of the 
Russian advance, and the Turks fled, 
leaving some thousand Turkish women 
and children as well as the Armenians. 
Dr. Yarrow cites as proof of Armenian 
humanity the fact that these Turkish 
non-combatants were sent to the Ar- 



menian mission unharmed by the Ar- 
menians and allowed to remain there 
during the Russian occupation of the 
city. A scourge of diseases — typhus, 
typhoid, dysentery, etc. — resulting from 
filth and congestion afflicted them, and 
five of the missionaries contracted ty- 
phoid from tending the sick. 

Finally, at the end of July, the Rus- 
sian army was ordered to retreat and, 
fearing the return of the Turks, some 
250,000 Armenians and the Van mission- 
aries in care of the Russian Red Cross 
followed in the wake of the army across 
the Russian border. There, says Dr. 
Yarrow, they are safe from Turkish 
oppression, but are destitute of food 
and clothing. He hopes that some of 
the relief funds collected in this coun- 
try may be used to aid these Armenian 
refugees in Russia. 

The bulk of the money contributed to 
the American Committee on Armenian 
Atrocities will be used, however, for 
the Armenians on Turkish territory. 
Ambassador Henry Morgenthau has 
sent word from Constantinople that 
conditions are appalling and more than 
$500,000 could be distributed advan- 
tageously through missionaries at 
Konitsa, Adana, Tarsus and Urfa and 
through the American consul at Aleppo. 
Already the committee has cabled $106,- 
000 succor— $100,00 to Ambassador 
Morgenthau and $6,000 to Stephen Van 
R. Trowbridge, a missionary in Cairo. 
Egypt, for Armenians stranded there. 
The Rockefeller Foundation has given 
$30,000 to the fund and the Committee 
of Mercy, organized for the relief of 
non-combatants in war, has contributed 
more than $1,500 and is co-operating 
with the Committee on Armenian Atroc- 
ities in a wide appeal for a generous 
total. 



Chicago is the center of a bit- 
ter struggle in the clothing industry 
which, from present indications, may 
equal in intensity the fight of five years 
ago. The same employers are involved 
and in large measure the same employes, 
although the latter are now under a new 
name and leadership. 

The strike was called September 27 by 
Sidney Hillman, president of the Amal- 
gamated Clothing Workers of America, 
the faction which a year ago broke 
away from the old United Garment 
Workers because of dissatisfaction with 
leadership and methods. 

It is difficult to form a correct esti- 
mate of the number of men and women 
involved. The employers say that fewer 
than 6,000 are on strike, while Mr. Hill- 
man estimates the number at about 
25,000. Of the large establishments only 
two have escaped the effects of the 
strike, so that it may be said that the in- 
dustry at this time is severely crippled. 
Hart, Schaffner and Marx, which is 
working under an arbitration agreement 
with the Amalgamated Clothing Work- 
ers, and Ed. V. Price & Co., in whose 
establishment wages and working con- 
ditions appear to be satisfactory to the 
workers, are not affected by the strike. 

The fundamental issue in the strike is 
the establishment of the principle of col- 
lective bargaining. With that estab- 
lished and an arbitration agreement in 
effect, the workers believe they can 
standardize wages and working condi- 
tions. At present there is no uniformity 
in the wages paid clothing workers. It 
is generally conceded that the wages in 
some of the Chicago shops are higher 
than in any other city in the country and 
working conditions are good. In other 
shops wages are low, and while the sani- 
tary conditions may meet the require- 
ments of the factory laws, they are far 
from ideal. In addition the employes 
complain of fining systems and abuse 
of power by foremen. 

Ten days previous to the calling of 
the strike, Mr. Hillman sent a letter to 
all the clothing manufacturers in which 
he stated that the aim of the Amalga- 
mated Union was to establish and main- 
tain permanent industrial peace in the 
clothing industry. This he urged could 
be accomplished only with the co-opera- 
tion of the employers through the estab- 
lishment of arbitration machinery simi- 
lar to that recently developed in the 
men's clothing industry in Xew York 
and in force in the Hart, Schaffner ami 
Marx shops in Chicago. In his letter he 
asked the manufacturers to meet repre- 
sentatives of the workers in conference. 
offering, in the event of failure to reach 
a settlement, to submit any or all dis- 
puted points to an impartial arbitration 
board. 

A few independent concerns made 
individual agreements with the union. 



Common Welfare 



59 



But the manufacturers who are mem- 
bers of the two associations in the cloth- 
ing industry paid no attention to the 
communication. Their attorney in an 
interview given the press stated that he 
would not dignify the request by admit- 
ting that there was anything to be arbi- 
trated. He declared that the cloth- 
ing workers were well paid and entirely 
satisfied with their conditions if outside 
agitators would keep away. 

There are two interesting points of 
difference between the present strike 
and the one of five years ago. In 1910 
the chief issue was a demand for the 
"closed shop." Union organizers used 
the phrase at every meeting they ad- 
dressed, and the workers, many of whom 
do not speak English, came to regard 
the "closed shop" as something divine. 
They knew little or nothing about the 
actual meaning of the phrase, but it was 
an ideal in their minds which caused 
them to endure privation for twenty 
weeks in a vain effort to realize it. 

In the present controversy Mr. Hill- 
man has not mentioned "closed shop" 
in any speech or circular. His letter to 
to the manufacturers asked for recog- 
nition of the union to the extent that 
collective bargaining might be estab- 
lished and maintained. The Hart, 
Schaffner and Marx agreement, provid- 
ing for a preferential shop, was emi- 
nently satisfactory to both employes and 
firm. 

The other contrast to the former 
strike is with respect to orderliness. In 
1910 the workers were unorganized and 
their actions in many respects were the 
actions of a mob. The present strike 
shows a much higher state of organiza- 
tion. The employes walked out promptly 
when they received the order. Their 
meetings are being conducted in an 
orderly manner. Reports in the daily 
press seem to indicate that what violence 
has occurred has been due in large 
measure to the refusal of the police to 
permit the strikers to congregate on the 
streets. Protests have been made that 
the police appear to be aligned on the 
side of the employer and an investiga- 
tion is demanded of the City Council. 
A committee of society women under 
the leadership of Mrs. Medill McCor- 
mick is organizing to protect striking 
women and girls from alleged police 
brutality. 

Independent clothing firms, employing 
in the aggregate about 2,000 workers, 
have signed agreements with the union, 
conceding a 48-hour week and a wage 
increase. One firm employing about 
500 workers has agreed to arbitrate, con- 
ceding the 48-hour week pending the de- 
cision of the arbitration board. Except 
for the cutters who work 48 hours a 
week, the clothing workers in Chicago 
have been working from 52 to 54 hours 
a week. One of the union demands is 
for a uniform week of 48 hours for all 
workers. 



/•'. G. Cooper in Collier's Weekly 




WORLD SERIES — 1915 



A 



NEW NATIONALTBMPERANCE 
MOVEMENT 



Not an emotional attack on al- 
cohol, but a nation-wide educational 
movement to convince of the economic 
value of total abstinence, is the plan of 
the National Temperance Union, recent- 
ly organized under the direction of the 
Federal Council of Churches of Christ 
in America, with headquarters in Philia- 
delphia. It will not work for liquor leg- 
islation, leaving such matters to organi- 
zations like the Anti-Saloon League, but 
will conduct a nation-wide educational 
movement. 

A research department in conjunction 
with existing foundations and societies 
will compile instructive temperance in- 
formation, especially gathering facts 
from experience in industrial plants, on 
railroads, in army and navy — both at 
home and abroad — where the principle 
of temperance has been applied. The 
material thus secured will be given cur- 
rency through press and lecture bureaus. 
Temperance literature will be prepared 
for the foreign-speaking population. 
Union temperance rallies will be con- 
ducted. 

One of the most interesting efforts 
of the National Temperance Union will 
be to arrange temperance exhibits for 
welfare or efficiency departments of mu- 
nicipalities, railroads, industrial plants 
and business corporations. The director 
of the union, Albert Rogers, has had 
broad experience in civic and welfare 
expositions — he organized the Boston- 
1915 exposition in 1909 — and is now 
mapping out with the philanthropic 
agencies of Philadelphia a civic welfare 
exposition in which the economic effects 
of alcohol will be a point particularly 
hard pressed. 

Other methods of propaganda to be 
undertaken bv the union are the enroll- 



ment of children in temperance socie- 
ties, the furnishing of picture slides and 
photo plays, the revival of teaching the 
physiological effects of alcohol in pub- 
lic and private schools and the urging 
of universal observance of the annual 
World's Temperance Sunday. 

Rufus W. Millar of Philadelphia is 
chairman of the organizing committee. 
Managed as it is by the Federal Coun- 
cil of Churches representing over 17,- 
500,000 members of thirty denomina- 
tions the National Temperance Union 
looks forward to achieving a large mem- 
bership. 



8 



HOUR DAY FOR 10,000 STAND- 
ARD OIL WORKMEN 



The Standard Oil Company of 
New Jersey, which announced an ad- 
vance in wages after the sensational 
strike in its plant at Bayonne, N. J., last 
July, has now adopted the eight-hour 
day for all its plants. The new schedule 
went into effect September 15 and in- 
cludes plants in New Jersey, Maryland 
and West Virginia, employing alto- 
gether about 19,000 men. 

In 1900, according to information se- 
cured from 26 Broadway, the company, 
which then included all the subsidiaries, 
reduced the working day from ten to 
nine hours for all but the men engaged 
in continuous processes, who were work- 
ing in twelve-hour shifts and who com- 
prise 15 to 20 per cent of the employes. 
Later the three-shift system was intro- 
duced for the process men, reducing 
their working day to eight hours. In 
1911 a six-day week was adopted instead 
of the seven-day week that had been in 
vogue. 

The latest move makes the eight-hour 
day the maximum for all the employes. 
The company states that each reduction 
in hours has been without any loss of 
earnings to the men. 



MANIFESTO 

Issued by envoys of the International Congress of Women at The Hague 
to the governments of Europe and the President of the United States 



HE accompanying public statement was given out 
on October 15, simultaneously in New York and 

Amsterdam, by the International Committee of 

Women for Permanent Peace. This is the organization 
which grew out of the International Congress of Women 
at The Hague last April, from which two groups of en- 
voys were sent, one to the capitals of the leading belliger- 
ents and to Holland and Switzerland; the other to Russia 
and the Scandinavian countries. 

In their joint report the leading members of these two 
delegations unite in stating that the evidence and assur- 
ances given them have convinced them that the belliger- 
ent and neutral nations of Europe are ready to consider 
a continuous conference of neutrals as a medium for the 
settlement of the war; the belligerents to the extent of 
saying that they would not consider such a conference 
unfriendly, the neutrals to the extent of saying that they 
would not be unwilling to act, but first must be assured 
of Americas co-operation. 

Of the intention of the United States they report as 
yet no evidence. 

PHE signers of the statement are themselves leading 
members of the two groups of envoys. They in- 
clude representative women of the two belligerent groups 
and of two of the chief neutrals. Miss Addams is presi- 
dent of the International Committee, Miss MacMillan, 
secretary, Dr. Jacobs and Mme. Schwimmer, vice-chair- 
men. 

The three foreign delegates came to the United 
States in September and the executive committee was in 
session in New York last week. Dr. Jacobs, who was re- 
ceived by President Wilson and Secretary Lansing, re- 
turned on October 5 to Amsterdam, where the interna- 
tional committee has established permanent headquar- 
ters. 

She announced before sailing that a second and 
smaller conference of women would be held at The Hague 
in December. 



TPHE signers were not at liberty to give names or na- 
tionality of the foreign officers specifically quoted; 
but in several instances they quote verbatim. It will be 
remembered that the envoys were received by the follow- 
ing, among others : 

Prime Minister ASQUITH, and Foreign Minister Sir 
EDWARD GREY in London; 

Chancellor VON BETHMANN HOLLWEG, and 
Foreign Minister VON JAGOW in Berlin; 

Prime Minister STUERGKH, Foreign Minister BU- 
RIAN in Vienna; 

Prime Minister TISZA in Buda Pest; 

Prime Minister SALANDRA and Foreign Minister 
SONINO in Rome; 

Prime Minister VIVIANI and Foreign Minister DEL- 

CASSE in Paris; 

Foreign Minister D'AVIGNON in Havre; 
Foreign Minister SAZONOFF in Petrograd; 

and by these representatives of neutral governments: 

Prime Minister CORT VAN DER LINDEN and For- 
eign Minister LOUDON in The Hague; 

Prime Minister ZAHLE and Foreign Minister SCA- 
VENIUS in Copenhagen ; 

King HAAKON, Prime Minister KNUDSEX. Foreign 
Minister IHLEN, and by Messrs. LOVLAND. AARS- 
BAD, CASTBERG and JAHREN, the four presidents 
of the Storthing in Christiania ; 

Foreign Minister WALLENBERG in Stockholm; 

President MOTTA and Prime Minister HOFFMAN 
in Berne; and 

President WILSON and Secretary of State LANS- 
ING in Washington. 

While in Rome, the delegation went unofficially — that 
is to say, without a mandate from the congress — to an 
audience with the pope and the cardinal secretary of 
state. 



THE TEXT 



Issued October 15. 1915. 



HERE in America, on neutral soil, far removed 
from the stress of the conflict we, the envoys 

I to the governments from the International Con- 
gress of Women at The Hague, have come together to 
canvass the results of our missions. We put forth this 
statement as our united and deliberate conclusions. 

At a time when the foreign offices of the great belliger- 
ents have been barred to each other, and the public mind 
of Europe has been fixed on the war offices for leadership, 
we have gone from capital to capital and conferred with 
the civil governments. 

Our mission was to place before belligerents and neu- 
trals alike the resolutions of the International Congress of 
Women held at The Hague in April ; especially to place 
before them the definite method of a conference of neutral 
nations as an agency of continuous mediation for the set - 
tlement of the war. 



"TO carry out this mission two delegations were appoint- 
ed, which included women of Great Britain. Austria- 
Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands. Sweden, and the United 
States. One or other of these delegations was received by 
the governments in fourteen capitals, Berlin, Berne. Buda- 
pest, Christiania. Copenhagen. The Hague, Havre (Bel- 
gian government), London. Paris, Petrograd, Rome, 
Stockholm, Vienna, and Washington. We were received 
by the prime ministers and foreign ministers of the pow- 
ers, by the king of Norway, by the presidents of Switzer- 
land and of the United States, by the pope and the card- 
inal secretary of State. In many capitals more than one 
audience was given, not merelj to present our resolutions, 
but for a thorough discussion. In addition to the thirty- 
five governmental visits we met — everywhere — members 
of parliaments and other leaders of public opinion. 



MANIFESTO: Continued 



INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF WOMEN FOR 
PERMANENT PEACE 



\Al E heard much the same words spoken in Downing 
street as those spoken in Wilhelmstrasse, in Vienna 
as in Petrograd, in Budapest as in Havre, where the Bel- 
gians have their temporary government. 

Our visits to the war capitals convinced us that the 
belligerent governments would not be opposed to a con- 
ference of neutral nations; that while the belligerents 
have rejected offers of mediation by single neutral na- 
tions, and while no belligerent could ask for mediation, 
the creation of a continuous conference of neutral na- 
tions might provide the machinery which would lead to 
peace. We found that the neutrals on the other hand 
were concerned lest calling such a conference might be 
considered inopportune by one or other of the belliger- 
ents. Here our information from the belligerents them- 
selves gave assurance that such initiative would not be 
resented. "My country would not find anything unfriend- 
ly in such action by the neutrals," was the assurance 
given us by the foreign minister of one of the great 
belligerents. "My government would place no obstacle in 
the way of its institution," said the minister of an op- 
posing nation. "What are the neutrals waiting for?" 
asked a third, whose name ranks high not only in his own 
country, but all over the world. 

It remained to put this clarifying intelligence before the 
neutral countries. As a result the plan of starting medi- 
ation through the agency of a continuous conference of 
the neutral nations is today being seriously discussed 
alike in the cabinets of the belligerent and neutral coun- 
tries of Europe and in the press of both. 

\\l E are in a position to quote some of the expres- 
sions of men high in the councils of the great na- 
tions as to the feasibility of the plan. "You are right," 
said one minister, "that it would be of the greatest im- 
portance to finish the fight by early negotiation rather 
than by further military efforts, which would result in 
more and more destruction and irreparable loss." "Yours 
is the sanest proposal that has been brought to this office 
in the last six months," said the prime minister of one of 
the larger countries. 

We were also in position to canvass the objections 
that have been made to the proposal, testing it out 
severely in the judgment of those in the midst of the 
European conflict. It has been argued that it is not the 
time at present to start such a process of negotiation, and 
that no step should be taken until one or other party has 
a victory, or at least until some new military balance is 
struck. The answer we bring is that every delay makes 
more difficult the beginning of negotiations, more na- 
tions become involved, and the situation becomes more 
complicated; that when at times in the course of the war 
such a balance was struck, the neutrals were unprepared 
to act. The opportunity passed. For the forces of peace 
to be unprepared when the hour comes is as irretrievable 
as for a military leader to be unready. 



It has been argued that for such a conference to be 
called at any time when one side has met with some mili- 
tary advantage, would be to favor that side. The answer 
we bring is that the proposed conference would start 
mediation at a higher level than that of military advan- 
tage. As to the actual military situation, however, we 
quote a remark made to us by a foreign minister of one 
of the belligerent powers: "Neither side is today strong 
enough to dictate terms, and neither side is so weakened 
that it has to accept humiliating terms." 

It has been suggested that such a conference would 
bind the neutral governments co-operating in it. The 
answer we bring is that, as proposed, such a conference 
should consist of the ablest persons of the neutral coun- 
tries, assigned not to problems of their own governments, 
but to the common service of a supreme crisis. The 
situation calls for a conference cast in a new and larger 
mould than those of conventional diplomacy, the gov- 
ernments sending to it persons drawn from social, eco- 
nomic, and scientific fields who have had genuine inter- 
national experience. 

A S women, it was possible for us, from belligerent 
and neutral nations alike, to meet in the midst of 
war, and to carry forward an interchange of question 
and answer between capitals which were barred to each 
other. It is now our duty to make articulate our con- 
victions. 

\X^E have been convinced that the governments of the 
belligerent nations would not be hostile to the in- 
stitution of such a common channel for good offices; and 
that the governments of the European neutrals we visited 
stand ready to co-operate with others in mediation. Re- 
viewing the situation, we believe that of the five Euro- 
pean neutral nations visited, three are ready to join in 
such a conference, and that two are deliberating the call 
ing of such a conference. Of the intention of the United 
States we have as yet no evidence. 

\\7" E are but the conveyors of evidence which is a 
challenge to action by the neutral governments 
visited — by Denmark, Holland, Norway, Sweden, Swit- 
zerland, and the United States. We in turn bear evi- 
dence of a rising desire and intention of vast companies 
of people in the neutral countries to turn a barren dis- 
interestedness into an active good-will. In Sweden, for 
example, more than 400 meetings were held in one day 
in different parts of the country, calling on the gov- 
ernment to act. 

'T'HE excruciating burden of responsibility for the 
hopeless continuance of this war no longer rests on 
the will of the belligerent nations alone. It rests also 
on the will of those neutral governments and people who 
have been spared its shock but cannot, if they would, ab- 
solve themselves from their full share of responsibility 
for the continuance of war. 
Signed by 

ALETTA JACOBS [Holland]. 
CHRYSTAL MACMILLAN [Great Britain]. 
ROSIKA SCHWIMMER [Austro-Hungary]. 
EMILY G. BALCH [United States]. 
TANK ADDAMS [United States]. 



(52 



The Survey, October 16, 1915 



NEGLECTED TEETH 



i 



INVITE 

BAD 
HEALTH 



Of 900 children e>a mined by denlisls 
al one school 
95^ MAO DEFECTIVE TEETH 

An* medical msp#clor said o/ IS sch ools 
in hit diilnct'Nearly every child in the 
lower grades has serious denial decay* 

Ktt SCHOOLS CARE FOR CHILDREN'S TEETH 




A COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROPOSED » LOCUST POINT 




THE HOME OF 
NEGRO TUBERCULOSIS 

Bad living conditions are the latest single 

factor responsible for the DEVELOPMENT and SPREAD 

of Tubarc u lceia monetae colored people 

— iS" - 



Some 40,000 other children 
in the lower grades need 
the same'Health Insurance" 



BY UTILIZING ALL THE ROOMS ALL THE TIME 
THIS 8UILDINO COST OARV. IND. '|20 TO A CHILD — BALTIMORE NOW P»V«*IMA CMILO 

CHARTING A CITY'S SOCIAL NEEDS 

QN PANELS of greenish gray in dark green frames, with letters of black and red, clear photographs, cut-out figures, color 
sketches and cartoons, the whole lighted and operated by electricity, Baltimore has made an effective exhibit of its social 
work and social needs. The present subjects — to which others will be added — are prevention of infant mortality, medical in- 
spection of schools, care of mental defectives, reduction of tuberculosis among Negroes, social team-play in the Locust Point 
district and the proposed social survey of the city. The exhibit committee represents many social organizations with 
John Daniels as chairman. 



R 



ESULTS OF ALABAMA'S LEG- 
ISLATURE 



Some important measures im- 
proving the state's educational and judi- 
ciary systems were the chief results of 
the Alabama legislature which, meeting 
in two sessions, one in January and the 
other in July, did not finally adjourn 
until September 25. 

Of the ten bills widely heralded for 
their constructive value — providing for 
a constitutional convention, equal suf- 
frage, a new child labor law, a state wel- 
fare department, abolition of the con- 
vict lease system, a public health de- 
partment, a workmen's compensation act, 
a law against loan sharks, compulsory 
education and a state utility commis- 
sion — only three became law. These 
three were the child .labor, loan shark 
and compulsory education bills. The 
two first survived a veritable hurricane 
of opposition and the child labor bill 
was saved only by a compromise with 
the cotton mill men, as was related in 
The Survey for April 24. 

No provision was made for inspectors 
to enforce the child labor law in spite 
of an animated campaign to secure two, 
one of them a woman. But great help 
in enforcement is expected from the 
probation officers who will be appointed 
under the new law creating a juvenile 
court in every county — in itself a meas- 
ure of prime importance. 

Corporation control was freely charg- 
ed against the legislature and the fruits 
of it pointed out in the fact that Ala- 
bama has continued its convict lease 
system, it has continued the sixty-hour 
working week for children, it has post- 
poned the 14-year age limit for children 
until 1916 and it has exempted all cor- 



porations from paying taxes for a period 
of ten years. 

One of the bitterest fights of the ses- 
sions centered about the failure of the 
convict lease bill. There had been great 
hopes of a change, especially when the 
bill was referred to a committee of 
which Joseph (ireen was chairman. Air. 
Green had for years been campaigning 
to "take the convicts out of the mines." 
Friends of the measure now charge that 
what he was really after was the place 
and salary of convict commissioner. At 
any rate the bill lost. 

The changes in the state's educational 
system, however, were substantial. Dur- 
ing the first session five measures were 
enacted into law: to authorize the 
creation of an illiteracy commission, to 
permit women to serve on boards of 
education, to prohibit the employment 
of teachers under seventeen years of 
age, to empower the state Board of Ex- 
aminers to issue teachers' certificates 
without examination to graduates of 
certain institutions of higher learning, 
and to authorize the submission of an 
amendment to the constitution provid- 
ing for local school taxation by county 
and by district. 

These measures were supplemented at 
the split session by five others : creating 
a state Board of Education, establishing 
county boards of education with en- 
larged powers, establishing compulsory 
education, increasing the appropriation 
for public schools by $150,000 (the total 
appropriation was $500,000), and re- 
quiring all private, denominational and 
parochial schools to make regular re- 
ports to the state Department of Edu- 
cation. 

A vigorous fight was made over the 
establishing of county boards of educa- 



tion as the bill took away from the vot- 
ers the election of the county superin- 
tendent of education and made the place 
appointive by the new county board. In 
the rural districts the place has been 
held a political job, and some of the 
county superintendents of education 
have not been subjected to even so 
meager a test of fitness as ability to 
read and write. To remove this power 
of appointment from the voters seemed 
to nearly half of the legislators a shock- 
ing crime, and they said so frankly. But 
the bill won out by a majority of eight. 

Representative Isadore Shapiro of 
Jefferson county, who was the candidate 
of social workers in Birmingham, was 
the author of 19 successful bills. Six 
of these had to do with changes in the 
judiciary system : substituting a jury 
commission system for the present jury 
system, a continuous term of the crim- 
inal court, giving the Municipal Court 
of Birmingham jurisdiction over mis- 
demeanors and in that way paving the 
way for a clearing of the jail, author- 
izing a supernumerary judge to assist 
regular trial judges in clearing dockets, 
breaking up the misuse of bailiffs by the 
sheriff and authorizing the appointment 
of bailiffs by the judges of the various 
courts, creating a Municipal Court for 
Birmingham, and abolishing justices of 
the peace. 

Among the other successful measures 
to Mr. Shapiro's credit were the anti- 
loan-shark bill, the bill authorizing 
women to serve on school boards, a bill 
repealing a section of the revenue code 
of 1911 which exempted public utilities 
from the payment of franchise taxes 
to municipalities, a bill allowing munici- 
palities to lev) a 2 per cent t.ix on the 
gross receipts of public utilities and 
others. 



"Plucking the Goose" as Town Policy 



63 



TO the average onlooker, who as- 
sociates the terms "taxation 
and representation" somewhat 
vaguely with the Boston tea 
party ,and -lets it go at that, there was 
nothing about the Harrison bill, recent- 
ly defeated by a determined filibuster in 
the .Minnesota Legislature, to catch his 
attention or warrant the fight it raised. 
It proposed to restrict tax levies for 
municipal purposes (exclusive of the 
support of schools) in towns of the third 
and fourth class, to $25 per capita. The 
average per capita rate throughout the 
state is about one-fifth of that amount. 

In the background is a story of ab- 
sentee ownership with a new problem on 
its hands, of charges and counter- 
charges of looting and oppression, in 
which the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion and other mine owners appear as 
plaintiffs, and five towns on the Mesaba 
Iron Range in Minnesota play the role of 
hold-up men, of specialists in town im- 
provement or of thrifty tax-payers hold- 
ing rich corporations to proper account 
— all according to the point of view. 

In 1914, the average per capita tax for 
local purposes in 140 Minnesota cities 
and villages was $5.35. In Duluth, St. 
Paul, and Minneapolis, cities of the first 
class, the per capita taxes were $11.01, 
$11.20 and $12.52 respectively. The per 
capita tax in Hibbing was $85.35. Nor 
is Hibbing a millionaire colony. It is a 
mining village of some 10,000 population, 
the principal industry of which at pres- 
ent seems to be tax-gathering. 

During the past decade, the taxes have 
increased twenty-seven times as fast as 
the population. And the story of Hib- 
bing is in essentials the story also of 
Chisholm, Buhl, Keewatin and Moun- 
tain Iron. 

The explanation is simple. The voters 
levy the taxes. The non-voting mining 
corporations own about 98 per cent of 
the taxable property. Somebody who 
wanted a new sidewalk or an extra town 
pump, woke up to the possibilities of the 
situation. Soon the town pockets were 
bulging with gold, which seemed to burn 
the traditional holes in them. As the 
Mesaba Ore of Hibbing remarked edi- 
torially (March 27) : 

"We should not overlook the oppor- 
tunity presented to us, and, you'll notice, 
we are not overlooking it." 

While Hibbing took a leading part, it 
did not play the game alone. For some 
years the five towns carried on rival 
village-improvement bees enlivened by 
an exhibit of how much open-handed 
communities can spend when money 
comes easily. 

Before long, Hibbing had more street 
lights on its "Great White Way" than 
Cincinnati, a city of 400,000. Eight 
ornamental lamp-posts, each carrying 
five incandescent lights, now illumine the 
principal street intersections. It spent 
$374,000 for paving in 1914. Its payroll 
for that year was, roughly, $446,000, 



- 








"Plucking the 

Goose" as 
Town Policy 











which provided for a monthly average 
of 894 men, although there were but 
1,318 voters at the last state election. 
The only state officers who received a 
larger yearly income last year than Hib- 
bing's treasurer were the governor and 
the justices of the supreme court. 

The expenditure, in a single year 
(1914) was $1,204,742. Only $620,434 
of the warrants issued for this were met 
with cash, and the outstanding current 
indebtedness at the end of the year 
amounted to $1,252,597. 

Chisholm, which had 733 voters at the 
last election, had a monthly average of 
538 men on her payroll. An attempt at 
economy, on the part of some of the 
more timorous members of the council, 
was scathingly dealt with in the Tri- 
bune-Herald of March 26 last: 

"By its action Wednesday the Chis- 
holm council put a crimp in the local 
baseball team, many of the men who had 
heen given jobs all winter in an effort to 
keep them here for the coming season 
being laid off. This is in striking con- 
trast to the action of the Hibbing coun- 
cil, which this year has imported men 
from the best leagues possible in order 
that the village of Hibbing might have 
a first-class ball team." 

After a defeat by one of the other 
towns, the council sought to remedy the 
error referred to by voting $1,000 to the 
team. 

When a municipal well was sunk in 
Keewatin, it was a ceremonious occa- 
sion. It took five inspectors and a su- 
perintendent to supervise the work, in 
addition to a city engineer. The tax 
levies had been high for years, but took 
spectacular jumps in 1913 and 1914. 
Hibbing's rose gradually from $60,985 
in 1904 to $276,490 in 1912, to $753,800 
in 1914, and $1,693,933 in 1915. The 
levy in Mountain Iron for 1913 was 435 
per cent greater than the year before. 

There was apparently no malice be- 
hind these increases — only an awaken- 
ing to good business opportunities, long 
neglected. And when the mining com- 
panies found their protests unavailing 
and sought legislative protection by the 
introduction of the Harrison bill pre- 
viously referred to, indignation rose 
high in the five towns. 

Their main contentions were that 
they had a perfect right to levy ex- 
traordinarily large taxes on the mines, 



because the mines were exhausting the 
ore beds and would soon leave the 
towns with practically no taxable prop- 
erty ; second, that the bill was a special 
privilege bill fostered by big corpora- 
tions in the interest of eastern capital- 
ists to the detriment of local communi- 
ties; and third, that the expenses of 
government in mining towns are neces- 
sarily higher than in ordinary towns. 
As the Mesaba Ore put it : 

"The Ore believes that every cent 
possible should he collected from the 
mining companies while they are with 
us, to the end that we may retain unto 
ourselves a share of the wealth that 
once removed will never return. . . . 
We do not believe in waste or extrava- 
gance in municipal management or any- 
where else, hut we shall hold that the 
village of Hibbing should collect every 
year the one and one-half million dol- 
lars due it from the mining companies." 

And on March 27 the same paper 
charged the city councils of the iron 
range with being 

"remiss in their duty to the people of 
these communities because they do not 
levy the full amount allowed by law 
and spend it every year, whether it be 
extravagance or not. We owe it to our- 
selves to collect every cent available 
from the taxation of these mines and 
use it to beautify our towns because it 
belongs to us. Hibbing surely receives 
no thanks for handing over a million 
dollars a year of its own money to east- 
ern mine owners, and we will be just 
as well treated if we collect and spend 
all that is due us." 

The mining companies in reply main- 
tained that the ore deposits will not be 
exhausted for a long time to come, and 
such feverish taxation is therefore un- 
necessary; that if it were true that the 
ore would soon be exhausted, that fact 
in itself would be the best kind of a 
reason why the towns should not ex- 
pend such vast sums in public improve- 
ments, because as soon as the mines 
were closed most of the population 
would leave the villages and there 
would be no one to enjoy the extensive 
public improvements provided. 

The Harrison bill passed the Senate 
by a vote of 41 to 7. but was defeated 
in the House by a filibuster which last- 
ed four weeks, although the bill had the 
support of most of the towns on the 
eastern end of the range. As the Vir- 
ginia Daily Enterprise of April 12 said. 
severely : 

"If the Mesaba Ore (Hibbing) is of 
the opinion that its town has any con- 
siderable portion of the range behind it 
in the fight on the Harrison per capita 
tax bill it is mistaken. It has not. Hih- 
bing is now in the position of the small 
boy who ate all the pie at the party. It 
has the belly-ache and scant sympathy 
from the erstwhile guests." 

Late dispatches state that almost all 
the mining companies have refused to 
pay their assessed taxes in Hibbing and 
will fight collection in the courts. 



64 



The Survey, October 16, 1915 



IS there a silver lining of even this 
world war cloud? Certainly if 
there is one, there are none who 
do not wish to see it. There is 
an old platitude that "history repeats it- 
self." ' What has proven the silver lin- 
ing of war clouds in the past? Perhaps 
this will be of help in finding the light 
for the inky pall that now glooms the 
world. 

A school history of forty years ago 
contained a paragraph something like 
the following: 

"African slavery had existed in the 
American colonies from the earliest set- 
tlement, but it was not considered a very 
vital part of the economic organization 
of society. 

"It would not have been difficult to 
abolish the system in the first few years 
of the Republic. But early in the nine- 
teenth century the invention of the cot- 
ton-gin made cotton growing in the 
South very profitable, and slaves became 
extremely valuable, as they seemed 
necessary to the chief industry of the 
southern states. This is the key to the 
problem of the irrepressible conflict that 
ended in the Civil War, and the final de- 
struction of the institution of slavery in 
America." 

This is the silver lining of that war 
cloud: African slavery was destroyed, 
three million slaves were given at least 
legal liberty. Master and slave were 
both set free, and the white people of 
the Southland would no more agree to 
go back to the old slavery days than 
would the black. 

What did it cost? For half a century 
after Whitney's epoch-making invention, 
the southern autocracy piled up wealth 
with amazing rapidity. The South sur- 
passed in wealth the more populous 
North. The cost of labor in the cotton- 
fields was only the coarsest food and 
clothing, and the interest on the in- 
vestment in the slave. All tha pick- 
aninnies worked as soon as they could 
toddle. There were no "wasted" years 
in school. Then came the deluge of 
blood. In four long years, "the dogs 
of war" licked the platter clean. 

Another half century has passed. Ten 
thousand Whitneys have been at work. 
All unconsciously, as did he, they have 
been forging chains for the masses of 
mankind. A century ago, the workman 
carried his machine-shop on his should- 
er. He was his own master. His earn- 
ings were not large, but they were all 
his. His productive capacity was limit- 
ed, but he need divide it with none. 

Then came the Whitneys, the Edisons, 
— and the machine-shop covers acres. 
The man with the machine multiplies his 
output by scores, yes, hundreds. Much 
of the work in the big machine-shop 
is simple, and anybody can learn it in 
a little while. The workman still gets 
food and clothing, such as it is. The 
owner of the machine gets the rest. 

If the workman objects at the unequal 
division of profits, his place is easily 



"Silver L 



55 



imng 



The War Cloud of Westei n 

Europe as Viewed by an 

American Missionary 

in the Orient 

By 

William Nesbitt Brewster 
Hinghwa, Fukien, China 



filled. He has limited liberty to choose 
another master. Therein he has more 
freedom than his black brother. On the 
other hand, the southern master had 
capital invested in his workmen. Under- 
feeding the slaves was as poor business 
as starving the horses or other live- 
stock. In this later slavery the human 
part of the factory is the one element 
that involves no capital, and the master 
can renew without cost. 

The world's wealth has been multiply- 
ing with a rapidity that makes the tra- 
ditional Croesus appear like a roadside 
beggar. But the relative per capita 
wealth of the producer has not kept 
pace. He has more things to use, be- 
cause the luxuries of our grandfathers 
have become common and necessary for 
all. The cotton-gin of every industry 
has enriched the master, and widened 
the gulf between him and his workman. 
It is so in America; it is perhaps more 
so in Europe. 

Again, the dogs of the war are loose. 
They are devouring the huge spoils of 
modern industrialism at the rate of ten 
million sterling a day. David Lloyd- 
George is reported to have told the 
House of Commons recently that "for 
the year ending December 31 next, the 
aggregate expenditure of the allies 
would be not far from two thousand 
million pounds sterling." 

This represents only the actual ex- 
penditures of these governments, and 
does not take into account the incalcul- 
able losses from idle factories, business 
depression, and destruction of property 
by the enemy. This is a daily expendi- 
ture of five and a half million pounds 
sterling by one side only of the world 
conflict. 

Mr. Lloyd-George cheerfully inform- 
ed the House : "We are able to pay 
our huge expenditure on the war for 
five years, allowing a substantial sum 
for depreciation, out of the proceeds of 
our investment abroad. France is able 
to carry on the expense for two or three 
years, at least, out of the proceeds of 
her investment abroad, and both coun- 
tries still have something to advance to 
their allies." 



If Kitchener's prophecy of a three 
years' war proves true, even this opti- 
mistic estimate of resources will leave 
little European surplus wealth. This 
takes no account of the losses in inter- 
national trade. British exports and im- 
ports for November were about 45 per 
cent less than for the same month in 
1913. What will they be next Novem- 
ber? 

President Lincoln saw in the destruc- 
tion of slave-created wealth the hand 
of a just God. Read again the message 
of his second inaugural which proved 
to a stricken nation to be his valedic- 
tory : 

"Fondly do we hope, fervently do we 
pray, that this mighty scourge of war 
may speedily pass away. Yet if God 
wills that it continue until all the wealth 
piled by the bondman's two hundred and 
fifty years of unrequited toil shall be 
sunk and every drop of blood drawn 
with the lash shall be paid by another 
drawn with the sword, as was said three 
thousand years ago, so still it must be 
said 'The judgments of the Lord are 
true and righteous altogether.' " 

The analogy bears closer scrutiny. 
The tap-root of the slavery upas-tree 
was covetousness, the desire to exploit 
the weaker man, to profit to the utmost 
by the unearned increment of his labor. 
This world war is at the bottom com- 
mercial, not political, in its genesis. The 
real enmity is between German and 
British. How else explain the anomaly 
of an Anglo-Russian alliance? Eng- 
land fighting her old ward Turkey? 
Japan fighting beside Russia? 

All political traditions are being vio- 
lated in this war. Why? The two 
island empires of the West and East 
are dependent upon trade for their ex- 
pansion, for their national prosperity. 
German commercial thoroughness and 
efficiency seem to threaten the interests 
of both these allied nations. They join 
with their national political foes to de- 
stroy their commercial rival. 

Whoever is forced to sue for peace, 
one thing seems probable, — a large part 
of the fruit of the exploited toil of 
Europe's millions for generations will 
be burned up in the conflagration. 
Never again will the nations commit to 
a handful of men the power to plunge 
the world into a chaos of destruction. 
The power political will be democratized 
and the people who pay the bills of 
blood and treasure will decide when and 
whom to fight. And with the decentral- 
ization of the political power, will there 
not be a corresponding decentralization 
of the new wealth that is to be created 
by the survivors of the great slaughter? 

Here, then, is the silver lining. A 
new heaven and a new earth must 
emerge from the cloud of war-dust that 
enshrouds this planet. It may have been 
necessary to free "the man with the 
hoe" with the plane, the hammer and 
the loom. God forbid that we ever need 
another such chastening. 



A Survey of Sickness 



Comprising a Summary of a Report on the Extent, Care and Prevention of Sickness in Dutchess 

County, New York, made by the Committee on Hospitals of the 

State Charities Aid Association 



BELIEVING that the time has 
come when definite knowl- 
edge regarding the extent 
and character of sickness in 
any part of the country and under vari- 
ous conditions, as well as what is being 
done about it, should become the ex- 
plicit information of that community, 
the Committee on Hospitals of the State 
Charities Aid Association has just pub- 
lished a report on sickness in Dutchess 
county, New York— its extent, care and 
prevention. 

The report is divided into two parts : 
Part I contains the findings of a house- 
to-house survey of sickness in five dis- 
tricts of Dutchess county selected for 
their representative character and con- 
taining an aggregate population of about 
11,800. These districts are the fourth 
ward of Poughkeepsie and the towns of 
Rhinebeck, Milan, Clinton and Stanford. 
The total population of Dutchess county 
is about 90,000. The period covered is 
sixteen months (the entire year of 1912 
and four months of 1913), except for 
Stanford, a town of 1,500 people, where 
the data were collected only for the year 
1912. Part II embodies a set of recom- 
mendations looking to the formation of 
a county health association whose objects 
would be the thorough-going and efficient 
organization and development of the 
health-protecting and disease-fighting 
facilities of the county. 

For an account of the method of gath- 
ering the data, a detailed description of 
the field covered and definitions of terms 
used, the reader is referred to the report 
itself. Only the more significant find- 
ings can be indicated here. 

Findings 

The findings in a study of the ex- 
tent of sickness and timt lost show 
that 1.600 cases of serious illness oc- 
curred in the five districts during the pe- 
riod studied. Of these, 786 were communi- 
cable, 673 were general medical and sur- 
gical, and 141 were obstetrical. There 
were 987 patients acutely ill. They lost 
because of their illness 41.244 days. Of 
these 41,244 days, children from one to 
five years of age lost 13,256 days (32 
per cent) ; children of school age, six 
to fourteen, lost 13,716 days (33 per 
cent) ; men in the productive period of 
life, fifteen to fifty-four, lost 4,983 days, 
while women during the same period lost 
4,838 days. These figures do not include 
452 cases of chronic illness, 31 y 2 per 
cent of the total number recorded. 

Of service secured, it was found that. 



By yoseph y. TVeber 

EXECUTIVE SECKETAKY OF THE COMMITTEE 

1,217 (76 per cent) patients had medical 
care: 1,058 in their own homes, 101 in 
hospitals, and 58 both at home and in 
hospitals. Of the patients who remained 
at home, 383 were without medical care. 
Of the 1,441 patients who remained in 
their own homes during their entire 
sickness, 31 secured resident trained 
nursing service ; S3, visiting trained 
nursing service ; 77, resident untrained 
nursing service, and 12, visiting un- 
trained nursing service. In 852 instances, 
some member of the family did whatever 
nursing was done. 

Inadequency of Home Care 

Only 55 per cent of the 1,441 patients 
who remained in their own homes 
throughout their sickness were cared 
for adequately. 80 per cent of the hos- 
pital patients were cared for adequately ; 
the remaining 20 per cent received in- 
adequate care chiefly because of tne lack 
of social service and follow-up work. 

Investigation of this service secured 
as it was related to the economic status 
of the patients showed that of the 506 
patients who could have paid for any 
necessary service, 81 per cent were 
cared for adequately and 19 per cent in- 
adequately. ' Of the 882 patients who 
could have met any ordinary expenses, 
such as physicians' fees, practical nurs- 
ing, and ward service in hospitals, but 
who could not have stood a prolonged 
drain on their incomes, 50 per cent were 
cared for adequately and 50 per cent in- 
adequately. There were 212 patients 
who could not pay for medical and 
nursing service. Of these. 32 per cent 
received adequate care and 68 per cent 
inadequate care. 

It is to be noted that of the 680 cases 
(out of the total 1,600 cases recorded) 
who were inadequately cared for, only 
145 belonged to the dependent class and 
were unable to pay for any care ; 98 
were among the well-to-do and could 
have paid for any necessary service, 
while the remaining 437 would have been 
able to pay for any ordinary charges 
though unable to stand a prolonged 
drain on their incomes. In other words, 
in nearly 79 per cent of the cases where 
there was found to be lack of proper 
service, poverty was not a controlling _ 
cause of that lack. There were in most 
cases no facilities for service to lie had, 
and in other cases there was a lack of 
proper knowledge as to what service to 



seek and how to seek for it. 

Of the 1,600 patients studied, 72 per 
cent (1,158) could have been cared for 
adequately in their own homes had there 
been available medical and nursing ser- 
vice. The remaining 28 per cent (442) 
could not have been cared for adequate- 
ly in their own homes. Of these 442 
patients 236 (15 per cent of the total 
1,600), who suffered from non-con- 
tagious diseases, could have been cared 
for adequately only in hospitals, be- 
cause of the nature of their cases from 
a medical standpoint. The other 73 
patients (4 per cent of the total 1,600), 
who suffered from contagious diseases, 
needed hospital care for the same rea- 
son. The remaining 9 per cent of the 
total 1,600 patients (133) could not have 
been cared for in their own homes be- 
cause of crowded and unsanitary housing 
conditions, low-grade mentality, ig- 
norance, shiftlessness, or poverty. 

The study shows especially — and in 
this, of course, Dutchess county is mere- 
ly typical — that a great deal of prevent- 
able disease occurs in the county, and 
that the care the sick receive and the 
facilities for their care are in many in- 
stances very inadequate, resulting in 
much unnecessary suffering and finan- 
cial loss and many untimely deaths. 

The problem is familiar: How to bet- 
ter health conditions in the county. How 
can sickness that is preventable be pre- 
vented ? How can facilities for the care 
of the sick be made adequate and 
available? What can be done to 
reduce the number of work days 
and school days lost through sick- 
ness? How can the sick in the county 
get that early and accurate diagnosis 
which is essential to effective treatment? 
What scheme can be devised to give 
proper, yet economical, care to women 
during their confinement? These are 
but a few aspects of the problem of the 
care of the sick throughout Dutchess 
county. 

Recommendations 

Certain recommendations are made 
looking toward the solution of this 
problem. 

Although a number of agencies are at 
work in the county, in most instances 
doing their work well in their separate 
fields, they are not adequately co- 
ordinated, and there are a number of 
important gaps in the health work of 
the community. It would appear, there- 
fore, that organization is needed to 
bring about co-operation on the part of 

65 



A A 
G L 
A C 
I 
N H 
S 
T L 



«H 



GERMAN SCIENTISTS 

who discovered that 

Alcohol is a Life-Destroyer 

It Lowers Vitality, 

Injures Health, Lessens Efficiency. 

One out of every 16 hospital patients Id 

Munich dies of "Beer- Drinkers' Heart." 



LIFE INSURANCE MEN 

who declare that 

Moderate Drinkers 

Shorten life on an average from 

10 to 13 years by their occasion j1 

High-ball, Cock-tail or 

Glass of Beer. 



English Doctors 

who say to the Troops 
llCOhOl SlOtS 11)9 POIff 10 Sit SljlllS 

Contois Prompt Judeonenl 
Spoils Icctraii Sliooiln 

Become Total Abstainers 



THE RED CROSS NURSE 

who says to you 

"Alcohol, by lowering resistance, nine times 
out of ten, makes it just so much harder for 
the patient to recover. 

Careful, therefore, how you use It as a 



existing agencies, to provide facilities 
that are now lacking, and to stimulate 
the provision of such new means for the 
care of the sick and the prevention of 
disease as may he found desirable. 

County Health Association 

Such organization might properly take 
the form of a county health association. 
At first this might be a private organiza- 
tion and very likely might wisely remain 
such permanently, although from time to 
time many of its activities might be 
taken over by public agencies. 

In order to do its work most efficiently, 
the association must have the sympa- 
thetic interest and co-operation of the 
physicians of the county, and should 
co-operate with all the public and pri- 
vate medical and social service agencies 
at work in the county, following these 
main lines: 

Remed] m. Work 

Establishing an efficient system of medi- 
cal, nursing and social service for the care 
nf the sick in their own homes. 

Securing the co-operation of the existing 
hospitals. Stimulating the provision >>f ad- 
ditional facilities where and when clearly 
needed. 

Maintaining a proper distribution of pa- 
tients as between home and hospital care. 
based on a study both of the patient's dis- 
ease and of his social and economic cir- 
cumstances. 

Preventive Work 

Educating the individual: (a) as to per- 
sonal hygiene and the observation of its 
laws; (h) as to the nature of communi- 
cable diseases and the means of avoiding 
them as well as the necessity of collective 
action to safeguard health and avert dan- 
ger from these sources; and (c) as to the 
bad housing and unlit social and industrial 
conditions in which he lives and the means 
that can he employed to improve those con 
dil ions. 

Securing the adoption and strict enforce- 
ment of public health measures, i. c, public 
hygiene. 

iii; 



A system that will provide adequate 
home and hospital care for the sick can- 
not he made effective unless the facilities 
are easily accessible. Since in many in- 
stances it is advisable, if not imperative. 
that there should he a branch of the 
health association with the necessary 
nurses and equipment near the patient 
and within call, it seems desirabe to dis- 
tribute the needed facilities among four 
geographical units or districts of the 
countw 

In each of these districts there should 
ultimately he a branch of the associa- 
tion, which should function thus: 

a. As the office and headquarters of the 

nursing and social service staff of the dis- 
trict. 

b. As a bureau of advice and information 
on matters of health and sickness, to be 
consulted freely by laymen, physicians, 
nurses, hospitals and social service agencies 
in general. 

c. As a place of registry of physicians, 
nurses (graduate and non-graduate") , and 
domestic helpers, for use in meeting the 
needs of sickness. 

d. As a meeting place for classes on 
health, the care of the sick and kindred 
topics. 

e. U a distributing center for printed 
matter on health and allied subjects. 

Each of these branches should be in 
charge of a superintendent who is a 
graduate nurse. When the work is full) 
organized, the superintendent of one of 
the branches should be of such a calibre 
as to act. with necessary assistants, as 
general superintendent of the entire as- 
sociation. Under the superintendent 
there should be a graduate Supervising 
nurse and such number of visiting 
nurses, trained attendants and domestic 
li< Ipers as may be needed. Where prac- 
ticable the school nursing should be done 
from these branches, as much is to be 
gained from complete co-operation and 
interchange of information and service 



ARGUMEN 

P HE latest ami. in the opinion of Boston 
against alcohol of the Boston Associated 
ili< poster through the women's clubs of M 
and shop windows, and that they read aloud 
ment orhow their congressmen voted on nati 
:; feet I) inches long and 10 inches high, is 
11 Mason Street. Cambridge, Mass. 



among the various forms of nursing 
work. 

The superintendent should be in re- 
sponsible charge oi all the activities of 
the branch. One of her chief duties 
would be to co-operate with the doctor 
in deciding when a trained nurse is 
needed ami when a trained attendant 
working under supervision is required 
for nursing and care of the home. This 
duty involves not onlj knowledge of the 
case itself and of home conditions, but 
also of the ability and general make-up 
of the nurses, in order that as helpful 
;ti adjustment as possible may be made 
i;f the nurse to the case and the home. 
rtmong the other duties of the super- 
intendent would be building up a body 
of trained attendants who will work un- 
der her supervision at a fixed scale oi 
es, and also interviewing the physi- 
cians and leading people in her district 
io get them to look to the association 
to supply the services needed. 

I he supervising nurse would he charg- 
ed with the general responsibility for 
the nursing care of the patient, giving 
i r furnishing such skilled service as may 
require a graduate nurse and looking 
after the work oi the trained attendants 
and domestic helpers. 

Remedial Work 

It is believed that the preventive work 
which it is suggested be undertaken in 
the county, will in time reduce the 
amount, relatively speaking, i^i the rem- 

Tui: si i;\ i\. October i< ; . 1MB 





TY COBB 

WHO SAYS 

"NO NIPS FOR ME, 
ley Dim My Batting Eye I' 



"Safety First" Men 

who know that 
Even Moderate Drinking Makes the Slow 
Thinking that makes the Accident. 

Joss found that a little over a pint of 
heer lessened Btudeit'a anility in Mental 
Arithmetic NINE PER CENT. 

Ohio, studying 80,000 Industrial Acci- 
dents, finds chief cause. Drink. 



THE RUSSIANS 

who rind that 

their Savings Bank Reports Show 

SaVings Increased 

5000% met) 

in the Eight Months following the (losing 
of Unit Drink Shops 




who, imprisoned in Philadelphia, claimed 
that their downfall was due to Drink, and 
petitioned the Legislature to rksse thf 
Saloons 

for the sake of 

The Boy Who Should Come After Them. 



.HOUETTE 

men, the best feature in the poster campaign 
The Anti-Alcohol Committee is putting out 
:s, asking that they place it in schools, libraries 
.lbs and publish in their press notices a state- 
ition. The poster, which in the original is 
cents each at the committee's headquarters, 



edial work required. The effect of this, 
however, will be gradual and in some 
sections the growth of population may 
have a tendency to keep the ac.ual 
amount of remedial work needed up to 
its present volume. It is desirable there- 
fore on the basis of data obtained to 
make a fairly accurate estimate of the 
service and facilities needed at present 
for remedial work in the county as a 
whole. 

An estimate in considerable detail has 
been made of the nursing and domestic 
service required, including not only the 
services of graduate nurses, both resi- 
dent and visiting, but also of trained 
attendants and domestic helpers required 
during the emergency of sickness. For 
this phase of the recommendations the 
reader is referred to the report itself,' 
as lack of space prevents its presentation 
here. 

Among its first important duties it 
will be necessary for the association not 
only to foster co-operation among the 
hospitals of the county but also to bring 
about co-operation of the hospitals with 
the association itself. To facilitate this 
co-operation there should be represen- 
tatives of the various hospitals on the 
central council of the county health as- 
sociation. 

As an example of how the hospitals 
might co-operate with the association, 
the association's bureau of advice and 
information might receive daily or semi- 
weekly reports from each hospital, in- 



dicating the number and kind of unoccu- 
pied, or about to be unoccupied, beds. 
'1 his would enable anyone to know, by 
consulting the association, just what un- 
occupied beds there were at any time 
in any of the hospitals. Finding hospi- 
tal cases in time and getting them to 
the right hospitals would be one of the 
most important functions of the various 
branches of the health association. 

The association should also give care- 
ful consideration to the question of what 
additional hospital facilities are needed 
in order fully to meet the needs of the 
county. For an estimate of hospital 
provision necessary in the county, the 
reader is referred to the report itself. 

Out-Paficnt Pulsion 

After the sick who can be cared for 
:n their homes and in hospitals have been 
provided for, there still remains a broad 
field of need in the county which can 
best be covered by an out-patient di- 
vision of the proposed health associa- 
tion. This division should co-operate 
with the hospitals in maintaining various 
clinics throughout the county, and should 
be the means of so organizing the ser- 
vices of specialists in medicine and sur- 
gery as to make them available not 
only for the poor who are sick, but 
also for those of moderate means who 
are unwilling to resort to a free dis- 
pensary and, because of their inability 
to pay a specialist's fee, are obliged to 
forego competent advice. 

The vital importance of securing early 
and accurate diagnosis for the success- 
ful treatment of diseases, all will admit. 
Once having made a correct diagnosis, 
the most effectual method of treatment 
can usually lie found in any standard 
work on the practice of medicine. But 
it is just here that the general practi- 
tioner is invariably confronted with his 



ill' < s t . no ,| S difficulties. He is not 
equipped with a laboratory, nor dues lie 
possess the costly instruments of pre- 
c sion which, in the hands of a trained 
"'server, would enable him to secure a 
full report of the patient's condition and 
make it possible for him to discover the 
precise nature of the disease he is called 
upon to treat. 

These services and facilities, in vary- 
ing degree, could be placed at the dis- 
posal of the private practitioners, and 
through them at the disposal of the pub- 
lic at large, through a system of out- 
patient service. These clinics should, if 
possible, be so organized that their ser- 
vices could be availed of by people of 
moderate means on a self-supporting 
basis, no less than by the poor. 

In cases such as might predominate 
in a general medical clinic where the 
services of specialists in diagnosis are 
not so commonly required, it should be 
possible for the general practitioner to 
bring his patients for examination to the 
nut-patient department, much as he 
would bring them to a hospital for treat- 
ment, and by the payment of a standard 
charge secure the use of the clinic and 
whatever equipment and services it 
offers. 

Kinds of Clinics 

The clinics that a fully developed out- 
patient department should ultimately pro- 
vide are: general medical, children's, 
surgical, gynecological, dermatological, 
genito-urinary, nose, throat, ear, eye. 
dental, orthopedic, tuberculosis and ner- 
vous and mental diseases. 

Efficient out-patient work involves an 
organized social service which will make 
the closest possible connection between 
the patient and the home on the one 
band, and, on the other hand, the physi- 
cian, the hospital, and all other social 



61 



68 



The Survey, October 16, 1915 



institutions which will have a bearing 
upon the individual case and so upon 
the general public welfare. 

Occasional or stated clinics should be 
conducted in the various districts of the 
county. An effective system of medical 
school inspection would bring to light 
many cases requiring expert diagnosis. 
It could also do much to assist the vari- 
ous clinics in co-operating with each 
other and in securing the co-operation of 
physicians and local health officers. 

But vastly more can in the end be 
accomplished by preventive than by 
remedial work. The present exigencies 
and acute suffering should not blind us 
to the necessity of measures whereby a 
very large portion of existing disease 
and suffering can be done away with. 
Not only must personal habits and hy- 
giene often be reformed, but the deep 
underlying causes of sickness which have 
their roots in the ignorance of the pub- 
lic as to the causes of disease, and in 
social and industrial conditions, must be 
removed. 

Preventive Work 

Such preventive work naturally di- 
vides itself into two parts: 

Educating the individual : 

(a) as to personal hygiene and the ob- 
servation of its laws ; 

(b) as to the nature of communicable 
diseases and the means of avoiding them as 
well as the necessity of collective action to 
safeguard health and avert danger from 
these sources ; 

and (c) as to had housing and unlit so- 
cial and industrial conditions in which he 
lives and the means that can be employed 
to improve those conditions. 

Securing the adoption and strict enforce- 
ment of public health measures, i. c pub- 
lic hygiene. 

"While pubic hygiene," in the words 
of Professor Fisher, "seeks to destroy 
the germs before they reach our bodily 
defenses, personal hygiene means the 
strengthening of our defenses against 
disease. . . . Both are of trans- 
cendent importance, but the defen- 
sive warfare is more within our reach. 
. . Personal hygiene comprises hy- 
giene of environment ( air. soil, dwelling, 
clothing), hygiene of nutrition, hygiene 
of activity." 

There must he disseminated, further, 
adequate knowledge of personal hygiene, 
and honest observance of its means. 
The health association, therefore, would 
wish to disseminate information con- 
cerning, and stimulate the observance 
of, the laws of personal hygiene by the 
following means : 

Secure the universal use of the school 
nurse throughout the county, 

Secure the incorporation of matter on 
personal hygiene in the school curriculum. 

Organize classes of mothers for the 
study of personal hygiene, especially as it 
applies to their children. 

Mak ' it a part of the dut\ of its visiting 
nurses to take every opportunity consistent 
with the care of sickness to instruct those 
among whom they move in personal hy- 
giene. 



Maintain a lecture bureau to furnish 
churches, granges, lodges, etc., either volun- 
teer or paid lecturers on health matters. 

Distribute leaflets and pamphlets on 
health matters, including not only its own 
publications, but also originals or reprints 
of helpful articles published by other agen- 
cies. 

Supply the local newspapers constantly 
with authoritative copy relating to the 
health of the community. 

Through the education of the public, 
through legislation, and through admin- 
istrative action, the health association 
should endeavor to see that every com- 
munity in the county has an adequate 
supply of pure water and pure milk ; 
that sewage, drainage and garbage dis- 
posal is so planned as not to contaminate 
the water supply ; that breeding places 
for flies and mosquitoes ( such as un- 
covered manure pits and swamps) are 
eliminated ; that overcrowded and un- 
sanitary housing conditions are rem- 
edied ; that adequate protection is had 
from accidents; that proper facilities are 
provided for the quick detection, accur- 
ate diagnosis and isolation of cases of 
contagious diseases; that the feeble- 
minded and epileptic in the community 
are segregated in custodial institutions; 
that alcohol and excessive fatigue are 
not allowed to undermine health ; and 
that more uniform, accurate and com- 
prehensive vital statistics arc kept. 

To accomplish these ends the health 
association wotdd wisely seek the advice 
and co-operation of the state Department 
of Health. As a result of the recom- 
mendations of a special public health 
commission, tin- scope and equipment of 
the state Department of Health have, by 
legislative act. been greatly extended. 
Chief among the newer agencies cre- 
ated was the Public Health Council. 
Among its broad powers is that of es- 
tablishing a sanitary code for the state 
outside of Xew York. There was also 
created a system of sanitary supervision 
by district sanitary supervisors for each 
of the twenty districts into which the 
state has been divided (cities of the first 
class excluded!. These supervisors co- 
operate with the local health officers and 
act as the representative of the state 
commissioner of health in securing with- 
in their districts the enforcement of the 
provisions of the public health law and 
the canitary code. Power was also given 
the* commissioner of health to employ 
public health nurses and to assign them 
to any district in the state. 

The health association should, in 
every way possible, aid the local health 
officers of the various communities with- 
in the county. Co-operation in the spirit 
of disinterested helpfulness with the lo- 
cal health authorities on the one hand, 
and with the state Department of Health 
through its sanitary supervisor on the 
other hand, will go a long way to im- 
prove the health of the county. 

The county health association should 
interest itself in the following move- 
ments, among others, toward reform: 



Improved child hygiene, .wdiich should 
include prenatal care. 

Better housing. 

The prevention of feeble-mindedness, 
epilepsy, alcoholism, and tuberculosis. 

In furthering these movements, em- 
bodying large elements of social and 
economic reform, the question of which 
lines of work the association should con- 
duct, as well as initiate, and which, hav- 
ing been initiated, it may wisely leave- 
to other agencies, will depend for its an- 
swer partly on how much of this work 
can be done by state and national agen- 
cies, and partly on the personnel, service 
and financial resources which the asso- 
ciation is able to command. But. what- 
ever be the agencies that carry on the 
various enterprises, there can be no ques- 
tion as to their desirability. 

Reform Movements 

The findings in Part I, among other 
aspects of child hygiene, show : that 26.- 
972 days, or 65 per cent of the total 
days lost because of acute illness, were 
among children up to 16 years of age; 

that there is no adequate medical in- 
spection in the schools; 

that the work of prenatal care was not 
on an efficient basis in Poughkeepsie and 
was unheard of in the rural sections. 

This reveals urgent need for activities 
looking to the conservation of the health 
of the child. 

In furthering such a movement the as- 
sociation would naturally seek the co- 
operation, among other agencies, of the 
Federal Children's Bureau, the state De- 
partment of Health, and the National 
c hild Labor Committee. 

There should result a deeper realiza- 
tion of the value of the health of the 
child and the establishment of a compre- 
hensive system of medical school inspec- 
tion with adequate follow-up work by 
school nurses, the establishment of 
school dental and eye clinics, and open 
air schools for tubercular and anemic 
children. 

In its housing movement the associa- 
tion would seek the advice and co-opera- 
tion of the National Housing A-socia- 
tion. whose officers will gladly place their 
services at the command of the associa- 
tion and do all they can to further this 
important phase of preventive work. 

The movement for better housing has 
already taken root in Poughkeepsie and 
will probably result in a local hoi 
society. Put the subject of healthful 
housing outside of the city ^\ Pough- 
keepsie iias not as vet been touched. 

There might result the establishment ot 
a county housing association whos< 
jects would he to improve the existing 
conditions and prevent bad housing con- 
ditions in the future. 

The association should establish help- 
fid connections with state and other in- 
stitutions whose function it is to solve 
the problems presented by the feel le- 
minded, the defective, the epileptic, the 



A Survey of Sickness 



69 



alcoholic and the tuberculous. It should 
collect information as to conditions ac- 
tually existing in the county and bring 
them before the people in such a way 
as to arouse interest and bring about 
effective efforts for remedy. 

Although there is nowhere in the 
United States, as far as we can ascer- 
tain, any agency with as comprehensive 
a program as that of the proposed county 
health association, there are several or- 
ganizations doing successful work along 
somewhat similar lines. 

In Brattleboro, Vt., there is an organ- 
ization for the home care of the sick 
which has developed into a health center. 
It seeks so to co-ordinate its working 
force of trained nurses and domestic 
helpers as to render the most effective 
service to the sick in their homes at the 
lowest practicable cost. Its office is 
open to call day and night and it takes 
the needs of the home, including the 
patient, as a starting point. 

The staff which the association uses 
consists of a general superintendent who 
is a graduate nurse. Under this general 
superintendent is a visiting nurse, also 
a graduate, who does the usual visiting 
nurse work, and a supervising graduate 
nurse who has under her a squad of 
household nurses or attendants. In ad- 
dition, there is a directory or employ- 
ment agency for graduate nurses, and a 
miscellaneous list of all the people in 
the town who can go out to help in the 
home by the day or by the week. The 
school nursing is also done from the 
same center to the great advantage and 
efficiency of all branches of the asso- 
ciation's work. 

In Detroit, Mich., there is the Detroit 
Home Nursing Association, a somewhat 
similar agency but adapted to the needs 
of a larger city. Its object is "to secure 



prompt, efficient and satisfactory service 
in case of sickness for people of every 
class, particularly for independent fam- 
ilies of moderate means." For this pur- 
pose the association maintains an office 
centrally located where physicians and 
families needing help and information 
can apply at any hour of the day or 
night. 

The proper care of the sick and the 
suitable care of the home are two things 
that are indispensable in every case of 
sickness in the home. In order to meet 
this need, the Detroit Home Nursing As- 
sociation provides three classes of help- 
ers: (1) A supervising nurse who will, 
on request, give constant advice as to 
the kind of help needed, the probable 
time the help will be required, and its 
cost. No work, however, is undertaken 
without the cordial co-operation of the 
physician in charge. (2) Skilled grad- 
uate nurses who take personal charge of 
all important cas<es. (3) Non-graduate 
household nurses who care for the cases 
that do not need or no longer require 
the skill of a graduate nurse. These 
household nurses also assist in the care 
of the home and do their work under 
graduate supervision. 

In Boston, Mass.. the Household 
Nursing Association of the Women's 
Municipal League is similar in organiza- 
tion and function to the Detroit associa- 
tion. It, however, has a central office 
with three branch stations, one of them 
at a hospital. 

At Norwood, Mass., an industrial 
town of 10.000 people, 30 per cent for- 
eign, the Norwood Civic Association 
maintains a health center as part of Nor- 
wood's Civic Center. At this health cen- 
ter the Norwood Civic Association main- 
tains the following activities: An emer- 
gency hospital .of ten beds where minor 



surgery and accidents are primarily 
cared for; visiting nurses; school nurs- 
ing in co-operation with the school de- 
partment, and eye and dental clinics. The 
association hopes eventually to work out 
a civic health center that will have 
the machinery to take care of all the 
sick of the community, no matter what 
the need may be. 

In the city of New York, at 98 Wash- 
ington street, in the heart of the old 
Syrian quarter, the New York Milk 
Committee established a health center 
on August 1, 1913. The district em- 
braces a population of 7,250, or about 
1,500 families. Its work now covers 
prenatal care and education of expectant 
mothers, unofficial supervision of mid- 
wives, care and feeding of in- 
fants under two years of age, su- 
pervision of the dietary of chil- 
dren under school age, improvement 
of the community's sanitary conditions, 
administering first aid to the injured and 
ill, and acting as a clearing house on 
health matters. To carry on this work 
it has transformed an ordinary street 
store into a clinic and office for the 
staff, consisting of a part time super- 
vising nurse, one field nurse, an inter- 
preter, one volunteer woman physician, 
and a part time paid male physician. 

In conclusion it may be said that the 
foregoing program looks to a substantial 
improvement which can only be attained 
by hard effort extending, according to 
circumstances, over a longer or shorter 
period of time. A beginning, however, 
can be most effectively and wisely begun 
in the presence of a clearly defined pro- 
gram ; and, as a more restricted move- 
ment ought to have the county-wide 
plan in view, it has seemed wise to set 
forth a comprehensive scheme of or- 
ganization. 



THE MAN WITH THE GUN 

Companion to The Man with the Hoe 

Roy Temple House 

. This will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you : 
he will take your sons ... I Samuel 8:11. 

SICK with the thought of little ones at home 
Weeping with hunger and blind loneliness; 
Numb with the fear of what the day may bring 
Of pain and blood (for even such as he, 
Dull draught-beast, stolid creature of the soil. 
Has never sunk so far below the brute 
That love and fear have ceased to trouble him) ; 
Or — sight of horror! — mad with stupid hate 
That knows not what it feeds on, lust of blood 
Decked out as love of country; victim, tool, 
He strikes for naught, and suffers without cause. 

Oh, kings and states that play with human life ! 
Is there no way, oh God! to speak to you? 
Have ye not read — or was it long ago? — 
That all this world can touch of eminence 
Can never wash away the guilt of him 
Who lays a finger on these little ones? 
And have ye never heard a tale of one 
Who taught a child the bow, and fell himself? 



70 



The Survey, October 16, 1915 



Health 



A 



WORD WITH THE PUBLICITY 
AGENT 



There was a paper given before 
the American Public Health Association 
this year, addressed to health officials 
which should really have been directed 
to magazine writers and to the editors 
of newspapers that maintain a "health 
column" or a "how to keep well" de- 
partment. 

Dr. C. V. Chapin of Providence is 
one of the country's foremost sanitar- 
ians. He believes in publicity for health 
matters as well as for other matters in 
which a community is vitally interested, 
but he does not believe in some methods 
of the publicity man. He is revolution- 
ary enough to insist that if truth and 
readableness cannot go hand in hand, 
then the latter should be sacrificed. 

"It would appear to be almost an axiom 
that the teacher should teach the truth. 
Yet there are many to whom this does not 
seem to have occurred. If the tares of 
error are sown among the wheat they are 
sure to spring up and many a summer sun 
will come and go before they wither and 
die. ... In the past many errors have 
been taught by alleged sanitarians and en- 
thusiastic reformers of many kinds. Some 
of them are still entrenched in the minds 
of the public to plague us and hinder pro- 
gress." 

Such are the fallacies as to the dan- 
gers of cellar air and "ground air"; the 



perniciousness of emanations from ceme- 
teries, and the disease-producing prop- 
erties of simple dirt. A belief that dirt 
as dirt is dangerous hampers the health 
officer who wants to insist on the danger 
of certain kinds of dirt in certain places 
— human excreta in drinking-water, (or 
instance. At the close of the Spanish 
War, Colonel Waring was sent to clean 
the city of Havana and so exterminate 
yellow fever. He did clean it but the 
fever was worse than ever. Yet this 
old heresy about the all-importance of 
dirt, any kind of dirt, still persists. If 
writers for the weekly or monthly health 
bulletin cannot think of anything else 
they can always fall back on a new 
sermon on dirt. 

One picture bulletin issued by a health 
department shows adjoining yards, one 
shiftless and dirty, the other lovely with 
flowers, with the motto, "Dirt and dis- 
ease go hand in hand." Of course, when 
everyday experience shows that the dirty 
little urchins in homes of this kind are 
in the most blooming health and that a 
s'ckly family may keep the premises 
absolutely clean and still be sick, the 
community is not likely to trust this 
same authority when he tells them that 
antitoxin cures diphtheria. 

Another subject on which exaggerated 
nonsense has been written, and has 
deeply impressed the public mind is the 
danerer of sjcrms 61 infectious disease. 



"For instance," quotes Dr. Chapin, "these 
germs by their exceeding lightness may 
separate from any of the emanations of 
the body to infect some other person weeks 
or months afterward, and scores of miles 
away. There is little wonder that, when a 
few years ago we sought to establish a 
hospital for contagious disease, the neigh- 
bors rose as one man to protest against the 
outrage." 

Food adulteration is a good instance 
of the harm done by placing emphasis 
on an unimportant feature of the detri- 
ment of vitally important ones. It is 
invariably a most popular subject and is 
handled with infinite zeal by the "health 
editor." Dr. Chapin describes a cartoon 
showing Death pouring adulterants into 
soups and sardines, while a lovely Red 
Cross nurse labeled Health, is dealing 
out cans marked P-U-R-E. "The truth 
is that adulteration, except in a few in- 
stances, is an economic, not a health, 
problem." 

Cleanliness in food is much more im- 
portant ; but when the health writers 
turn to that subject, they usually devote 
all their eloquence to the prevention of 
dust and quite forget the infinitely great- 
er danger that comes from dirty hands. 

Perhaps the most lurid nonsense of 
all is written about the fly. Dr. Chapin 
is willing to admit that the house-fly 
does at times and in places become a 
factor of importance in the spread of 
fecal-borne disease. 

"He is also a very dirty and disgusting 

insect. This is enough. Why call the fly 
'deadlier than the tiger or cobra,' or 'tin- 
most dangerous animal in the world.'? It 
is news to most of us that 'Xapoleon could 
not retain his hold on Egypt because of the 
rl\ ; and that 'An eminent medical authority 
has recently figured out that the fly as a 
carrier of typhoid fever annually costs the 
people of the United States for sickness, 



From Jungle Days by Arley Munson, M.n. 



Appleton i( Ce 




V A C C 1 X ATION 
PAY IX AN 
INDIAN VIL- 
LAGE 

T h e SUi 

of preventive 
medicine in In- 
di.i in in great 
measure due to 
itinerant teach- 
ing and village 
disp e nsaries. 
Such work as 
1 >r. M u n s o n 
describes is 
o\ ere o rri i ng 
fear and preju- 
dice, and the 
result shows in 
iniprox ed V ital 
statistics. 






Health 



71 



medical expenses, lost time and funeral ex- 
penses the enormous sum of $350,000,000?' 
We ought to make this accurate mathe- 
matical gentleman chairman of our section 
on vital statistics." 

Doubtless some will think Dr. Chapin 
hypercritical. These slips are small, 
they will say, and seldom occur. But 
who will say that because a lie is little 
it can do no harm ? One great trouble 
with the publicity man is an inordinate 
desire to "get in on the ground floor." 
When he hears something new he tells 
it without waiting to learn whether it 
is true. 

"One cannot expect scientific accuracy in 
publicity, a very good friend, who is a 
forceful writer of telling articles, said to 
me," concludes Dr. Chapin. "I made no 
decided answer then, but the more I think 
of it the more decided I am that scientific 
accuracy should be insisted on. Our science 
itself is so inexact that we cannot afford 
to swerve one hair's breadth from it. One 
can hold steadfast to scientific truth and 
yet avoid, absolutely, all pedantry and 
scientific jargon. Clear, forceful and 
catchy writing is worse than useless if it 
fails to teach the truth and the truth only. 
So far as it departs from this our health 
literature approaches that of the fake 
medicine factory — and perhaps does more 
harm. The space writer is the curse of 
our day and generation. 

"For the sake of those who come after, 
stop filling your columns with tommy-rot, 
hot air and dope. Do not be always seek- 
ing novelty. Most that is new is bad. 
There are plenty of old truths which all of 
our hundred millions have not yet learned. 
If you have nothing to write, do not write 
it. Remember that bulletins were made for 
man and not man for bulletins. Better pay 
your publicity man for doing nothing than 
for writing something which is not so." 



H 



EALTH KNOWLEDGE FOR ONE 
AND ALL 



The vexing problem of getting 
health knowledge to the individual in 
New York city's heterogeneous popula- 
tion, taxed the ingenuity of Dr. Charles 
Bolduan, director of the Bureau of Pub- 
lic Health Education of New York; 
however, he has worked out an effective 
plan. Health bulletins, weekly, monthly, 
of all kinds and sorts, have been issued 
by public health departments all over 
the land. With a few exceptions, they 
have been told in technical terms, and 
dull. 

Dr. Bolduan's scheme for his health 
bulletins embraces three types of health 
education material — one designed for 
leaders of thought in the community — 
the doctors themselves, ministers, edi- 
tors and so on, in which scientific treat- 
ment and terms are possible. 

The second bulletin is designed for 
the lay reader, for parents, and teachers 
in the public schools where more popu- 
lar presentation is necessary. 

But it is the last type of bulletin 
which deserves special praise. It is, 
or rather they are — for there are 
twelve of them — little neighborhood 
journals, carrying messages of cleanli- 
ness, prevention and daily habit right 
into the households of the people. Is- 
sued monthly, each with its own local 
title, the little four-page folders are dis- 
tributed through co-operation with a 



neighborhood organization : the Colum- 
bus Hill Chronicle by the Vanderbilt 
Clinic, the Brownsville Chronicle by the 
Hebrew Educational Society, the Green- 
point Chronicle by the Greenpoint 
Neighborhood Association and so on. 

These various neighborhoods are 
populated by Jews, Italians, Poles, or 
Hungarians and on the front page of 
each chronicle, part of the messages are 
printed in the predominant language of 
the district. This is designed to draw 
the attention of the reader who, his in- 
terest aroused, will proceed to have some 
one read to him the rest of the bulletin, 
which is printed in English. In most 
cases there are school children in the 
household who can read the English, and 
the language and style of the bulletins is 
such as will interest them. 

The chronicles are illustrated and the 
articles have a snap and go to them. 
Where to go for a visiting nurse, ad- 
dresses of free milk stations, common- 
sense advice on vaccination, mothers' 
meetings in the neighborhood — this is 
the sort of information the chronicles 
publish. And there are storiettes told in 
the vernacular of the street — how Mrs. 
Jones was cured of rheumatism by hav- 
ing her decayed teeth replaced by clean 
artificial ones, and the conversation of 
Pete and Chick on the advantages of 
riding on the water-wagon. 

Dr. Bolduan has been issuing the three 
types of health bulletins to the New 
York public since April, and now reaches 
nearly 100,000 readers regularly. The 
popular neighborhood chronicles have a 
circulation of over 40,000 each month. 

Polyglot bulletins are issued from time 
to time also by Dr. Nathan R. Gorter of 
the Department of Health in Baltimore. 
The Baltimore department uses also cut- 
out slides in a large number of moving- 
picture places. Other cities issuing an- 
nouncements and bulletins in various 
languages are Chicago, New Orleans 
and San Francisco. 



M 




»TK> dean a city and KEEP it clean Is 
* possible only when every one does his 
doty. You will help to keep the city clean 
by keeping your house and yard clean. 

CARBACE. You will help to keep the 
city healthy by not allowing any garbage to 
lie around your house and yard, but keep it 
in covered receptacles. 

FLIES. Catchanddestroyallflles. 

n and keep it up during the entire s 
One fly destroyed now Is worth thousands 
destroyed later on. 

MOSQUITOES. Destroy all mosquitoes 
you can. Do not permit water to stand in 
vessels without a well-fitting cover. Pour 
one pint of Kerosene in privy well every week. 
If you leave your home for more- than five 
days pour a good layer of oil on all water 
traps, and turn upside down all empty vessels 

NATHAN R. GORTER, M. D.. 

Commissioner of Health. 



IN FOUR LANGUAGES 

A folder containing the same sub- 
ject matter for citizens of four na- 
tionalities distributed by the Balti- 
more Department of Health. 



EASURES FOR PROPHYLAXIS 
IN GERMANY 

Ever since the outbreak of 
the war, much has been written in Ger- 
man medical journals concerning the 
danger from venereal diseases, which, as 
history shows, increase during wars. 

The first widespread outbreak of 
syphilis which we find described in 
literature was in the army of Charles 
the Eighth of France, in the siege of 
Naples, toward the end of the fifteenth 
century (1494). So terrible were the 
ravages of this plague that the siege had 
to be raised. In modern wars the evil 
is not so great because the armies are 
no longer escorted by troups of camp- 
followers, — prostitutes; yet in an oc- 
cupied town it is difficult if not impossi- 
ble to control the license of the soldiers. 

A prominent specialist, Touton of 
Wiesbaden, says that in the early days 
of the present war, there was actually 
less vice among the men in the field 
than there had been while these same 
men were in civil life; for patriotism 
and enthusiasm for self-sacrifice lifted 
them above themselves. Then came the 
hideous monotony and squalor of trench 
life; the fervor of spirit died down and 
the longing for self-indulgence awoke. 

Far worse was the spirit of the armies 
of occupation in cities where prostitutes 
always abound. It is pointed out that 
when the army returns home, there will 
inevitably be a great increase of ven- 
ereal disease among German women. 

To prevent these dangers, several con- 
ferences of specialists have been held 
and various procedures advocated. It 
is said that the officer in command must 
at once on entering a town send for the 
list of prostitutes, collect them, have 
them examined by the military doctors 
and house them under lock and key, 
the healthy ones for the use of the sol- 
diers; the diseased to. be segregated dur- 
ing the period of occupation, unless it 
is found possible to deport them. 

More in line with what are usually 
considered measures of prophylaxis, are 
recommendations for the education of 
the soldier, not onlv by pamphlets but 
by word of mouth, sickness insurance 
societies and trade unions being urged 
to do their part in this. 

It is also necessary to remove every- 
thing that can serve as a lure to vice, 
to restrict alcoholic drinks, to exclude 
waitresses from saloons, to provide read- 
ing-rooms and recreation places for the 
soldiers; and — this is certainly a new 
idea to the military r.iind — to see to it 
that there is work and decent recreation 
for the women in the occupied zone. 

It is recognized that after the war is 
over, there will have to be extensive 
provision for the treatment of diseased 
soldiers, and the officials of the state in- 
surance organizations have announced 
that they will provide means for this. 
FOR STUDENT HEALTH 

A health service has recently been 
established at Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege "to aid in all phases of student 
health." The first bulletin, prepared by 
the college physician, Dr. W. E. For- 
sythe. discusses various matters of per- 
sonal hygiene, with a practical warning 
against self-dosing and the use of "pat- 
ent medicines." 



The Rockefeller Plan 



J—TERE is the plan proposed to 
the Colorado miners by John 
D. Rockefeller, Jr., and accepted 
by them in a formal vote. It will, 
therefore, govern the terms of em- 
ployment in the mining camps of 
the Colorado Fuel and Iron Com- 
pany for the next three years. 

I?EFORE summarizing its chief 
points, one underlying factor 
should be brought out. This plan 
is direct action by the younger 
Rockefeller, — a plan proposed by 
him in person on the ground, for 
which he as chief owner shoulders 
personal responsibility. This move 
is in itself clarifying. It abandons 
that water-tight division of poiv- 
ers between stockholders, directors 
and managers which he tenacious- 
ly maintained throughout the long 
strike and the subsequent fed- 
eral investigation, and introduces 
' a new relationship, the effect of 
xvhich it is difficult to forecast in 
advance. 

"T* HE Rockefeller plan provides 
machinery for adjusting griev- 
ances and for looking after safety 
and sanitary conditions. It guar- 
antees the continuance of the pres- 
ent scale of tvages unless ivagcs arc 
raised in competitive fields, in 
which case a proportional increase 
will be made. The eight-hour day 
is to be maintained. Employes arc 
to have the right to hold meetings, 
to trade wherever they please, and 
to have chcck-weighmcn at the 
scales. The agreement guarantees 
the right of every employe to be- 



long to a union or to refrain as he 
may desire. It states that both 
parties to the agreement are to 
obey the laws. 

The agreement, therefore, in- 
cludes three of the seven demands 
presented at the beginning of the 
strike of 1913-14 and a part of a 
fourth. The demands for union 
recognition, an advance in wages 
and pay for deadwork are by the 
terms of this agreement denied. 
The demand for the abolition of 
the guard system is not covered in 
any way. 

If the terms of this plan arc 
carried out in good faith, the condi- 
tion of the Colorado miners will 
have been considerably improved. 
The right to hold meetings un- 
hampered by the presence of of- 
ficers or foremen is a right essen- 
tial to any freedom of speech or 
action, and one that the miners 
have not alzvays enjoyed. Labor 
leaders have pointed out, however, 
that this plan makes provision for 
local meetings only. There are to 
be joint meetings of committee- 
men from the different camps, but 
at these meetings an equal num- 
ber of company representatives arc 
to be present. 

pURTHERMORE, it is not 
"more democratic than union- 
ism," as Mr. Rockefeller is re- 
ported to have characterized it. 
There is something reminiscent of 
the old regime in the evidence that 
copies' of the plan, accompanied by 
a printed statement that it had 
been adopted by representatives of 
the miners in a conference 'with 



the officers, were given out before 
the conference had assembled ! 

The agreement offers no ade- 
quate protection to the representa- 
tives of the men who serve on 
committees. Appeal to the presi- 
dent of the company and finally 
to the state Industrial Commission 
offers a precarious relief to an 
active committeeman who may 
have offended a foreman. For it 
must be remembered that it is not 
a new set of company officers who 
are to administer this plan. They 
are the very ones who were there 
during the strike and before. 

TT was the closed camps and pri- 
vate highways and camp mar- 
shals in company pay that, before 
the strike, engendered fear in the 
hearts of miners who wanted to 
speak freely their views, go and 
come as they pleased, join unions 
and listen to union representatives. 
Committees are not likely, under 
this new plan, to be more inde- 
pendent so long as the camps and 
highways remain closed and the 
officer of the law still owes his al- 
legiance to the company. As be-) 
fore, the pozver of control lies with 
the company. The committees and! 
the 'whole elaborate machinery ex' 
ist on sufferance only. 

One other noteworthy thing is 
the fact that the 4,000 or §,000 
steelworks employes of the Col- 
orado Fuel and Iron Company at 
Pueblo are not included in the plan. 
They are still without representa- 
tion of any kind. Can it be that 
it is because they have not yet 
gone on strike? — The Editor. 



Representation of Employes 

EMPLOYES at each of the mining 
camps shall annually elect from 
among their number represen- 
tatives to act on their behalf 
with respect to matters pertain- 
ing to their employment, working and 
living conditions, the adjustment of dif- 
ferences, and such other matters of mu- 
tual concern and interest as relations 
within the industry may determine. 

The annual meetings of employes for 
the election of their representatives 
shall be held simultaneously at the 
several mining camps on the second 
Saturday in January. The meetings 
shall be called by direction of the presi- 
dent of the company. Notices of the 
meetings, indicating their time and 
place, as well as the number of rep- 
resentations to be elected shall be 
publicly posted at eacb camp a week 
in advance, and shall state that em- 
ployes being wage-earners in the em- 

72 



ploy of the company at the time of 
the meeting and for at least three 
months immediately preceding, but not 
salaried employes, shall be entitled to 
be present and vote. Special meetings 
shall be similarly called when removal, 
resignation, or other circumstance oc- 
casions a vacancy in representation. 

Each meeting for the election of em- 
ployes' representatives shall choose its 
own chairman and secretary. At the 
appointed hour, the meeting shall be 
called to order by one of the em- 
ployes' representatives, or, in the ab- 
sence of a representative, by any em- 
ploye present, and shall proceed to the 
election of a chairman and secretary. 
The chairman shall conduct, and the 
secretary record, the proceedings. They 
shall certify in writing to the presi- 
dent of the company the names of the 
persons elected as the employes' repre- 
sentatives for the ensuing year. 

Representation of employes in each 



camp shall be on the basis of one rep- 
resentative to every 150 wage-earners, 
but each camp, whatever its number of 
employes, shall be entitled to at least 
two representatives. Where the num 
ber of employes in any one camp ex- 
ceeds 150, or any multiple thereof, by 
seventy-five or more, an additional 
representative shall be elected. The 
persons elected shall act as the em- 
ployes' representatives from the time 
of their election until the next annual 
meeting, unless in the interval other 
representatives may, as above provided, 
have been elected to take their places. 
To facilitate the nomination and 
election of employes' representatives, 
and to insure freedom oi choice, both 
nomination and election shall he bj se- 
cret ballot, under conditions calculated 
to insure an impartial count. The com- 
pany shall provide ballot boxes and 
blank ballots, differing in form, for 
purposes of nomination and election. 

The si i.\ 1 .. Octol «•; if., IBIS 



The Rockefeller Plan 



73 



Upon entering the meeting, each em- 
ploye entitled to be present shall be 
given a nomination ballot on which he 
shall write the names of the persons 
whom he desires to nominate as rep- 
resentatives, and deposit the nomina- 
tion ballot in the ballot box. 

Each employe may nominate repre- 
sentatives to the number to which the 
camp is entitled, and of which public 
notice has been given. Employes un- 
unable to write may ask any of their 
fellow employes to write for them on 
their ballots the names of the persons 
whom they desire to nominate ; but in 
the event of any nomination paper 
containing more names than the num- 
ber of representatives to which the 
camp is entitled, the paper shall not 
be counted. The persons — to the num- 
ber of twice as many representatives 
as the camp is entitled to — receiving 
the highest number of nomination votes 
shall be regarded as the duly nomi- 
nated candidates for employes' repre- 
sentatives, and shall be voted upon as 
hereinafter provided. (For example: If 
a camp is entitled to two representa- 
tives, the four persons receiving the 
largest number of nomination votes 
shall be regarded as the duly nomi- 
nated candidates. If the camp is en- 
titled to three representatives, then the 
six persons receiving the largest num- 
ber, etc.) 

The chairman shall appoint three 
tellers, who shall take charge of the 
ballot box containing the nomination 
votes, and with the aid of the secre- 
tary, they shall make out the list of 
the duly nominated candidates, which 
shall be announced by the chairman. 
The meeting shall then proceed to elect 
representatives by secret ballot, from 
among the number of candidates an- 
nounced, the same tellers having charge 
of the balloting. 

If dissatisfied with the count, either 
as respects the nomination or election, 
any twenty-five employes present may 
demand a recount, and for the purposes 
of the recount the chairman shall select 
as tellers three from the number of 
those demanding a recount, and ■ him- 
self assist in the counting, and these 
four shall act, in making the recount, 
in the place of the secrtary and the 
tellers previously chosen. There shall 
be no appeal from this recount, except 
to the president of the company, and 
such appeal may be taken as hereinafter 
provided, at the request of any twenty- 
five employes present and entitled to 
vote. 

The chairman of the meeting shall 
preserve for a period of one week both 
the nomination and election ballots. 
Should an appeal be made to the presi- 
dent within seven days in regard to 
the validity of the nomination or elec- 
tion, upon a request in writing signed 
by twenty-five employes present at the 
meeting, the chairman shall deliver the 
ballots to the president of the company 
for recount. Should no such request be 
received within that time, the chairman 
shall destroy the ballots. If after con- 
sidering the appeal the president is of 
the opinion that the nomination or 
election has not been fairlv conducted, 
he shall order a new election at a 
time and place to be designated by him. 



At annual meetings for the election 
of representatives, employes may con- 
sider and make recommendations con- 
cerning any matters pertaining to their 
employment, working or living condi- 
tions or arising out of existing indus- 
trial relations, including such as they 
may desire to have their representa- 
tives discuss with the president and 
officers of the company at the annual 
joint conferences of the company's offi- 
cers and employes, also any matters 
referred to them by the president, other 
officers of the company, the advisory 
board on social and industrial better- 
ment, or by any one of the several joint 
committees appointed at the preceding 
annual joint conferences of officials 
and employes of the company. A record 
of the proceedings shall be made by 
the secretary of the meeting and cer- 
tified to by the chairman, and copies 
delivered to each of the representatives, 
to be retained by them for purposes of 
future reference. 

District Conferences'and 
Committees 

To facilitate the purposes herein set 
forth, the camps of the company shall 
be divided into five or more districts, 
as follows : the Trinidad district, com- 
prising all mines and coke oven plants 
in Las Animas county; the Walsenburg 
district, comprising all mines in Huer- 
fano county ; the Canon district, com- 
prising all mines in Fremont county ; 
the Western district, comprising all 
mines and coke oven plants located on 
the Western slope; the Sunrise district, 
comprising the iron mines located in 
Wyoming. 

District conferences shall be held in 
each of the several districts above 
mentioned at the call of the president, 
at places to be designated by him, not 
later than two weeks following the 
annual election of representatives, and 
at intervals of not more than four 
months thereafter, as the operating of- 
ficers of the company, or a majority 
of the representatives of the employes 
in each of the several districts, may 
find desirable. The purpose of these 
district conferences shall be to discuss 
freely matters of mutual interest and 
concern to the company and its em- 
ployes, embracing a consideration of 
suggestions to promote increased ef- 
ficiency and production, to improve 
working and living conditions, to en- 
force discipline, avoid friction, and to 
further friendly and cordial relations 
between the company's officers and 
employes. 

At the district conferences the com- 
pany shall be represented by its pres- 
ident or his representative and such 
other officials as the president may 
designate. The employes shall be rep- 
resented by their elected representa- 
tives. The company's representatives 
shall not exceed in number the repre- 
sentatives of the employes. The com- 
pany shall provide, at its own expense, 
appropriate places of meeting for the 
conferences. 

The district conferences shall be pre- 
sided over by the president of the com- 
pany, or such executive officer as he 
may designate. Each conference shall 
select a secretary, who shall record its 



proceedings. The record of proceed- 
ings shall be certified to by the pre- 
siding officer. 

The fiirst district conferences held 
in each year shall select the following 
joint committees on industrial rela- 
tions for each district, which joint 
committees shall be regarded as per- 
manent committees, to be intrusted 
with such duties as are herein set 
forth, or as may be assigned by the 
conferences. These joint committees 
shall be available for consultation at 
any time throughout the year with the 
advisory board on social and industrial 
betterment, the president, the pres- 
ident's executive assistant, or any of- 
ficer of the operating department of 
the company. 

(a) Joint committee on industrial co- 
operaton and conciliation : to be com- 
posed of six members; 

(b) Joint committee on safety and 
accidents : to be composed of six 
members ; 

(c) Joint committee on sanitation, 
health, and housing : to be composed of 
six members ; 

(d) Joint committee on recreation 
and education : to be composed of six 
members. 

In selecting the members of the sev- 
eral joint committees on industrial re- 
lations, the employes' representatives 
shall, as respects each committee, des- 
ignate three members and the presi- 
dent of the company or his representa- 
tive three members. 

The joint committees on industrial 
co-operation and conciliation may, of 
their own initiative, bring up for dis- 
cussion at the joint conferences, or 
have referred to them for considera- 
tion and report to the president or 
other proper officer of the company, 
at any time throughout the year any 
matter pertaining to the prevention 
and settlement of industrial disputes, 
terms and conditions of employment, 
maintainence of order and discipline in 
the several camps, company stores, 
etc. 

The joint committees on saftey and 
accidents may, of their own initiative, 
bring up for discussion at the joinc 
conference, or have referred to them 
for consideration and report to the 
president or other proper officer of 
the company at any time throughout the 
year, any matter pertaining to the in- 
spection of mines, the prevention of 
accidents, the safeguarding of machin- 
ery and dangerous working places, the 
use of explosives, fire protection, first 
aid, etc. 

The joint committees on sanitation, 
health and housing may, of their own 
initiative, bring up for discussion at 
the joint conferences, or have referred 
to them for consideration and report 
to the president or other proper offi- 
cer of the company at any time through- 
out the year, any matter pertaining to 
health, hospitals, physicians, nurses, 
occupational disease, tuberculosis, san- 
itation, water supply, sewage system, 
garbage disposal, street cleaning, 
wash and locker rooms, housing, 
homes, rents, gardens, fencing, etc. 

The joint committees on recreation 
and education may, of their own initi- 
ative, bring up for discussion at the 



74 



The Survey, October 16, 1915 



joint conferences, or have referred to 
them for consideration and report to 
the president or other proper officer 
of the company, at any time throughout 
the year any matter pertaining to 
social centers, club houses, halls, play- 
grounds, entertainments, moving pic- 
tures, athletics, competitions, field 
days, holidays, schools, libraries, 
classes for those who speak only for- 
eign languages, technical education, 
manual training, health lectures, classes 
in first aid, religious exercises, 
churches and Sunday schools, Y. M. 
C. A. organizations, etc. 

In addition to the district confer- 
ences in each of the several districts, 
there shall be held in the month of 
December an annual joint meeting, at 
a time and place to be designated by 
the president of the company, to be at- 
tended by the president and such offi- 
cers of the company as he may select 
and by all the employes' representatives 
of the several districts. At this meet- 
ing reports covering the work of the 
year shall be made by the several joint 
committees and matters of common in- 
terest requiring collective action con- 
sidered. A special joint meeting of 
any two or more districts may be 
called at any time upon the written re- 
quest of the president of a majority of 
the representatives in such districts or 
upon the president's own initiative, for 
the consideration of such matters of 
common interest as cannot be dealt 
with satisfactorily at district confer- 
ences. Notice of such soecial joint 
meetings shall be given at least two 
weeks in advance. 

Industrial Disputes 

There shall be on the part of the 
company and its employes a strict ob- 
servance of the federal and state laws 
respecting mining and labor and of the 
company's rules and regulations sup- 
plementing the same. 

The scale of wages and the rules in 
regard to working conditions shall be 
posted in a conspicuous place at or 
near every mine. 

There shall be no discrimination by 
the company or by any of its employes 
on account of membership or non- 
membership in any society, fraternity 
or union. 

The right to hire and discharge, the 
management of the properties, and the 
direction of the working forces, shall 
be vested exclusively in the company, 
and, except as expressly restricted, 
this right shall not be abridged by 
anything contained herein. 

There shall be posted at each prop- 
erty a list of offenses for commission 
of which by an employe dismissal may 
result without notice. For other of- 
fenses, employes shall not be dis- 
charged without first having been noti- 
fied that a repetition of the offense will 
be cause for dismissal. A copy of this 
notification shall, at the time of its 
being given to an employe, be sent also 
to the president's industrial represen- 
tative and retained by him for purposes 
of future reference. Nothing herein 
shall abridge the right of the company 
to relieve employes from duty because 
of lack of work. Where relief from 
duty through lack of work becomes nec- 



essary, men with families shall, all 
things being equal, be given preference. 

Employes shall have the right to 
hold meetings at appropriate places on 
company property or elsewhere as they 
desire outside of working hours or on 
idle days. 

Employes shall not be obliged to 
trade at the company stores, but shall 
be at perfect liberty to purchase goods 
wherever they may choose to do so. 

As provided by statute, miners have 
the right to employ checkweighmen, 
and the company shall grant the said 
checkweighmen every facility to enable 
them to render a correct account of all 
coal weighed. 

Subject to the provisions hereinafter 
mentioned, every employe shall have 
the right of ultimate appeal to the 
president of the company concerning 
any condition or treatment to which he 
may be subjected and which he may 
deem unfair. 

It shall be the duty of the president's 
industrial representative to respond 
promptly to any request from em- 
ployes' representatives for his presence 
at any of the camps and to visit all of 
them as often as possible, but not less 
frequently than once every three 
months, to confer with the employes or 
their representatives and the superin- 
tendents respecting working and living 
conditions, the observance of federal 
and state laws, the carrying out of 
company regulations, and to report the 
result of such conferences to the presi- 
dent. 

Before presenting any grievance to 
the president, the president's industrial 
representative, or other of the higher 
officers of the company, employes shall 
first seek to have differences or the 
conditions complained about adjusted 
by conference, in person or through their 
representatives with the mine super- 
intendent. 

Employes believing themselves to 
be subjected to unfair conditions or 
treatment and having failed to secure 
satisfactory adjustment of the same 
through the mine superintendent may- 
present their grievances to the presi- 
dent's industrial representative, either 
in person or through their regularly 
elected representatives, and it shall be 
the duty of the president's industrial rep- 
resentative to look into the same imme- 
diately and seek to adjust the grievance. 

Should the president's industrial rep- 
resentatives fail to satisfactorily con- 
ciliate any difference, with respect to 
any grievance, suspension or dismissal, 
the aggrieved employe, either him- 
self or through his representative — and 
in either case in person or by letter — 
may appeal for the consideration and 
adjustment of his grievance to the di- 
vision superintendent, assistant man- 
ager or manager, general manager or 
the president of the company, in con- 
secutive order. To entitle an employe 
to the consideration of his appeal by 
any of the higher officers herein men- 
tioned, the right of appeal must be 
exercised within a period of two weeks 
after the same has been referred to the 
president's industrial representative 
without satisfactory redress. 

Where the president's industrial rep- 
resentative or one of the higher of- 



ficials of the company fails to adjust a 
difference satisfactorily, upon request 
to the president by the employes' rep- 
resentatives or upon the initiative of 
the president himself, the difference 
shall be referred to the joint committee 
on industrial co-operation and concil- 
iation of the district and the decision 
of the majority of such joint commit- 
tee shall be binding upon all parties. 

Whenever a joint committee on in- 
dustrial co-operation and conciliation 
is called upon to act with reference to 
any difference, except by the consent 
of all present the joint committee shall 
not proceed with any important part 
of its duties unless both sides are 
equally represented. Where agreeable, 
equal representation may be effected 
by the withdrawal of one or more mem- 
bers from the side of the joint commit- 
tee having the majority. 

Should the joint committee on indus- 
trial co-operation and conciliation to 
which a difference may have been re- 
ferred fail to reach a majority decision 
in respect thereto, if a majority of its 
members so agree, the joint committee 
may select as umpire a third person 
who shall sit in conference with the 
committee and whose decision shall be 
binding upon all parties. 

In the event of the joint committee 
on industrial co-operation and concili- 
ation failing satisfactorily to adjust a 
difference by a majority decision or 
by agreement on the selection of an 
umpire, as aforementioned, within ten 
days of a report to the president of the 
failure of the joint committee to adjust 
the difference, if the parties so agree. 
the matter shall be referred to arbi 
tration, otherwise it shall be made the 
subject of investigation by the state of 
Colorado industrial commission, in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the 
statute regulating the powers of the 
commission in this particular. Where a 
difference is referred to arbitration, 
one person shall be selected as arbi- 
trator if the parties can agree upon 
his selection. Otherwise there shall be 
a board of three arbitrators, one to be 
selected by the employes' representa- 
tives on the joint committee of indus- 
trial co-operation and conciliation in 
the district in which the dispute arises. 
one by the company's representatives 
on this committee, and a third by the 
two arbitrators thus selected. 

By consent of the members of the 
joint committee on industrial co-opera- 
tion and conciliation to which a differ- 
ence has been referred, the industrial 
commission of the state of Colorado 
may be asked to appoint all of the 
arbitrators or itself arbitrate the dif- 
ference. The decision of the sole arbi- 
trator or of the majority of the 1 
of arbitration or of the members of the 
state of Colorado industrial commission 
when acting as arbitrators, as the case 
may be. shall be final and shall be 
binding upon the parties. 

To protect against the possibility of 
unjust treatment because of any action 
taken or to be taken bv them on be- 
half of one or more of the company's 
employes, any employes' representative 
believing himself to be discriminated 
against for such a cause shall have the 
same right o\ appeal to the officers of 



The Rockefeller Plan 



75 



the company or to the joint committee 
on industrial co-operation and concili- 
ation in his district as is accorded 
every other employe of the company. 
Having exercised this right in the con- 
secutive order indicated without ob- 
tained satisfaction, for thirty days 
thereafter he shall have the further 
right of appeal to the industrial com- 
mission of the state of Colorado, which 
body shall determine whether or not 
discrimination has been shown and as 
respects any representative deemed by 
the commission to have been unfairly 
dealt with, the company shall make 
such reparation as the state of Colo- 
rado industrial commission may deem 
just. 

Social and Industrial Betterment 

The president's executive assistant, 
in addition to other duties, shall, on 
behalf of the president, supervise the 
administration of the company's poli- 
cies, respecting social and industrial bet- 
terment. 

In the discharge of his duties, the 
president's executive assistant shall 
from time to time confer with the 
several joint committees, on safety 
and accidents, on sanitation, on health 
and housing, on recreation and educa- 
tion, and on industrial co-operation 
and conciliation, appointed at the an- 
nual joint conferences, as to improve- 
ments or changes likely to be of mu- 
tual advantage to the company and its 
employes. Members of the several 
joint committees shall be at liberty to 
communicate at any time with the 
president's executive assistant with 
respect to any matters under their ob- 
servation or brought to their atten- 
tion by employes or officials of the 
company, which they believe should 
be looked into or changed. As far as 
may be possible, employes should be 
made to feel that the president's ex- 
ecutive assistant will welcome con- 
ferences with members of the sev- 
eral joint committees on matters of 
concern to the employes, whenever 
such matters have a direct bearing on 
the industrial, social, and moral well- 
being of employes and their families 
or the communities in which they 
reside. 

In addition to consulting, from time 
to time, the several joint committees 
or their individual members, the pres- 
ident's executive assistant shall be the 
chairman of a permanent advisory 
board on social and industrial better- 
ment, to which may be referred ques- 
tions of policy respecting social and 
industrial betterment and related mat- 
ters requiring executive action. 

The advisory board on social and in- 
dustrial betterment shall be composed 
of such of the company's officers as 
the president may designate. 

The advisory board shall meet at 
least once in every six months, and 
may convene for special meetings upon 
the call of the chairman whenever 
he may deem a special meeting advis- 
able. 

The advisory board shall have power 
to consider all matters referred to it 
by the chairman, or any of its mem- 



bers, or by any committee or organi- 
zation directly or indirectly connected 
with the company, and may make such 
recommendations to the president as 
in its opinion seem to be expedient 
and in the interest of the company 
and its employes. 

The president's executive assistant 
shall also exercise a general super- 
vision over the sanitary, medical, edu- 
cational, religious, social, and other 
like needs of the different industrial 
communities, with a view of seeing 
that such needs are suitably and ade- 
quately provided for, and the several 
activities pertaining thereto harmoni- 
ously conducted. 

Improvements respecting social and 
industrial betterment shall, after ap- 
proval by the president, be carried out 
through the regular company organiza- 
tion. 

In camps where arrangements for 
doctors and hospitals have already been 
made and are satisfactory, such ar- 
rangements shall continue. 

In making any new arrangement for 
a doctor, the employes' representatives 
in the camps concerned, the president's 
executive assistant, and the chief medi- 
cal officer shall select a doctor, and 
enter into an agreement with him 
which shall be signed by all four 
parties. 

The company shall publish, under the 
direction of the president's executive 
assistant, a periodical which shall be 
a means of communication between the 
management, the employes and the 
public, concerning the policies and ac- 
tivities of the company. The periodi- 
cal shall be used as a means of co- 
ordinating, harmonizing, and further- 
ing the social and industrial better- 
ment work, and of informing employes 
of the personnel and proceedings of 
conferences, boards, and committees, in 
which they, are interested. It shall 
record events pertaining to social and 
industrial activities, and be a medium 
for making announcements with refer- 
ence to the same, and for diffusing 
information of mutual interest to the 
company and its employes. 

The promotion of harmony and good- 
will between the company and its em- 
ployes and the furtherance of the well- 
being of employes and their families 
and the communities in which they re- 
side being essential to the successful 
operation of the company's industries 
in an enlightened and profitable man- 
ner, the expenses necessarily incidental 
to the carrying out of the social and 
industrial betterment policies herein 
described, and the plan of representa- 
tion, joint conferences and joint meet- 
ings, herein set forth, including the 
payment of traveling expenses of em- 
ployes' representatives when attending 
ioint conferences and annual joint 
meetings, and their reimbursement for 
the working time necessarily lost in 
so doing, shall be borne by the com- 
pany. But nothing herein shall pre- 
clude employes of the company from 
making such payment to their repre- 
sentatives in consideration of services 
rendered on their behalf as they them- 
selves may voluntarily desire and agree 
to make. 



Memorandum of Agreement be- 
tween the Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Company and Its 
Employes 

It is mutually understood and agreed 
that in adition to the rights and privi- 
leges guaranteed the employes and the 
company, in the industrial representa- 
tion plan herewith, the following stip- 
plations respecting employment, living 
and working conditions shall govern 
the parties hereto from the date of 
their signatures hereon until January 
1, 1918, and shall continue thereafter 
subject to revision upon ninety days' 
notice by either of the parties: 

The charge to employes for dwell- 
ings without bath shall not exceed $2 
per room per month. 

The present uniform charge of 40 
cents per electric light per month, with 
free light on porches, shall not be in- 
creased. 

There shall be no charge for do- 
mestic water, except cases where the 
company is obliged to purchase the 
same ; in such cases the charges shall 
be substantially cost to the company. 

The rates to be charged employes 
for powder and domestic coal shall be 
substantially their cost to the company. 

To encourage employes to cultivate 
flower and vegetable gardens, the 
company agrees to fence, free of 
charge, each house lot owned by it. 

The company will continue its prac- 
ce o 
charge. 

As the need becomes manifest, the 
company will continue its present pol- 
icy of providing, as rapidly as possible, 
suitable bath houses and social centers 
in the nature of club houses, for its 
employes at the several mining camps. 

Eight hours shall constitute a day's 
work for all underground employes. 
This shall mean eight hours exclusive 
of the noon hour and the time re- 
quired to go and come from the mine 
opening to the place of employment. 

Nine hours shall constitute a day's 
work for all outside labor, except fire- 
men and engineers. 

All employes shall be paid semi- 
monthly by check. 

No deductions shall be made from 
earnings, except where authorized by 
employes. 

No change affecting conditions of em- 
ployment with respect to wages or 
hours shall be made without first giv- 
ing thirty days' notice, as provided by 
statute. 

The schedule of wages and the work- 
ing conditions now in force in the sev- 
eral districts shall continue without re- 
duction, but if, prior to January 1, 1918, 
a general increase shall be granted in 
competitve districts in which the com- 
pany does not conduct operations, a pro- 
portional increase shall be made. For 
this purpose a joint meeting of the 
miners' representatives and proper of- 
ficers of the company shall be called 
within thirty days after the increase 
in competitive districts is effective to 
discuss and determine an equitable 
method for fixing the new scale in the 
districts affected. 



76 



The Survey, October 16, 1915 



Poise and 
Self-Control 

—are possible only with steady nerves. 
And— steady nerves are possible only when 
you know how to take care of yourself. In 
his new book "Neurasthenia". Dr. John 
Harvey Kellogg tells you how to take care 
of your nerves naturally and scientifically 
so as to avoid nervousness. Dr. Kellogg 
has made a life study of the nerves and as 
Superintendent of the Battle Creek Sanita- 
rium for nearly forty years, he has had op- 
portunity to observe, treat and prescribe 
for thousands of nervous cases. This means 
that what Dr. Kellogg tells you, has been 
learned from experience. He deals with 
facts, not theory. No man living is better 
able than Dr. Kellogg to tell you how to 
care for your nerves and control them. His 
book will help you to new capacity, poise 
and self-control. Over 300 pages, including 
many illustrations, and full instructions for 
diet, exercise, rest and sleep. Price, cloth 
$2. Order today. You take no risk. If not 
entirely satisfied, return the book at once 
for prompt refund. Send order to— 

Good Health Publishing Co. 

2610 W. Main St. Battle Creek, Michigan 



HOUSES SUPPLYING 
INSTITUTIONAL TRADE 



Ready to Wear Garments. 

BROADWAY BARGAIN HOUSE. 
For Men, Women and Children — Wholesale 
G70 Broadway, New York City 



Dry Goods. 

FREDERICK LOESER & CO., 
484 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Newspaper Clippings. 

HENRY ROMEIKE, 
110-112 West 2lHh Street, New York 



House Furnishing Goods. 

C. II. & E. S. GOLDBERG, 
West Broadway and Hudson Street, 
New Y'orU 



Hardware, Tools and Supplies. 

IIAMMACIIER. SCHLEMMER & CO., 

Fourth Ave., Thirteenth St., New York 



Groceries. 

SEEMAN BROS., 
Hudson and North Moore Sts., New York 



WOMAN AND HOME 

By Orison Swett Marden 

The latest and best book on Suffrage, 
Love, Marriage, Divorce, Eugenics, etc. 

1 2 mo. $1 .25 net; by mail $1 .35. 

THOMAS Y. CROWELL CO., New York 



BULLETINS: 



"Five-Cent Meals." 10c; "Food 
Values," 10c; "Free-Hand Cook- 
ing," 10c; "The Up-To-Date Home, Labor Saving Ap- 
pliances," 15c: "The Profession of Home-Making," 
Home Study, Domestic Science Courses, 100 pp. free. 
American School of Home Economics, 519 West 69th St., Chicago 



JOTTINGS 



South Carolina has adopted state-wide pro- 
hibition by an overwhelming vote, though 
the city of Charleston went heavily against. 
The choice was between state prohibition 
and the present state dispensary system. 
The result was the end of the dispensary 
system, which has been tried and abandoned 
in Alabama, Georgia and North and South 
Carolina. 

For the purpose of uniting on a social 
and_industrial program for the Greenwich 
and Chelsea sections of New York city, a 
number of bodies have joined forces, in- 
cluding the Central Mercantile Association, 
the Chelsea Neighborhood Association, the 
Chelsea and Greenwich Commissions, the 
Woman's Municipal League, the Fifth 
Avenue, Broadway and Seventh Avenue As- 
sociations. 



The Winslow Dairy and Fruit Farms 
Company is a co-operative enterprise 
formed to buy a tract of 600 acres in cen- 
tral New Jersey, arrange for easy pay- 
ments for those who take up five and ten 
acres for intensive farming, and give a 
series of lectures in the winter and field 
demonstration in the summer. An effort 
will be made to open stores on the Roch- 
dale co-operative plan in New York and 
Philadelphia for the sale of produce. The 
organizing of the company is in the hands 
of Isaac Roberts, former treasurer of the 
Fairmount Savings and Trust Company of 
Philadelphia, and the educational features 
of George T. Powell, of Ghent, N. Y., 
former state commissioner of agriculture. 



The Social Service Quarterly, a new 
periodical published by the Social Service 
League of Bombay, is to be devoted to 
practical questions of social service as well 
as to discussions of sociological problems. 
The introductory editorial in the first issue, 
entitled Ourselves, describes the Quarterly 
as the third educational activity of the 
league, the others being a library of books 
on social service and a bureau of informa- 
tion. Aspects of the problems of housing, 
health, child hygiene and education, are 
presented compactly, and good reports given 
of actual work now being done by leagues 
of social service. A classified bibliography 
of books in the social service field will add 
to the value of this paper to workers in 
India and to its interest for readers every- 
where. 

The training school for organizers, 
speakers and members of the New York 
branch of the Woman's Peace Party, an- 
nounced in The Survey September 25, will 
open November 8 and continue for two 
weeks. Norman Angell will give three 
lectures at the school, on The Great Illu- 
sion. Economic Boycott as a Substitute for 
War, and America and the European War. 
Other speakers will be William I. Hull, 
professor at Swarthmore College; Edward 
B. Krehbiel of Leland Stanford University, 
and John I laves Holmes of the Church of 
the Messiah. In connection with the school 
there will be a free public forum at Cooper 
Union, covering six evenings, at which 
phases of international relations and for- 
eign policy will be discussed by experts. 
The first of these meetings will be held 
November 9. Further information may be 
obtained from Crystal Eastman Benedict, 
vice-chairman of the Woman's Peace 
Party. 553 Fifth avenue. 



The Nearing Case 

By LIGHTNER WITMER, Ph. D. 

Head of the Department of Psychology 
University of Pennsylvania 

The whole world is discussing: the 
dismissal of Dr. Scott Nearing 
from his position as Assistant 
Professor of Economics, Wharton 
School, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. A great fight for free speech 
will revolve around this incident. 
Few persons are fully informed as 
to the facts. This 140-page book 
contains a complete statement, the 
charges, the evidence, the argu- 
ments and many documents that 
may become historic. These in- 
clude Dr. Nearing's famous letter 
to Billy Sunday. 

The Nearing Case 

At booksellers, 50c. net. If by mail 
add postage for 1 lb. Published by 

B. W. Huebsch 

225 Fifth avenue New York 



A Training Class for Volunteers 
in Work with Girls 

CONDUCTED BY 
NELLIE M. SMITH, A. M. 

Will be held on Tuesday and Thursday 
mornings at ten o'clock at 21 I West 56th 
Street, beginning November 9. 

The course will include lectures, visits, round 
table discussions, and field work. 

Fee, $10.00 for thirty sessions. 

Send for booklet to 

MISS NELLIE M. SMITH 
498 West End Avenue, New York 



N 



ational Consumer's 
League Annual Meeting 

CLEVELAND. OHIO. 
November 4th and 5th, 1915 

For information, apply to the 

General Secretary, Mrs. Florence Kelley, 

289 Fourth Avenue, 
Room 431. New York City. 



c 



entral States Conference 
on Social Hygiene 

CHICAGO, ILL. 
October 25-26, 1915 

All persons interested in the suppression of vice, 
control of venereal diseases, sex education, and 
other phases of social hygiene are invited. For 
information address Walter Clarice, Field Sec- 
retary. American Social Hygiene Association, 
Peoples Gas Building. Chicago. 



P 



ennsylvania Conference of 
Charities and Correction 

SCRANTON. PA. 
October 21, 22, 23, 1915 

ALL SOCIAL WORKERS IN PENNSYLVANIA 
CORDIALLY INVITED 

For further information address, Maurice Willow,, 
Assistant Secretary, Local Committee. 346 Adam* 
Avenue, Scranton, Pa. 



Pamphlets 



77 





PAMPHLETS 





REGENT PAMPHLETS 

The Foundations of the Citv. Bv Hastings 
H. Hart, 130 East 22 Street, New York city. 

Report on a Parkway System for Essex 
County. N. J. By Olmstead* Brothers, Brook- 
line, Mass. 



The War in Europe. By Clarence Harrow. 
Price 10 cents. Charles H. Kerr and Com- 
pany, 118 W. Kinzie Street, Chicago. 

A Ballot for Women for the Protection of the 
Home. By Mrs. Raymond Robins. April, 1915. 
The Woman Suffrage Party. 48 East 34 Street, 
New York citv. 



The Institution Child of the Industrial 
School. Its past, present, and future together 
with an address on The Duty of Parenthood. 
By Mrs. A. M. Clay, Chillicothe, Mo. 



A Manual of Pageantry. By Robert Welling- 
ton, Department of English, Indiana Uni- 
versity. Vol. XIII, No. 7. Indiana University 
Extension Division, Bloomington, Ind. 

Special Report of Bureau of Employment of 

the Home Relief Division. Bv the Emergency 

Aid Committee, 1428 Walnut Street, Phila- 
delphia. 



Guide to the Law and Legal Literature of 
Spain. By Thomas W. Palmer Jr., of the 
Birmingham. Ala., Bar. Price 50 cents. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D ('. 



The Pros and Cons of Prohibition. Ex- 
tracts from the debate in the House of Repre- 
sentatives on the Hobson national prohibition 
amendment. National Information Bureau, P. 
O. Box 9, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Schedule for Township Surveys. Prepared 
by the conference of the Social Service Com- 
missions of the Churches of Massachusetts. 
E. Talmage Root, 50 Mt. Vernon Street, 
Boston. 



Trade Unionism Versus Welfare Work for 
Women. By Annie Marion MacLean, Chicago. 
Reprinted from Popular Science Monthly, pub- 
lished by the Science Press, sub-station 84, 
New York city. 



Reading Between the Lines. A newspaper 
a possible text book. Issued by Edward Hyatt, 
superintendent of public instruction, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. Women's Christian Temperance 
Union, Sacramento, Cal. 



John Barleycorn. A message to the teach- 
ers of California. Issued by Edward Hyatt, 
superintendent of public instruction, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. Women's Christian Temperance 
Union, Sacramento, Cal. 



Rules and Regulations for Metal Mines. By 
W. R. Ingalls, James Douglas, J. R. Finlay, j. 
Parke Channing, and John Hays Hammond. 
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Bulletin 75. Price 35 cents. Government 
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Sources of Information on Play and Recrea- 
tion. (Revised edition, 1915.) By Lee F. Han- 
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The Department of Recreation, Russell Sage 
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Social Service for the Mentally HI. By 
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city. Reprinted from the New York Hospital 
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Swamp Land Drainage with Special Refer- 
ences to Minnesota. By Ben Palmer, assistant 
in political science in the University of Min- 
nesota. Studies in the social sciences, No. 5. 
March, 1915. University Librarian, The Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 



Commercial Organizations and Charitable 
Control. By Otto W. Davis, assistant secre- 
tary, Minneapolis Civic and Commercial Asso- 
ciation. Extension Division. Bulletin serial 
No. 748. General series No. 552. June, 1915. 
Price 5 cents. University of Wisconsin, Madi- 
son, Wis. 



Health District No. 1. (Experimental Health 
District.) Its organization and work per- 
formed in first quarter of 1915. By Alfred 
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SQPOGW 




Votes by Women 

Labor Vs. a Constitution 

A Pacifist Challenge to America 

Chicago's "Dry" Sunday 

Lifting Gary's Lid 



Price 10 Cents 



October 23, 1915 



Volume XXXV, No. 4 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 



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105 East 22d Street 
New York 



PUBLISHERS 

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Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary Frank Tucker, Treasurer 



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Vol. XXXV, No. 4 



Contents 



October 23, 1915 



THE COMMON WELFARE 

THE '49 CAMP-GAMBLING ON THE JOY ZONE 79 

THE BIRMINGHAM BUDGET-A WAY OUT OF DEBT ... 79 

DRY SUNDAYS IN CHICAGO, THE FIGHT WON 80 

LABOR OPPOSITION TQ NEW YORK CONSTITUTION 81 

LAWSON AND THE COLORADO INDICTMENTS 81 

HOW A PROHIBITION CAMPAIGN LOST AND WHY 82 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

VOTES BY WOMEN. A POLL OF SURVEY SUBSCRIBERS IN EQUAL FRANCHISE 

STATES .83 

THE "DIVINE SPARK OF COMMON SENSE" AT GARY, IND 88 

AMERICA'S DANGER AND OPPORTUNITY Lucia Ames Mead 90 

SOCIAL AGENCIES 

THE JAIL AND THE MISDEMEANANT William T. Cross 93 

THREE YEARS OF A CENTRAL SOCIAL COUNCIL 94 

PERSONALS 97 

JOTTINGS 97 

PAMPHLETS 97 

CALENDAR OF CONFERENCES 98 



Price 



Single copies of this issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular 
subscriptions $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Issued weekly. 
Changes of address should 1»* mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing 
commercial practice when payment is by check a receipt will he sent only upon request. 



TEREO A3 SECON 



1915, BY SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC. 
T THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, 



DEFJ THE ACT OF 











THE SURVEY'S ANNUAL 
MEETING 

A LL members of Survey Associates, Inc., — life mem- 
bers and co-operating subscribers who have paid 
$ 1 or more since October 1 , 1914, toward the mainte- 
nance of The Survey — are entitled to vote at this year's 
annual meeting. 
' 1 'HE meeting will be held on Monday, October 25, at 

1 4 P. M. in Room 901 (ninth floor), 105 East 22d 
Street, New York city. Four members of the Board of 
Directors will be elected to succeed Jane Addams, Robert 
W. de Forest, Julian W. Mack and Frank Tucker, whose 
terms expire, and to transact such other business as may 
come before the meeting. 











Thr GIST of IT— 

CURVEY subscribers in equal franchise 
states are for woman suffrage by a 
vote of 41 to 1 — 616 yeas to 15 noes. Their 
letters testify that votes by women have 
been an important factor in securing social 
legislation, particularly for women and chil- 
dren ; in bettering city government, includ- 
ing the adoption of commission form; in 
improving city morale and cleaning up elec- 
tion day until it is like "a civic holiday:" 
that it has been a fine and broadening ex- 
perience for the women themselves ; that, 
quite regardless of these tangible results, 
women are fellow citizens and should be 
enfranchised as an act of justice. Good 
wishes are showered on the women of the 
four campaign states. Page 83. 
pjEXXEPIN county went wet by less 
than 10,000 votes out of a total of 
69,000. Page 82. 

ANNOUNCEMENT that the army and 
navy will submit a budget of five hun- 
dred million dollars came last week on the 
very heels of the International Peace Con- 
gress in San Francisco. Mrs. Mead's chal- 
lenge to the American people, given at the 
peace congress, is in substance a demand 
for the pedigree of preparedness : is pre- 
paredness indeed the simon-pure bird of 
peace, or is it the decoy duck of militar- 
ism? Page 90. 

ORGANIZED labor in New York is ac- 
tively opposing the adoption of the 
new state constitution. All the proposed 
labor planks were rejected. Chief concern 
is over the failure to decree that the civil 
authority shall not be superseded by the 
military. Page 81. 

Q AMBLING at the San Francisco expo- 
sition has been permitted to grow to 
the proportions of a public scandal. Page 
79. 

pOOR as a church mouse and denied help 
by the legislature, the city of Birming- 
ham has successfully cut its municipal 
cloth to a pattern of hard times. Page 
79. 

M AYOR THOMPSON of Chicago, who 
doesn't believe in blue laws and con- 
fessed that "heaven knows I am no re- 
former," gave the city its first closed Sun- 
day in 43 years. Page 80. 
A SUMMARY of the American Prison 
Association report on the newer ideals 
in jails and the principles of jail admin- 
istration. Page 93. 

RUDOLPH I. COFFEE, Pittsburgh's 
militant rabbi, has gone to Chicago as 
head of the new social service department 
of the B'nai B'rith. Page '.'7. 
(2 OLORADO newspapers take Governor 
Carlson to task for permitting the trial 
of labor leaders to go on. The cases grew 
out of the strike, now all over, and they 
hold that prosecution will continue ill will. 
Page 82. 

QARY at a glance shown in an illuminat- 
ing painting of a Wirt-plan school- 
house with the lid sliced off like the top 
of an Edam cheese. Page 88. 





OMMBO! 









THE 49 CAMP-GAMBLING ON 
THE JOY ZONE 

Some of the newspapers of the 
Pacific Coast, led by the Sacramento 
Bee, have been exposing the gambling 
at the Panama Pacific International Ex- 
position at San Francisco. One of the 
most notorious centers, known as the 
'"49 Camp" on the zone, has just been 
closed by the authorities as the result of 
publicity brought to bear upon it. Now 
order has gone out that the girl shows 
must cease. Meanwhile word is being 
freely circulated that November 2, San 
Francisco Day, is to be the next big 
clean-up day for gamblers. 

James Coffroth, prizefight promoter 
and "king of the tenderloin,"' was con- 
cessionaire of the '"49 Camp." Here 
men and women of all ages, from veter- 
an gamblers to college boys and girls, 
grew feverish in the excitement of 
standing before roulette wheels or play- 
ing craps and faro. 

Thousands, it is declared, flocked to 
the resort each night. Chips cost a 
dollar a stack on the roulette tables and 
the faro layout; on the crap tables they 
ran as high as a dollar apiece. Thou- 
sands of dollars were lost in a night. 
Waitresses in the restaurants along the 
zone are reported to have played all 
their earnings. Meanwhile, the pro- 
moters, who gave part of the gate re- 
ceipts but none of the proceeds of the 
gambling to the exposition, made fabu- 
lous amounts. 

A novel feature of the '"49 Camp" 
was that scrip, instead of money, was 
the medium of exchange. The prospec- 
tive player purchased this scrip before 
allowed to play. Through an arrange- 
ment with certain merchants, saloon men 
and resort keepers of San Francisco, 
this scrip became to all intents and pur- 
poses legal tender throughout the city. 

The San Francisco Examiner thus 
quotes the agent of one lottery company 
who readily admitted his activity : 

"I have nothing to hide. I am one of 
the Oakland agents of the M. & F. and 
carry the Havana Cuban Company as a 
side line. I admit that I make very 
good money out of this thing. I own 
my own home and I have an automobile. 




Two years ago I was working as a cigar 
clerk and I found the lottery agents 
were making so much money that I de- 
cided to look into the business. 

"I do not approve of the Examiner's 
exposures about the M. & F. and other 
lotteries, for I believe it will put an end 
to the business and that all the lottery 
agents will have to go back to regular 
work again." 

On September 21. Matt I. Sullivan, 
president of the Panama Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition Commission of the 
State of California, addressed a vigor- 
ous protest against gambling to the ex- 
position directors. Meanwhile another 
member of the commission, Chester H. 
Rowell, has declared through the Fresno 
Morning Republican, of which he is edi- 
tor and manager, that if the exposition 
authorities do not themselves stop gamb- 
ling "it will be stopped otherwise." 

The girl shows against which the ex- 
position authorities are declared to have 
issued an ultimatum include such allur- 
ing amusement places as the following: 
Streets of Cairo. Girl in Blue, Princess 
Luna, Eve, September Morn, The Turk- 
ish Cafes and the "101 Ranch" Cafe.. 
"The exposition can be made a success," 
said Mr. Rowell. "without permitting 
these shows to run, which would not be 
tolerated on the Barbary Coast." 

Race track gamblers are reported to 
have made a big clean-up at the expo- 
sition races, now over. 







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From tin: Portland Journal 

dwindling! 



THE BIRMINGHAM BUDGET — A 
WAY OUT OF DEBT 

Birmingham, Ala., has soft- 
ened the rigor of her self-imposed pen- 
ance. Some weeks ago The Survey told 
how this city of 150,000 people, heavily 
in debt and unable to secure legislative 
permission to increase her taxes, had 
laudably decided to live within her in- 
come and had cut the arms and limbs of 
her governmental service in drastic 
fashion. 

She has since decided, to the joy of 
the city fathers and the public generally, 
that the amputation of fingers and toes 
will suffice. No fire stations are to be 
closed, though the department has been 
cut from 180 to 132 men. Policemen are 
not to work on a twelve-hour shift, 
though the force has been reduced from 
170 to 138. The annual appropriation 
to the library has not been withdrawn 
entirely, only decreased one-third. The 
health officer, city physician and milk 
inspector will not be dispensed with. 
The cleaning and sprinkling of streets 
is only curtailed. The welfare depart- 
ment will continue, if only through the 
courtesy of the superintendent, Mrs. M. 
W. Searight, who will donate her serv- 
ices until the city can again pay her. 

One reason for some of these resto- 
rations is illustrated by what happened 
when it was announced that the school 
year would be reduced from nine to 
seven months. Public and private pro- 
test at once became effective. A mass 
meeting called by the Equal Suffrage 
Association and the Women's Civic 
Board voiced the general disfavor with 
such a step. The upshot of discussion 
and of ceaseless newspaper criticism 
was that the Board of Education decided 
to retain the nine-month session by 
charging a fee to families having chil- 
dren in the public schools. The board 
circumvented the alleged illegality of 
this procedure by excepting from the 
payment of this fee — twenty-five cents 
a month for grade schools and fifty for 
high schools — those who might appear 
before the principal and state that they 
were not able to pay. The effect of this 
has been to keep principals busy inter- 
viewing lines of children. Meanwhile, 



Volume XXXV, No. 4. 



79 



80 



The Survey, October 23, 1915 




Photo by The Continent 

T^EPERS at the Naine Asylum at Allahabady, India, who without any appeal or 
suggestion from outside, sent a gift to the Imperial Indian Relief Fund for 
soldiers in the war. 



kindergartens are discontinued unless 
the teacher can secure enough patrons 
to pay her salary. 

Whether housewives will have to pay 
to get rid of their garbage is still un- 
settled. One estimate of the city au- 
thorities was that under the new regime 
of economy it would cost them seventy- 
five cents a month. 

There appears to be no hope for the 
city's appropriations to charities and so- 
cial work. 

Meanwhile, an unusual bit of economy 
has been effected by keeping the total 
salaries of the five new city commis- 
sioners equal to those of the former 
three. A new state law has been passed 
requiring the city to adopt a budget sys- 
tem and making it a misdemeanor for a 
responsible official to exceed the budget. 



D 



RY SUNDAYS IN CHICAGO- 
THE FIGHT WON 



The closing of 7,152 saloons 
in one place for a single day is a notable 
event in itself. That it occurred in 
Chicago and just at this critical period 
in the city administration, in state poli- 
tics and in the nation-wide movement to 
restrict or prohibit the liquor trade, in- 
vests the event with strategic signifi- 
cance. 

The mayor surprised the whole city. 
as well as both sides of this issue, by 
springing his Sunday-closing order at 
the first meeting of the City Council 
after its summer interim. That Coun- 
cil meeting was awaited with unusual 
interest. Large classes of people had 
reason to think that their very special 
interests would be dealt with. The pub- 
lic school teachers' federation and the 
Federation of Labor planned to be num- 
erously represented in the galleries, be- 
cause the mayor was expected to an- 
ounce appointments of one-third of the 
Board of Education, whose personnel 
would finally decide the issue raised by 
the recently adopted rule forbidding 
teachers to belong to any organization 



affiliated with organized labor. The 
strike in the clothing trade led many 
strikers and their leaders to the city hall 
that evening to watch the result of the 
effort announced by several aldermen to 
institute an inquiry into the causes of 
the strike and the conduct of the police 
in dealing with it. As many as 5,000 
people gathered early to gain admission 
to the Council chamber, which provides 
space for only 700 visitors. They 
found every entrance guarded by police. 

Within the closed street doors par- 
tisan representatives of the mayor indi- 
cated who should be admitted, both to 
the corridors and the Council chamber. 
Its gallery was early filled by city hall 
employes, who gave up their seats to 
other friends of the administration as 
they were later admitted. 

Before what was termed a "hand 
picked" audience of the mayor's support- 
ers, surrounding the seventy aldermen. 
the mayor's message dealing with pend- 
ing public affairs, but not those above 
referred to, unexpectedly concluded with 
his order directing "that saloons or 
dramshops shall comply with the law 
and close on Sunday, the city collector 
being ordered immediately to notify in 
writing all persons to whom he has is- 
sued licenses for saloons or dramshops 
that such persons must comply with the 
requirements of the state law." 

The only reason given by the mayor 
to the Council for issuing this order was 
that he had recently received communi- 
cations from citizens alleging that liquor 
was sold on Sunday in violation of the 
law and that the corporation counsel 
had advised him that the city ordinance 
permitting the sale of liquor on Sunday 
under certain restrictions cannot nulli- 
fy the state law. Thus, for the first 
time in forty-three years this state law 
found enforcement at the hands of the 
mayor of Chicago. 

The United Societies for Local Self- 
Government, which affiliates ( '00 organi- 
zations, having a membership of over 
200,000 men and 50,000 women, of many 



nationalities, promptly published a pho- 
tographed reproduction of the mayor's 
written pre-election pledge to its offi- 
cials. According to this, he promised to 
"promote in every way personal liberty 
and home-rule," for which the United 
Societies stand, and, if elected mayor, to 
stand against all "blue laws," declaring 
especially that he is "opposed to a closed 
Sunday, believing that the state law re- 
ferring to Sunday-closing is obsolete 
and should not be enforced by the city 
administration." This elicited from the 
mayor, who with a group of his hench- 
men left for California immediately 
after the adjournment of the Council, 
the following statement : 

"I don't know whether I signed the 
pledge or not. I would have to see it 
first. I may have signed it, but that 
doesn't cut any figure. Certain people 
called my attention to the violation of 
the Sunday-closing law. The corpora- 
tion counsel said it was a valid law. 
Heaven knows. I am no reformer. This 
proposition doesn't have anything te. do 
with whether I am wet or dry. When 
the corporation counsel said the law- 
was valid, why, I had to enforce it. It 
was my absolute duty to do so." 

When interviewed he further ex- 
plained: 

"I heard a month ago they had be- 
gun convassing the grand jury. They 
wanted to indict me. The liquor in- 
terests were able to prevent it, but they 
laid off.' It was simply a proposition 
of law enforcement. Any public offi- 
cial who does not do that is open to im- 
peachment." 

In rejoinder to the claim of the mayor 
and his friends that the canvass of the 
grand jury in the effort to indict him 
was promoted by his political enemies 
in co-operation with the church people, 
the district superintendent of the Anti- 
Saloon League asserted that in answer 
to his challenge the mayor had pledged 
himself publicly to enforce the Sunday- 
closing law; denied that any one out- 
side of the Anti-Saloon League's office 
had anything to do with seeking to 
indict him; and claimed that a member 
of the grand jury inquired for informa- 
tion at this office. Upon canvassing the 
other members of the grand jury it 
was claimed, sufficient votes were found 
for an indictment, and one over, if the 
proper evidence were produced. Mean- 
while the states attorney has institutes 
an inquiry concerning this canvass of 
the grand jury, threatening prosecution 
against those whom it may involve. 

Reinforced by revocations of licenses 
signed in blank by the mayor, the chief 
of police ordered the strictest enforce- 
ment of the Sunday-closing order from 
midnight Saturday to midnight Sun- 
day, sharp. The order was carried out 
with surprisingly little trouble. Only r> 
of the 7,152 saloons were found openly 
violating the law, and 22 others failing 
in prompt compliance with it. The 
number of arrests for drunkenness were 



Common Welfare 



81 



47 on Saturday and 16 on Sunday, while 
the usual number arrested on this 
charge on other Saturdays and Sundays 
was 243. Cafes were almost deserted. 
Bar permits in dance halls, usually per- 
mitting the sale of liquor till 3 A.M., 
expired at midnight, which led to the 
cancellation of some of them. 

The dry forces had long planned a 
street demonstration for Saturday, Oc- 
tober 9. It was expected that the Sun- 
day-closing order would greatly aug- 
ment the numbers in the street parade. 
But not quite 10,000 persons were in 
line, more than half of them men, 
many organizations, religious denomina- 
tions and nationalities being represent- 
ed. Numerous floats dramatized the 
effects of drink, while varied legends 
pointed the pith of the temperance 
arguments. 

The police, the judges of the Munici- 
pal Court, employers of labor, and the 
press, all unite in claiming that Chi- 
cago's first dry Sunday in forty-three 
years was productive of great good and 
was attended by very little if any harm. 

The liquor trade and its allies cham- 
pioning "personal liberty," however, are 
figuring up enormous losses for which 
they are planning reprisals in the re- 
duction of the saloon licenses from $1,- 
000 to $500, in political action threaten- 
ing the repeal of offensive legislation 
by a special session of the legislature, 
and in demanding the enforcement of 
Sunday-closing in all other trades. To 
demonstrate their political strength, a 
great wet demonstration is proposed, 
which it is claimed will marshal 100,000 
adult marchers. 



L 



ABOR OPPOSITION TO NEW 
YORK CONSTITUTION 






Organized labor in New York 
has taken a position of pronounced an- 
tagonism to the proposed constitution 
which is to be voted on at the regular 
election on November 2. The executive 
council of the state Federation of Labor 
has issued an appeal to labor men advis- 
ing them to vote against it and an or- 
ganized campaign is to be carried on to 
prevent its adoption. 

During the deliberations of the consti- 
tutional convention, labor men presented 
a list of proposed amendments, includ- 
ing the initiative, referendum and re- 
call, a provision enabling the state and 
local governments to engage in public 
work for the relief of distress, a pro- 
vision that the civil authority shall not 
be superseded by the military, a state- 
ment that labor is not to be considered 
as a commodity or article of commerce, 
and the incorporation of the British 
Trades Disputes Act. 

Further proposals were in favor of 
trial by jury in criminal cases where 
punishment is imprisonment, in opposi- 
tion to a state constabulary system and 
the use of militia in strikes, providing 
that the militia may be called out by the 



governor alone (at present a supreme 
court judge may call them out), ampli- 
fying the provisions for free speech and 
free press. They asked that the legis- 
lature be empowered to enact social in- 
surance legislation, that the courts be 
forbidden to nullify legislative acts on 
constitutional grounds, that the death 
penalty be abolished and that employers 
be required to carry workmen's compen- 
sation insurance in the state fund alone, 
thus barring the casualty insurance com- 
panies altogether. 

None of these proposals was adopted 
with the exception of a limited provision 
regarding social insurance. And in ad- 
dition to their disappointment over the 
failure of the convention to accept these 
planks, the state Federation of Labor op- 
poses the short ballot and other pro- 
visions of the new constitution as final- 
ly adopted by the convention. 

Of all the rejected labor planks, the 
most active discussion is of the pro- 
vision prohibiting the subordination of 
the civil to the military power. Others 
besides labor men have denounced the 
convention for rejecting it. Judge Ed- 
gar M. Cullen, formerly a justice of the 
Court of Appeals, has issued a state- 
ment urging that the constitution be re- 
jected because of the absence of this 
provision. Alton B. Parker, another 
former chief justice, while favoring the 
adoption of the new constitution, has 
expressed the opinion that the military 
clause should have been adopted and 
suggests that an amendment embodying 
the principle would, if proposed, be 
adopted by an "overwhelming majority" 
of the people. The answer of those who 
defend the new constitution and urge its 
adoption is that for the 138 years that 
New York has enjoyed membership in 
the union of states there has been no 
such anti-military clause in its constitu- 
tion, and yet civil rights have not been 
overridden. 

The grounds upon which labor insists 
upon this principle appear to be, not the 
history of the last 138 years in New 
York, but of the last 20 years in other 
states. It is pointed out that in spite of 
the decisions of courts that the writ of 
habeas corpus can be suspended only by 
act of Congress or of the legislatures, in 
recent years the writ has in effect been 
suspended by military commanders dur- 
ing industrial disturbances. 

In West Virginia for example a mili- 
tary tribunal has in recent years com- 
pletely usurped the functions of the civil 
authorities and, at a time when the civil 
courts were sitting and the validity of 
their decrees was unquestioned, a mili- 
tary commission tried and sentenced to 
terms in the penitentiary citizens arrest- 
ed both within and without the so-called 
martial law zone. 

It is pointed out that in Idaho, Mon- 
tana and Colorado, military authorities 
have arrested citizens and held them in 
jail without making any charges against 



them and without producing them in any 
court. 

In 1914, Judge Cullen said in an ad- 
dress before the New York State Bar 
Association : 

"Cinder these decisions the life and 
liberty of every man within the state 
would seem to be at the mercy of the 
governor. He may declare a state of 
war whether the facts justify such a 
declaration or not, and that declaration 
is conclusive upon the courts. 

"If he declares only a portion of the 
state to be in a state of war, under the 
decision in the second case a person in 
any part of the state, however distant, 
may be arrested and delivered to the 
military authorities in the martial zone, 
and his fate, whether liberty or life, de- 
pends on the action of a military com- 
mission, for I know of no principle 
which authorizes a military commission 
to impose the punishment of imprison- 
ment that would not equally authorize 
the imposition of the punishment of 
death. 

"Under that doctrine, should armed 
resistance to the federal authority justi- 
fying a suspension of the writ of habeas 
corpus occur in Arizona, a citizen could, 
on a charge of aiding the insurrection, 
be dragged from his home in Maine and 
delivered to the military authorities in 
Arizona for trial and punishment." 



L 



AWSON AND THE COLORADO 
INDICTMENTS 



John R. Lawson, who has been 
in the Trinidad, Colo., jail for the last 
three months, was released on October 8 
under bonds of $35,000. When Judge 
Hillyer refused the motion for a new 
trial he sent Lawson to the county jail 
pending his appeal to the state Supreme 
Court. His release was on an order 
from the Supreme Court which had pre- 
viously issued a stay of execution of his 
sentence in order that it might review 
his motion for a new trial. 

Judge Hillyer, who sentenced Lawson 
to a life term in the penitentiary for a 
murder with which he had personally 
nothing to do, has already been barred 
by the Supreme Court from sitting in 
any further strike cases on account of 
his previous employment as a coal com- 
pany attorney, and this has led to hope 
on the part of Lawson's friends that he 
will be granted a new trial. 

A large number of cases growing out 
of the strike still remain to be tried. A 
movement that had the support of many 
people, including prominent business 
men, was recently inaugurated in Colo- 
rado urging the state administration to 
order all indictments quashed and to 
wipe the slate clean in the interest of in- 
ternal peace and good will. On the 
same day that Lawson was released, 
Governor Carlson announced that he 
would not interfere with the prosecu- 
tion of these cases. "I was elected," 
the governor declared in his statement, 
"upon a platform which, among other 
things, promised to restore the state's 



82 



The Survey, October 23, 1915 




If You Vofp trl!r^^^*^^^^ 
WORKERS V.J2, *■"»'• * 

WENT and will compete with you for 
yorj job, which wili naturally Reduce 
YOUR WAGES 






I! 11TTR- 



«■*»•* ' 



ftSSftSii 







! 



Foreman 

"I am paw? ™' I 

F^rst Applicant - 

the Tior.ey 
Chorus ,- 

•50 will ' 





TYPE OF WET POSTERS USED IN THE MINNEAPOLIS CAMPAIGN TO APPEAL TO THE 

LABOR VOTE 



H 



OW A PROHIBITION CAM- 
PAIGN LOST AND WHY 



sovereignty upon a firm basis. In my 
belief the only way this can be done is 
to punish any person or persons who at- 
tack that sovereignty." 

Great disappointment over this decis- 
ion is expressed in the leading papers 
of Denver. The Rocky Mountain News, 
in a leading editorial entitled Keeping 
the Wounds Open, says : 

"It is a pity for the welfare of Colo- 
rado that Governor Carlson has refused 
to take a broader view of the situation 
resulting from the armed conflict now 
nearly two years old. His answer to 
those who urged magnanimity from the 
state in the prosecutions being conduct- 
ed was that the law must take its 
course. 

"As a result of the coal strike and the 
pitched battles that took place in three or 
four counties in the state, there are 
some four hundred indictments pending 
against strikers and strike leaders ac- 
cused of murder, arson and lesser 
crimes. 

"Most, if not all. of the indictments 
remaining were found in the beat of 
conflict, when passion was at its high- 
est, when the localities in which the 
strife occurred were divided into two 
camps and when the whole state was 
seething. These indictments are what 



is known as blanket indictments. They 
have to do witn battles wherein labor 
was supposed to be arrayed against 
capital in a death struggle, where for- 
eigners, ignorant of American customs, 
took arms openly in a vague belief that 
they were defending their right to exist. 

"But whose fault was it? Was the 
state, through its then government. 
blamless? Did the employers' side of 
the industrial dispute do all that was re- 
quired of it to prevent the outbreak? 
Has any one in authority placed the 
blame solely and wholly upon labor and 
the ranks of labor? Yet in every case 
it is the working man that is under in- 
dictment. 

"As a matter of historical fact, there 
were three parties to blame — the state, 
the employer and the employed — and 
each musl bear a share. 

"Justice can gain little from the con- 
tinued agitation and endeavor to con- 
vict men by the wholesale. But the state 
can lose much. Xever in her histon 
did Colorado so much need peace — 
peace to repair damages, peace to de- 
velop resources, peace to restore con- 
fidence, peace to attract capital, peace to 
grow prosperous." 



Hennepin county, Minnesota, 
which contains the city of Minneapolis, 
failed to adopt county option at the elec- 
tion on October 4 by less than 10,000 
votes in a total of over 69,000. The tre- 
mendous interest in the issue is shown 
by the vote — 39,477 against prohibition, 
29,852 for it — which is the largest ever 
polled in the county. 

Paul L. Benjamin, whose article on 
the campaign was published in The Sur- 
vey for October 2, summarizes the 
causes for the result as the comparative- 
ly small means of the prohibitionists, 
who lacked the big funds and imported 
speakers of the "Business Men's Edu- 
cational League" ; the claim that the 
measure would permit the use of liquor 
in rich men's clubs while depriving the 
workingman of his mug of beer; a wide- 
spread belief that the election was not 
fair, in that there was no registration 
preceding election (Arthur H. Taylor of 
Pillsbury House, E. J. Miller, president 
of the Parent and Teachers' Council, 
and Dr. George B. Safford, manager of 
the dry campaign, estimate that there 
were from 5.000 to 10,000 fraudulent 
votes), and a failure to appoint dry 
along with wet election judges < George 
H. Selover of the Citizens' League 
states there were 21 districts where this 
was true); and the position taken by 
the labor unions. 

There is no doubt that organized labor 
was persuaded that prohibition would 
bring hard times and unemployment and 
voted to keep the saloons open. Mr. 
Benjamin records that 

"The Business Men's Educational 
League, although parading as non-parti- 
san and stating its purpose to be 'not to 
argue for or against prohibition but 
largely to investigate the experience of 
other states and cities,' nevertheless led 
the fight for the wet side." Its agent, 
sent to Des Moines, Iowa, "reported the 
most direful and baneful effects of pro- 
hibition." a report which "the mayor of 
Des Moines and the commercial organi- 
zations branded as false to the core." 

"The Real Issue," writes Mr. Ben- 
jamin, "a weekly started just prior to the 
election and published by the 'Minnesota 
Trades Union League for the Prevention 
of Unemployment and the Promotion of 
Home Rule, ostensibly 'the voice of or- 
ganized labor.' was filled with diatribes 
against prohibition. Upon investigation 
it was found that the paper was publish- 
ed at the home of the Bartenders' Union 
and that it actually represented only 21 
of the 112 unions in the city, and a large 
percentage of the 21 were unions act- 
ually engaged in the liquor business 

"The Labor Review, which claims to 
be the organ of all organized labor in 
Minneapolis, came out unreservedly 
against county option, and printed full- 
page ads oi the league. 

"In justice to a great number of 
union men it should be stated, however, 
that, indubitably, the labor vot< 
unanimous for the saloon." 



VOTES BY WOMEN 

A Poll of Survey Subscribers in Equal Franchise States 



IN order to present to the people of 
the four eastern states, which are 
about to vote on votes for women, 
not what eager friends or deter- 
mined foes think of woman suffrage, 
but what voters in suffrage states hold 
true on the basis of their experience, 
The Survey sent a circular letter to all 
its subscribers in the twelve franchise 
states. 

They were asked whether they believe 
in woman suffrage, yes or no, and why ; 
whether it has produced tangible re- 
sults in legislation, particularly for 
women and children ; changes in city or 
state administration, in politics and pub- 
lic opinion, in the tone of their towns; 
whether it is making for progress or 
reaction. 

Of the 634 replies received, 616 are 
ayes, 15 are noes, two are dubious and 
one is a blank. Among the ayes are 14 
who acknowledge their conversion to 
suffrage after the event and on the basis 
of results achieved. 

Seldom has The Survey had, on any 
subject, so many hearty, whole-souled, 
eager responses to an inquiry. More 
than half have written letters in addi- 
tion to answering the questions. With 
such a wealth of material, limited space 
forbids more than brief quotations from 
any letter, and the entire omission of 
many, particularly of those arriving late. 

All the questions are answered over- 
whelmingly in the affirmative. Not one 
subscriber reports any evidence of the 
breakdown of home life as the result of 
women's voting — perhaps the chief theo- 
retical argument against woman suf- 
frage, and a point of particular interest 
to the many Survey subscribers whose 
main task is the conservation of the 
family. 

The reasons given for believing in 
suffrage cover practically every claim 
ever made for it. But a striking num- 
ber — well over half — declares the en- 
franchisement of women to be an act of 
justice — "just," "fair," "the only square 
thing," "a right which has long been un- 
justly denied," as Governor Capper of 
Kansas puts it; "fundamentally just," 
according to Bishop Francis J. McCon- 
nell of Denver; "there is no logical rea- 
son against it," G. W. Perkins, editor of 
the Cigar Makers' Official Journal; "a 
logical right," James L. Houghteling, 
Jr., Chicago; "because women are hu- 
man beings," Prof. Albion W. Small, 
and "to deny full political rights to any 
body of intelligent persons who feel 
themselves entitled to those rights is to 
subvert democratic principles," Prof. 
Gerald Birney Smith, both of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago; "woman has a right 
to take her place alongside man in ad- 
ministering the government since the 



How the Vote Stood 

For Woman Suffrage . . 616 

Against It 15 

Dubious ... 2 

Blank 1 

Total . 634 



government is over her as over him," 
President Levi T. Pennington of Pa- 
cific College, Ore. 

"There's good common sense in it," 
writes Anna Morse of Charleston, 111. 
"Woman suffrage is one of the major 
social movements and makes in every 
way for improved social conditions," 
says Prof. Clyde Weber Votaw of the 
University of Chicago, and "public af- 
fairs need the ideas and salutary in- 
fluence of women," according to Secre- 
tary Eugene T. Lies of the Chicago 
United Charities. Supt. F. Emory Lyon 
of the Central Howard Association, 
Chicago, testifies that "women vote 
strongly for measures of social improve- 
ment." 

The effect of the ballot on women is 
widely discussed. Prof. James H. Tufts 
of the University of Chicago votes yes 
"because participation in responsibility 
and authority is the general path of 
moral development and freedom." John 
B. Lennon, member of the United States 
Commission on Industrial Relations, 
states that the influence of the ballot in 
Colorado "on my mother and sisters, 
who were voters there for some years. 



was in every way beneficial." Dr. J. H. 
McBride of Pasadena, Cal., holds that 
the vote "gives women a standing and a 
moral force that multiplies their useful- 
ness by many figures." "Now even the 
antis are voting," says Eugenie M. Ba- 
con, library extension commissioner in 
Illinois and formerly president of the 
State Federation of Women's Clubs. 
And, says Horace W. Chamberlain of 
Chicago, women are concerned not only 
for themselves but "are vitally interested 
in laws affecting their husbands and 
sons. They should have a voice in mak- 
ing those laws." Charles J. Anderson 
has carried his support of suffrage 
"from Massachusetts, where it is heresy, 
to Illinois, where it is orthodox," and 
testifies to "what it can do for women." 

Several writers speak from an experi- 
ence in more than one enfranchised com- 
munity; for instance, Mrs. F. G. Arneth 
of Culbertson, Mont., who has not only 
voted in that state but has "lived both in 
Illinois and in Washington before and 
after equal suffrage and I have seen the 
results, aside from the justness of the 
issue." Olaf Huseby of Morris, 111., be- 
lieves "very strongly in woman suffrage 
for its good effects," not only in Illinois 
but "from experience in my old father- 
land. Norway." 

"Really we people in Colorado have 
gone too far to enumerate why we be- 
lieve in votes for women. We feel that 
the burden of proof rests decidedly with 
the other side." writes Flora Warren 
Smith Seymour of Chicago, who has 
voted in two states. She voices a wide- 




WHERE WOMEN VOTE 

White states, woman suffrage; speckled state, partial suffrage; black states, 
without suffrage. Four eastern states are voting on a referendum to amend their 
constitutions by striking out the word "male" — New Jersey on October l'J, while 
this issue of The Survey is on the press; New York. Pennsylvania and Massachu- 
setts on November 2, which some wag has described as "the Tuesday following 
the first wash day in November." 



83 



84 



The Survey, October 23, 1915 



spread feeling among many who are not 
first voters as, for instance, Julia G. 
Babcock of the Woodland, Cal., County 
Free Library to whom "the question is 
as non-debatable as whether or not we 
should burn witches"; or Hulda Young- 
berg of Salt Lake City, Utah, who feels 
much as if she had been asked, Do you 
believe in the public schools? or Lydia 
M. Schmidt of Chicago, who believes in 
votes for women just as "I believe that 
women should learn to read, for the 
same reason that men should and no 
other" ; or J. B. Kelley of Seattle who 
reports. "It isn't an issue here on the 
Pacific Coast and one forgets there are 
people who do not believe in it. It 
would, however, be amusing to see what 
would happen to a movement to abolish 
woman suffrage. It would get about as 
far as a movement to do away with pub- 
lic schools and public roads." 

The campaign states have good wishes 
showered on them — "New York is my 
home state and you may know how con- 
fidently I hope for results there," writes 
Fleanor Clarke Slagle from the West. 
And a number of writers are for uni- 
versal adult suffrage. Thus, President 
Herbert Phillips of Grand Prairie Sem- 
inary at Onarga, 111., "would be glad to 
see the suffrage extended to the women 
of every state in every sort of an elec- 
tion," Supt. L. M. McCullough of the 
Roslyn. Wash., public schools is "de- 
cidedly in favor of extending suffrage to 
all the women in the United States." 
while Mary E. Marcy, associate editor 
of the International Socialist Review, 
would "not even exclude children who 
work, for we believe when boys and 
girls are old enough to work they ought 
to have something to say about the con- 
ditions in the factories, mines and mills 
in which they labor." 

The Antis 

C^\ F the 15 subscribers who answered 
no. three (Colorado 2. Arizona 1) 
do not give reasons or their signatures. 
Of the five from California, Harriet W. 
Blake states that "in this state I see no 
change either for better or worse since 
the franchise was given to women." 

William P. Briggs of Sacramento 
holds that suffrage "changes the normal 
domestic and maternal instincts of 
women to the contentious and demoral- 
izing fields of political corruption. This 
is upsetting the laws which are almost 
universal in life and earth." And he 
states that Sacramento is "about the 
same old town. The first election after 
women voted here a dozen saloons were 
given franchises which had previously 
been revoked." 

William Glass of Fresno votes no "for 
entirely practical reasons — too large a 
body of new voters to be politically as- 
similated without danger. Fresno went 
dry before suffrage, after suffrage it 
went wet." He believes, further, that 



BY THE GOVERNOR OF 

KANSAS 

T BELIEVE most emphatically in 
-* woman suffrage and I consider 
that the enfranchisement of the 
women of this country will only 
be conferring upon them a right 
which has long been unjustly de- 
nied them. 

If the women are capable of 
bearing children and assuming, 
much the larger part of the re- 
sponsibility of guiding them 
through the most critical period 
of their development, are not these 
same women entirely capable of 
expressing their opinions, through 
the ballot, on the laws under which 
their children — the future citizens 
— shall live and work? 

The extension of equal suffrage 
in Kansas has produced most com- 
mendable results through the 
enactment of lazvs having for their 
primary purpose the betterment of 
conditions for women and chil- 
dren — especially those who find it 
necessary to support themselves. 
There has been an immediate ef- 
fect for good; all political parties 
have been impelled to include in 
their program and platform hu- 
manitarian projects and moral is- 
sues which previously they had ig- 
nored. There is a more careful 
selection, of nominees, both munic- 
ipal and state. The participation 
of women in elections already is 
having wholesome effect in cleans- 
ing the state of spoilsmen politics 
and is making for higher ideals in 
both public and private life. 

Woman suffrage makes strongly 
for progress. The mothers of a 
state arc forward-looking. They 
have in mind always the future 
welfare of their children and most 
assuredly they will strive to bc- 
queath to these children the best 
possible conditions of life. Wom- 
en arc natural reformers. Many 
of the best and greatest reforms 
have had their inception in a 
small gathering of public-spirited 
women, and it has often been 
through the efforts of these wom- 
en, even without the ballot, that 
some of our best laws have been 
written upon the statutes. 

J am convinced that woman 
suffrage has a tendency toward 
greater democracy. ' The women 
appreciate their greater responsi- 
bility and are zealous in their ef- 
forts to inform themselves on mat- 
ters of government. They broaden 
their sphere, without in any way 
lessening their interest in home 
life, just as surely as men increase 
their knowledge of government 
-without permitting their participa- 
tion in public affairs to dominate 
their business. The education of 
a whole people in the affairs of 
government and the participation 
of this people on equal footing in 
the operation of government can- 
in / fail, it seems to me, to make 
for greater democracy. — Arthur 
Capper. 



women are "fundamentally for reac- 
tion," "born conservatives," "naturally 
aristocrats." The tone of the town "is 
better than of old, due to awakened 
public conscience, not to suffrage, in my 
opinion." 

W. J. Petersen of Oakland holds that 
"it has not worked well in this state 
because women are not properly in- 
formed, too sentimental and easily influ- 
enced." In Oakland, "suffrage has been 
a club over the heads of elected officers 
and caused much unwise legislation." 
He finds that in laws for the protection 
of women and children "some good re- 
sults have been gained." The moral 
tone of the city "has not improved," he 
says, and "I voted for the act, but have 
repented. Perhaps time may give women 
that intelligence or wisdom that may 
result in good." 

A minister of Sacramento, who does 
not wish his name used, believes that 
"had the men been disfranchised the 
women would have voted California wet 
last year. Women of wealth and culture 
as well as those in modest circumstances 
were open advocates of the present 
whiskey regime. They sat on the plat- 
form in a great mass meeting held by 
the whiskey advocates. Many women 
in the churches actually voted wet." 

From Kansas come three anti letters. 
Mrs. Charles B. Thomas of Topeka 
votes no without comment. Another 
subscriber, who is absent from his home 
city, is vouched for by his associate in 
temperance work as an anti, but does 
not wish to be quoted. The third, a 
teacher who wishes her name withheld, 
believes suffrage is neither a right nor 
a privilege, but "a duty devolving not 
upon the entire body politic but upon 
those fit to execute it. Paradoxical 
though it may sound, I am a thorough- 
going democrat in that I believe in the 
possibility of all to become fit to vote, 
but not in the actuality of all being now 
prepared to vote, either men or women." 

Dudley Taylor of Chicago, the only 
anti who writes from Illinois, believes 
that "woman's true sphere is her home 
and family. Public affairs are to her a 
mystery and nuisance. She is about as 
much out of place in the voting booth 
as she would be on a football team. She 
is not fitted by nature for either. . . 
Leave her alone and she will be happy. 
Make her vote and we will have to add 
political incompatibility to the grounds 
for divorce. As things are, she goes to 
church while her husband stays at home: 
he votes while she stays at home. Ami 
so the family equilibrium is maintained." 

One letter each is from Washington 
and Montana. The writer of the former 
prefers not to be quoted. The latter 
asks that his name be withheld. His 
reason for voting no is, "1 believe it is 
a step toward anarchy." 

From Utah comes a letter with thi> 
answer to the question. Do you believe 
in woman suffrage: "Philosophically, 



Votes by Women 



85 



yes, as the logical climax of universal 
suffrage to which the Anglo-Saxon is 
committed ; empirically, no, for I have 
yet to see in my own experience a prac- 
tical proof of its efficiency. Being a 
pragmatist, experience has refuted logic 
and my present answer to the question 
remains no." 

The Ex-Antis 

f ") F prime interest are the 14 con- 
verted antis — 6 from California, 3 
from Washington, and one each from 
Illinois, Oregon, Colorado, Kansas and 
Montana. 

.Mabel Urmy Seares of Pasadena con- 
fesses: "I was one myself, partly be- 
cause I had always lived in California 
and had had so much freedom that I 
did not miss the vote, and mostly be- 
cause I felt the burden of my own ig- 
norance and that of most women on the 
subject of government and I did not 
feel that I had the enthusiasm to under- 
take to educate the women. I see now 
that my apprehensions were unfounded. 
The responsibility of the ballot itself 
is educating the women." 

"G. E. B." writes : "I did not want it, 
but the election of Rolph over Schmidt 
in San Francisco has convinced me." 

M. M. Hatheway.of Claremont "did 
not want it before it came, but I do 
now because I have seen its good re- 
sults." 

The Rev. Albert W. Palmer of Oak- 
land "was converted to it just in time 
to vote for it. I believe in it." 

E. P. Ryland of Los Angeles has 
"come to believe in it since we granted 
suffrage to women in California. 
Women are proving themselves tempera- 
mentally as fit as men to vote." 

John B. Henck of Santa Barbara 
"voted against it when it was adopted, 
partly because of my conviction that it 
was a useless multiplication of the elec- 
toral machinery, because on the average 
of women of all classes the vote would 
be no more intelligent and no less influ- 
enced by selfish and personal considera- 
tions than the vote of men alone, and 
partly because all the women I repre- 
sented were opposed to it." Not all his 
doubts have been resolved — "my present 
position is that of an open mind," — but 
in the bits of experience quoted he leans 
away from antagonism, particularly for 
"the next generation, who will grow up 
under its influence." 

Mrs. C. B. Balabanoff of Tacoma 
writes: "I certainly do believe in wom- 
an suffrage and may I add that I never 
desired the privilege of the ballot and 
that this view has come since our en- 
franchisement here in Washington," and 
she wishes "success to the states now 
debating the question." 

W. G. McMorran, general secretary 
of the Y. M. C. A. at North Yakima, 
"voted against the proposition" but now 
"both as a matter of justice and ex- 



BY JANE ADDAMS 

T RECALL an experience I had 
-*■ last year which did much to 
dispel any lingering doubts I may 
have had regarding the vote of the 
so - called "ignorant woman:' 
Serving as a judge of election in 
the Hull House precinct, one of 
my duties was to enter the polling 
booth with any woman who could 
not read and write in order to read 
the ballot to her. I -was constantly 
impressed with the shrewdness and 
direct common-sense with which 
most of these women marked their 
ballots. 

In the long lists of public 
policy questions an Irish wom- 
an whom I knew very well marked 
her ballot with only one exception 
according to the advice given by 
the specialists of the City Club, 
reaching her conclusions wholly 
and solely through her own expe- 
riences, for dlthough I was pow- 
erless to advise her she gave me a 
running comment of her reasons. 

For instance, she voted against 
the bonds for an extension to the 
county hospital "if the same bunch 
have the spending of it 'who built 
it the first time without enough 
room for beds" ; she voted against 
the proposed subway until "they 
try clearing the streets a bit"; she 
voted for a contagious disease hos- 
pital under the city health depart- 
ment for "sure the only time a 
mother is willing to let a sick child 
go out of the house is when she is 
scared to death about the others, 
but the hospitals alzvays took in 
every other disease but the catch- 
ing ones." She promptly voted 
against the bathing beaches on the 
lake front, in this differing from 
the expert advice, because "boys 
have so little sense anyway that 
there was no use tempting them 
to the lake to get drowned." 

As she left the room passing 
through the lines of "waiting men 
she gave me a delicious wink, "It 
galls the men some to have us vot- 
ing, but from the questions put up 
to me it seems pretty much a "wom- 
an's job." 






pediency I believe in equal suffrage. 
Women are depended on for their share 
of the work and are delivering it." 

A resident of Pullman, who went to 
Washington the year women were given 
the vote, has been converted by her 
study of its results on the ground — "It 
is not only just but is for the greatest 
good of all." 

The Rev. Charles W. Gilkey went to 
Chicago from Boston and New York 
"very much on the fence," but "the act- 
ual results so far as I have seen them 
here in Illinois have landed me on the 
side of woman suffrage." 

The Rev. Gustav Winter of Sumpter, 
Ore., states that "for years I was an out- 
and-out anti-woman suffragist. But af- 



ter observing the results of woman suf- 
frage where it has had a fair trial I 
became an enthusiastic convert." 

A subscriber in Kansas City, Kan., 
writes, "I am a recent convert and be- 
lieve in it." 

Josephine Spriggs of Helena, Mont. : 
"I believe in suffrage, but only since it 
became a law in this state. It has re- 
sulted in good government leagues in all 
the cities and towns, and in good gov- 
ernment regardless of party politics. 
Political leaders know now that they 
must face the analysis of quiet, intelli- 
gent, clean-minded women." 

And from "S." in Denver: "Yes, I've 
come to believe in it," and she gives the 
reasons, in cleaner politics and reforms 
accomplished which are listed elsewhere, 
"though just why reforms that have 
taken men centuries to bring about 
should come suddenly with woman's 
suffrage seems to me too much to ex- 
pect." 

Illinois 

"PA.YGIBLE results in both the state 
and the towns of Illinois are point- 
ed out by scores of correspondents. 
Some hold that as women may not vote 
the state ticket, suffrage cannot lay 
claim to state legislation. But this po- 
sition is overwhelmed in numbers by 
the claimants that women voters have 
made themselves felt through "women 
lobbying" and working at home with 
their representatives, as Dr. Henry W. 
Cheney of Chicago puts it. Further, 
Arthur B. Farwell, president of the 
Chicago Law and Order League, points 
out that the successful red light abate- 
ment act was "endorsed by the Chicago 
City Council," and the aldermen's claim 
on their seats now rests with the women. 

As to Chicago, Anna Erickson and 
many others hold that "the best descrip- 
tion of the tangible results" are to be 
found in an article by Edith Abbott, 
Are Women a Force for Good Govern- 
ment, reprinted from the National 
Municipal Review (10 cents a copy 
from the Woman's City Club of Chi- 
cago, 116 South Michigan avenue). 
Graham Taylor's article, Civic Signifi- 
cance of the Chicago Election, in The 
Survey for April 17, 1915, is referred to. 

Margaret Dreier Robbins, president of 
the National Woman's Trade Union 
League, sends her plea, The Ballot for 
Women for the Protection of the Home, 
issued as a pamphlet by the Woman 
Suffrage Party, 48 East 34 street, 
New York city. Another pamphlet, 
What Illinois Women Have Accom- 
plished with the Vote, by Helen Congor 
Stewart, Tower Building, Chicago, is 
sent by another subscriber. 

In striking contrast to the listing of 
practical achievements in the latter, and 
of Mrs. Robbins' address "from the top 
floor of a tenement house in the most 
congested district of Chicago, where for 
the past ten years it has been my privi- 



86 



Ihe Survey, October 23, 1915 



lege to live, - ' is a brief by Finley F. 
Bell, secretary of the Illinois Legisla- 
tive Reference Bureau. This ranges 
back through the founders of the organ- 
ized suffrage movement to that resolu- 
tion offered by Wendell Phillips at the 
Worcester Convention of 1851 : "Re- 
solved, that . . . the right of suf- 
frage for women is, in our opinion, the 
corner-stone of this enterprise, since we 
do not seek to protect woman, but rather 
to place her in a position to protect 
herself." 

Just how sorely self-protection is 
needed comes aptly to hand in Mary E. 
McDowell's account of her attempts to 
rid her neighborhood — she is head resi- 
dent of the University of Chicago Set- 
tlement in the Stockyards district — of an 
open garbage dump, and to induce the 
city to adopt an efficient system of gar- 
bage disposal. The thing dragged for 
19 years, though toward the last there 
was much favorable opinion created by 
the Woman's City Club. During 1911- 
1912 and up to July, 1913, the city gov- 
ernment toyed with the question — "the 
women were always treated with a fu- 
tile politeness that ended in inaction." 
But, Miss McDowell writes, when in 
July the governor signed the bill en- 
franchising women, the thing went 
through as if greased — in one week it 
was settled. "And," says Miss McDow- 
ell, "we were the same women with the 
same request." 

Other claims for Chicago — chiefly the 
election of a reform council, improve- 
ments in the care of city and county 
wards and the closing of saloons on 
Sunday in accordance with the law — 
are familiar to readers of The Survey, 
through Professor Taylor's writings. 

Smaller cities have definite achieve- 
ments to report. In Benton, writes the 
Rev. A. Leroy Huff, the mayor "was a 
notorious character, yet a man who 
seemed to be securely entrenched. But 
when the poll was made he was beaten 
almost three to one and the entire set of 
commissioners that were elected were 
clean and efficient men." 

In La Salle, the efforts of the Wom- 
en's Bureau toward better civic condi- 
tions, "have been received with a much 
more favorable reception in council," 
writes Raymond A. Hover, secretary of 
the Social Center Department of the La 
Salle-Peru Township High School. 

In Alton, writes Cora Wuerker of 
Neighborhood House, "we have helped 
put in a state senator of good repute as 
mayor, in place of the former inefficient, 
lax administration." 

In Chester, "the woman's vote gave 
to an honest candidate for mayor three 
times the majority that the men's vote 
gave to a candidate who had been noto- 
rious for many years in the town's pol- 
itics." 

In Evanston, "women's votes elected 
the present mayor and defeated a ma- 
chine politician," wr !t es Mary Louise 



PETTICOATS 

« 7^ HEN he started to step off 

■*■ the soap-box, but somebody 
called out, 'Tell us how you do in 
your country.' The traveller 
looked embarrassed, but there 
seemed no help for it, so up he 
got again. 'We listen to the voice 
of ihe people,' he began. 'All at 
once?' he was asked, and then from 
another quarter, 'Is it one voice?' 
This was disconcerting, but there 
was no time to go home and sleep 
on it. 'If you will be patient and 
not interrupt I'll explain,' said the 
traveller, and everybody listened 
politely. 

"'All who are grozvii up and 
wear their hair cut short and trou- 
sers on their legs have a voice' he 
said, trying to be clear, and the 
crowd began to say, 'But why' — 
and then remembered they were 
not to interrupt. 

"'In some parts of the country 
those who wear long hair, and pet- 
ticoats on their legs have a voice, 
in some other parts they have not' 
he went on, and the people looked 
at each other in great amazement. 
'A voice is called a vote, and a vote 
is a piece of paper with a name of 
a person on it put in a box to be 
counted. The persons 'whose names 
arc on the votes oftencst all 
get together and talk, and when 
they have talked enough, what they 
say becomes law. Now do you 
understand?' 

"By this time the crowd had 
thinned out and those who were 
left complained of headache. So 
the traveller hopped down off the 
soap-box and hurried to catch a 
train to take him home. 

"Next morning in the market- 
place the principal thing to be 
heard was: 'Now why. do you 
suppose, the people who wear pet- 
ticoats on their leys are dumb 7 ' 
'Your'e all wrong' ; another would 
say. 'It is only in some places they 
are dumb.' Then another, 'That 
person said, 'the people's voice,' so 
there can't be a}iy dumb. 

"All the vegetables were left to 
wilt in the sun while the people 
discussed these things. Upon one 
thing they agreed, they liked their 
way best." — Quotation, from a 
book for children, sent by Marx 
Aldis, Lake Forest, III. 



Childs. 

Women were responsible for the 
adoption of commission form of govern- 
ment in Lincoln, writes Emily Kaffes. 

"Our little town of Kansas is better 
and cleaner — women don't sell out," 
writes the Rev. J. E. Pritchett. 

"The tone of the last two elections in 
Kewanee is greatly improved." says L. 
C. Trent. 

Women are credited with voting 
ing padlocks on to more than 1,000 sa- 
loon doors. J. M. Allen of Eureka sum- 
marizes the situation thus: "Woman 



suffrage is going to give Illinois first 
local option and later state-wide prohi- 
bition. It will eventually make Illinois 
a dry state." 

Other dry testimony came from C. C. 
Logan, president Civic League, Cen- 
tralia ; Mary Wallace, librarian Public 
Library, Litchfield ; Fanny M. Burlin- 
game, librarian Public Library, Earl- 
ville ; Virgil V. Johnson, secretary Pub- 
lic Welfare Association, Rockford : 
Elizabeth Hawley Everett, Benton : 
Florence E. McConnell, chairman Law- 
En forcement Committee, Decatur; and 
Jesse L. Smith, superintendent of 
schools. Highland Park. 

Colorado 

4 i A FTER an experience of more 
than twenty years, you could not 
induce the men of Colorado to part with 
the wonderful help women give to them 
in the management of their public af- 
fairs" — that sentence, from Lee Cham- 
pion of Denver, expresses the spirit and 
substance of most of the replies received 
from Colorado men. 

As for the women, Fonetta Flans- 
burg, president of the Colorado Springs 
Federation of Women's Clubs, sums up 
the results thus: "It has, chief of all. 
made us independent thinkers, given us 
self-respect and the profound respect of 
the men." 

Anna R. Morse of Denver has found 
similarly that "if you talk to a legis- 
lator as a voter he lends his ear with a 
degree of courtesy and interest which 
would amaze you. while if you talk as 
the most charming and intelligent of 
women his amiable tolerance promises 
no relief." 

Bishop Francis J. McConnell of Den- 
ver holds suffrage "fundamentally just — 
whatever differences there are between 
men and women do not seem to me to 
be of the kind that would prevent a 
woman from having a rational opinion 
on political matters and from having 
■that opinion counted." 

Wayne C. Williams, member of the 
state Industrial Commission, believes 
that "women who work have a right to 
vote as citizens." and finds that their 
votes, along with those of all women, 
have "elevated the tone of politics, of 
public officials and of the city of Den- 
ver." 

Margaret D. Conway, Denver's 
amusement censor, finds suffrage "break- 
ing down party lines and rearing lines 
between good and evil." 

Numerous correspondents point out 
that the woman's vote has kept Judge 
Lindsey in office. James Grafton I 
ers of Denver makes a point made by 
no other writer in any state — "In many 
large families it has given that family 
a more just representation than it would 
otherwise have." Mr. Roger-; believe- 
"it has in some special instances in Col- 
orado | and will in special instances in 



Vote? by Women 



87 



the future, particularly in connection 
with humanitarian measures and the 
more obvious reform movements) 
helped a progressive vote." 

"The black chapter in Colorado's 
industrial history, when women and 
children were burned alive in their tent 
homes, would have been blacker still 
had it not been for the efforts of the 
women who forced the governor to call 
in the federal troops in order to end 
the existing civil war and prevent a rep- 
etition of Ludlow," writes Wood F. 
Worcester, agent of the Colorado 
Springs Associated Charities. These, he 
says, are purely personal views. 

As to legislation, James Hutchinson 
Kerr of Colorado Springs, writing as 
"a Colorado pioneer," recalls that 
"when the suffrage agitation began in 
Colorado we had more laws to protect 
domestic animals than we had to pro- 
tect women and child) en. As women 
have gained power on the platform, at 
the ballot-box, in the legislative halls, 
in like proportion have the interests of 
home, society and humanity been pro- 
moted." 

Dr. Maude M. Sanders of Denver re- 
calls that "in the first legislature after 
the ballot was given to women, the 
first woman's bill, Senate bill No. I, 
was an act to establish a state home for 
dependent children." In a few weeks 
the bill was a law and in a few months 
the home was open — quick action which 
she contrasts with Massachusetts. There 
the "women worked 55 years for a law 
making mothers joint guardians of their 
own minor children, while Colorado 
women secured this law 55 days alter 
the first legislature convened following 
the adoption of suffrage." 

During the 22 years that they have 
had the ballot, "over 200 laws have been 
enacted primarily through the efforts 
of the women," writes Lillian H. Kerr. 
She gives a list of the chief acts among 
these in the line of protective legisla- 
tion and lists achievements in municipal 
administration of her city, Colorado 
Springs, writing from her experience as 
president of the Woman's Club, vice- 
president of the Civic League, chairman 
of the Council Proceedings Committee, 
chairman of the Civil Service Commit- 
tee of the state Federation of Women's 
Clubs and as a candidate for the state 
legislature on the Progressive ticket. 
Her list follows : 

"1895. Senate bill Xo. 1, introduced 
by a woman, was an act establishing a 
state home for dependent and neglected 
children. Nearly the first bill in the 
House was Mrs. Hollv's bill raising the 
age of consent to 18 years. Then fol- 
lowed an act making married women 
joint guardians of their own children 
with equal powers and duties. An act 
providing for the protecting of property 
of infants and insane persons. 

"1897. Mrs. Klock's bill passed estab- 
lishing a state industrial school for girls. 

"1899. A splendid indeterminate-sen- 



tence and parole law and compulsory 
education laws were passed. 

"1901. Colorado state bureau of child 
and animal protection was established. 

"1903. An act protecting household 
goods and homestead. An act provid- 
ing severe penalty for parents or any- 
one else for causing or contributing to 
delinquency of children. Mrs. A. M. 
Welles' bill providing for 160 free trav- 
eling libraries. 

"1907. A splendid pure food and drug 
law (Mrs. A. B. Conine). A law pro- 
hibiting the insurance of children under 
15 years of age. Lstablishment of juve- 
nile courts. 

"1909. A school teachers' pension 
bill passed. Law making it a felony to 
live on earnings of a lewd woman. 

"1911. Child labor law most com- 
plete in the country. An act establish- 
ing summer normals throughout the 
state. Factory inspection established. 
Drastic anti-white slave law. 

"1913. Mothers' compensation act. 

"1914. State-wide prohibition passed. 

"The women's vote changed Colorado 
Springs from old ward system to com- 
mission form of government. The first 
time the question, Shall we call a char- 
ter convention ? was submitted, it was 
defeated by over 2,000 votes. It could 
not be submitted again for two years. 
During those two years the women of 
this city carried on a campaign of edu- 
cation, and at the next submission prac- 
tically the whole town voted for the 
charter convention. Although no wom- 
en were elected as members of the 
charter convention of 21 freeholders, 
they sat in with the convention and 
stood firmly for strong civil service 
rules, non-partisan ballot, initiative, 
referendum and recall and rights to 
municipal ownership, all of which were 
adopted. A little over two years ago 
the women of the Civic League present- 
ed ,m amendment to the charter provid- 
ing for preferential voting, which was 
adopted. 

"The tone of Colorado Springs is high. 
Altruism is finding more and more fol- 
lowers constantly. The 150 women of 
the Civic League have secured three 
fine public playgrounds with supervision 
( not maintained by charity but by the 
taxes of the citizens), a change in the 
system of garbage disposal whereby all 
garbage is sterilized. A policewoman 
with quarters in the City Hall. A City 
Planning Commission has secured an 
appropriation of $2,000 for the employ- 
ment of a civic architect and the formu- 
lating of a scientific plan for the develop- 
ment of the city." 

California 

p RACTICALLY all California corre- 
spondents testify that women's votes 
and their influence as voters were a 
prime factor in securing the red light 
injunction and abatement act. "Their 
influence was particularly important in 
securing the passage of our new child 
labor law," writes Secretary Stuart A. 
Queen, of the state Board of Charities. 
President W. S. Grasie, of the Pasa- 
dena Board of Education, lists laws for 
better juvenile courts, mothers' pensions 



and a state institutional home for girls. 

Frank P. Deering of San Francisco, 
a lawyer, sends a list of sixteen statutes 
passed by the first legislature after suf- 
frage was granted. For all of these, 
Mr. Deering says, the women voters 
worked as a whole. 

He sends also a senate concurrent res- 
olution issued in reply to a widely circu- 
lated statement that woman suffrage had 
been a failure in California and that a 
movement was on foot to repeal it. The 
statement declares that "the adoption 
of woman suffrage by California is one 
of the important factors contributing 
to the marked political, social and indus- 
trial advancement made by our people 
in recent years, and any disparagement 
of the cause of woman suffrage at- 
tempted elsewhere on the ground that 
woman suffrage is not satisfactory to 
this state has no basis in fact and is 
signally disproved by the acknowledged 
intelligence and discrimination shown by 
women voters in the settling of our great 
political and industrial problems at the 
polls." 

Elene M. Mitchell, of the Thirtieth 
Street Intermediate School, Los Ange- 
les, speaks particularly of the "home- 
teacher" law, providing for instruction 
for immigrant mothers. 

Local changes are abundantly testi- 
fied to. In Sacramento, C. M. Goethe 
relates how the women elected "the first 
woman commissioner in the United 
States," herself a woman who "has made 
an actuality of public school reforms 
that have tremendously affected the 
school life of every child. In this elec- 
tion the machine was destroyed. It was 
largely due to the women voting for the 
first time." 

"In Los Angeles," writes Jesse D. 
Burks, director of the City Efficiency 
Department, "women voters have ac- 
tively supported specific matters for the 
protection of women and children, the 
alleviation of unemployment, the pro- 
motion of health, recreation, safety and 
general community welfare, the elimina- 
tion of waste and improvement of ad- 
ministrative efficiency." 

In Santa Barbara, Samuel M. Ilsley 
reports that "by the women's vote we 
have carried a modern city-manager 
charter." G. F. Weld reports that "the 
chief of police of Santa Barbara says it 
has cut his work in half." 

Rabbi Martin A. Meyer of San Fran- 
cisco, refers to "the appointment of a 
large number of women on various 
boards and commissions whose pres- 
ence has been a marked advantage." 

Grace Ruth Southwick, of the Na- 
tional Y. W. C. A., has "seen many city 
officials fail of re-election because of 
the women's vote and more progressive 
men replace them." 

"San Diego closed its red light dis 
trict simultaneously with the securing 
of suffrage." writes Sybil Gage Weddlc. 

[Continued on pinjc 95.] 




HTHESE pictures show at a glance 
the main features of the. Gary 
school system. The central idea is 
the duplicate use of the school build- 
ing, which John Martin, member of 
the New York city Board of Educa- 
tion, calls "the divine spark of com- 
mon sense" supplied by Superintend- 
ent William Wirt, author of the plan. 
The pictures are reproductions of 
paintings. 

A side view of a cross section of 
the Froebel School at Gary, Ind., is 
shown in the lower picture. The tra- 
ditional practice of having one re- 
served seat for every child is aban- 
doned. Two schools occupy the 
building simultaneously. While X 
school uses twenty-four class rooms, 
Y school occupies sixteen labora- 
tories, studios, manual training and 
domestic science rooms, the audi- 
torium, library, gymnasium, play- 
ground and swimming pools, and 
vice versa. This plan secures the 
continuous use of all school facilities 
all the time. It thus not only saves 
expense of equipment, but achieves a 
much richer work-study-and-play en- 
vironment for the child. The build- 
ing has a capacity of 2,000 day school 
pupils and is well adapted for adult 
use at night and on Saturdays and 
Sundays. 

The Froebel School from the out- 
side is shown in the upper picture ; 
the artist has made the park in front 
larger than it really is. In addition 
to housing twice the ordinary num- 
ber of pupils, the Gary school acts 
as a co-ordinating agent for all the 
child welfare activities of the neigh- 
borhood. It frees the student during 
school hours to attend library, settle- 
ment, church and other places of an 
educational character. 

The pictures show a practically 
complete school under the Gary sys- 
tem; many things included in them 
would not need to be provided, 
especially at the outset, by a city 
adopting the plan. The most impor- 
tant features are auditorium, special 
science and manual training rooms, 
and play space in or out of the build- 
ing. 



The "Divine Spark of C 




ss 



The si mn, October 2S, 1016 



Copyright American Press Association 




nmon Sense" at Gary, Ind. 




WILLIAM WIRT, OF GARY. IN'n 

Mr. Wirt estimates that his duplicate 
use of school buildings can be extended 
throughout New York city, at a cost of 
$6,000,000, one-sixth of the amount be- 
ing asked for new buildings. Mis pro- 
posal is now before the city. 




America's Danger and Opportunity 1 

By Lucia Ames Mead 

AUTHOR OF SWORDS AND PLOUGHSHARES AND OF MANY PEACE PAMPHLETS, SECRETARY WOMAN'S PEACE PARTY 



OUR country faces today one of 
the great crises of its his- 
tory. Upon our decision in 
large measure hangs the 
world's decision to advance or to re- 
treat in civilization. Our country is the 
sole one of the eight great powers, not 
now engaged in destroying its own 
blood and treasure. It is the safest and 
richest country in the world, has never 
yet been attacked but itself began its 
three foreign wars, and has no enemies. 
It is the one to which all nations now 
turn for help or for approval. Every 
nation at this moment is striving to be 
on friendly terms with it. 

Today our country has set before it 
two momentous choices : One is to fol- 
low Mr. Maxim, Plattsburg orators and 
the Navy League, to reverse its policy, 
ignore its old ideals, and to enter upon 
a new course. This course is based on 
the doctrine that force must rule in our 
affairs, that all government is based on 
force and that our nation's chief de- 
fence against its chief dangers is siege 
guns, battleships, a million men in arms 
and rifle practice in our schools. The 
course that is proposed is mere servile 
imitation of futile, old-world methods 
which have brought Europe to the sham- 
bles. The men who advocate this policy 
ignore the most obvious results of the 
theories they propound. They ignore 
the fact that whatever policy we adopt 
in facing an exhausted Europe will be 
followed by the Latin republics and Asia 
as speedily as possible. If Europe's ex- 
haustion brings us new menace, as our 
militarists imply, then it brings even 
more menace to those weaker than our- 
selves. 

Our decision this next February will 
largely affect the decision of the world. 
Upon our shoulders will rest responsi- 
bility for imposing suspicion, terror and 
costly burden of taxation upon poorer 
nations which have looked to us to lead 
toward that world federation which our 
own national federation has so success- 
fully foreshadowed. A wrong decision 
will not only affect ourselves and this 
whole hemisphere and the Orient, but it 
will also deter embittered Europe from 
adopting any other policy than that de- 
creed by militarists. 

Democracy, the world over, stands 
today in peril. The militarists of Eu- 
rope are fast ousting civilians and as- 
suming civic functions. A censored 
press and cowed public, unable in any 
warring country to freely speak its 
mind, is accustoming itself to unprece- 

\\ paper read at tin- International Peace 
1 i < at San Francisci >. 

90 



dented governmental control. There is 
no assurance that the spirit of liberty 
for which Social-Democrats and labor 
parties stand will have the power to 
gain the ascendency. 

"Once to every man and nation comes 
the moment to decide 
In the strife of Truth with Falsehood, 
for the good or evil side." 

Our choice comes now. That money 
power behind munitions which has for 
years in many countries largely in- 
fluenced the press is working desper- 
ately to retain after the war the ascend- 
ency which this war has given it. It is 
a terrific power working through vicious 
moving-picture films, through scare 
headlines and every shrewd psychologic 
device to hypnotize the reason and to 
obsess the imagination. When it once 
gets its grip upon the schools, as it is 
trying to do under the plea of patriot- 
ism, it. may create conditions which will 
compel the long, bloody fight for democ- 
racy to be won over again. This war 
has revealed within our midst men in 
high position who are condemning 
democracy because it will not yield to 
the militarists' demands, because it will 
not fall into machine methods. The 
Prussian conception of the state is get- 
ting rooted in the minds of the very 
men who most bitterly condemn its 
obvious results. If we give our might 
toward increased reliance upon force, 
we may tip the scale downward for all 
humanity for generations. 

Two Courses 

If we, on the other hand, make the 
alternative choice and tip the scale up- 
ward, if we put the mighty influence of 
mir rich, safe republic toward creating 
new and more adequate defences than 
our physicists have invented, we shall 
be able to inspire and lead a war-sick 
world. Let us make no mistake. Our 
choice is between two courses. We can- 
not successfully at the same time follow 
two contrary policies. Years ago, in 
England, an esteemed friend of mine, a 
man who loves peace and is a member 
of the Privy Council advised me to 
waste no time in criticizing the mad 
efforts of the militarists to increase un- 
necessary armaments. Of course, he 
declared, these efforts were wasteful and 
vicious and discouraging, but if only 
peace workers would confine their ef- 
forts to substituting law- for war, they 
would gradually undermine the power of 
the army and navy leagues. Urge on the 
work of Hague courts, multiply treaties, 
improve international law, he counsell- 
ed, and finally, with world organiza- 



tion complete, militarism would have no 
leg to stand on and would collapse. I 
felt at the time that this would be true 
if reason ruled and no selfish interests 
upset the logic of events, but I had no 
faith that men who have made vast 
profit from armaments and war scares 
would relinquish their power to hood- 
wink and to drain the people. As well 
expect distillers of their own accord to 
cease making whiskey. 

The conflagration of Europe is the 
outcome of the policy of letting arma- 
ment makers and the jingo press inflame 
the fear and jealousy of governments 
and the people while the sentries of the 
public who should have been on guard 
dreamed at their post. They assumed 
that a thoughtless public would know its 
own interests and logically work to at- 
tain them. The generals and the 
Krupps, Armstrongs, and DuPonts were 
perfectly willing to let us read papers 
on Hague courts and prize courts and 
sea law and on Caloo and Drago doc- 
trines and laws for neutrals. It amused 
us and did not hurt them. In fact, in 
our country the militarists blandly sup- 
ported it and formed arbitration socie- 
ties with arbitration and armaments 
walking abreast arm in arm across their 
platform. Whether one could serve 
God and Mammon or not. it was certain 
that one could serve God and Mars. 
The one holy thing which they insisted 
was taboo from all denunciation was 
any lessening of armaments until human 
nature had changed and the millennium 
was in sight. Any one who dared talk 
of our nation venturing to take an ini- 
tiative, to be the courageous leader in 
a new policy in placing more reliance 
on non-military defences was told that 
he was no patriot, was "a college sissy" 
and a contemptible "peace at any price" 
nonentity. The conceit of the militarist 
that he alone loves righteousness is 
characteristic. 

The result of Europe's prepared) 
is apparently teaching no lesson to our 
own people. "Had England had a mil- 
lion men in arms, this calamity would 
not have come." they cry. But. as the 
Westminster Gazette well said. "1: 
would simply have come sooner." The 
worst horror of this accumulation oi 
horrors is that on every hand, even in 
our country, men seem to be losing their 
power of reason, their realization of the 
most impassive facts. A college edu- 
cation gives no proof that the man 
who has it has any more judgment or 
perception o\ relative values, of inter- 
national ethics and economics than has 
the man on the street. It e.ives no proof 

Thk Scbvkt. October 28, 1010 



America's Danger and Opportunity 



91 



of power of logic or of imagination, as 
we are sadly learning. 

With the complacent assumption that 
we could never become militaristic, that 
we would fight only for righteousness 
and justice and must be the sole judge 
in our own case as to what is just, we 
are with amazing rapidity adopting the 
very principles of reliance on force 
which is at the basis of this whole set- 
back to civilization. German military 
efficiency is what our army and navy 
leagues have held up as our ideal. The 
head of the army was reported as saying 
two or three years ago that he would 
like to "out-German the Germans" and 
teach every boy of twelve to shoot. 
Before this war opened, our military 
authorities clamored for a great army. 
Under sharp protest that it is possible 
for us to be militarized, America under 
the sophistry of the panic-stricken press 
is fast reversing its theories and policies. 
It is invoking such reliance on force as, 
if carried out, will end that power of 
world-leadership which is ours today. 

Preparedness 

What shall peace-workers say in face 
of the nation-wide campaign for what, 
with dangerous euphemism, is called 
"preparedness"' ? "Masked words" win 
many victories over reason and logic. 
Every sane person believes, of course, 
in foresight, caution, and adequate pre- 
paredness for real dangers. If the 
slogan were not this respectable masked 
word, "preparedness," but were "more 
taxation," "imitate Europe," "teach 
every boy to kill," millions would oppose 
what they now frantically support. 

First, let us say that we as laymen 
make no apology for discussing the 
question of national defence because it 
is a question that should be solely de- 
pendent on one consideration which we 
are competent to discuss. This is not 
our coast line, our wealth, our popula- 
tion or our armaments. It is our danger 
— not Belgium's or Switzerland's dan- 
ger, but our danger. The men in Wash- 
ington who have been summoned to bend 
their energies on the problem of defence 
are asked to consider, not what is 
America's danger but "what the navy 
must be in the future to stand upon an 
equality with the most efficient and most 
practically serviceable." What that 
means as to size, I know not. If it 
means to ask what is needed to make 
our navy equal to Great Britain's, cer- 
tainly it would mark an amazing depar- 
ture in policy from all previous history 
and this is hardly likely. 

Technical questions must be left to 
experts. But the primary question that 
ought to decide the amount and kind of 
defence is one which the intelligent citi- 
zen who has traveled, who has an inter- 
national mind and is not biased by mili- 
tary predilections, is best fitted to study. 
The last man who can impartially judge 
what is our danger is he who has given 
his chief attention for years to the 



technique of war. In proportion as he 
has knowledge of explosives, physics 
and engineering, is he usually unable to 
jud^e psychological problems or to 
recognize the power of non-military de- 
fences. He may easily gauge our equip- 
ment by that of other nations, but he has 
less power than most to estimate the 
fears and ambitions of foreign cabinets 
and of the germs of revolt among the 
masses, which are primary factors in 
considering danger and safety. 

Let us welcome the advent of scien- 
tific experts to make more efficient and 
less costly the armaments that we now 
have. They ought greatly to lessen the 
preposterous expense which has made 
our war and war budgets out of all pro- 
portion to results. 

At this stage, while some of us be- 
lieve it would be perfectly safe to begin 
reduction, the majority of us will ask 
for nothing more than our usual war 
and navy budgets without increase, ex- 
cept in small degree of our army which 
should be kept merely for police. I, for 
one, believe that our navy budget should 
be so expended as to increase those 
measures which are purely defensive 
and to lessen those that are offensive. 
The power of the submarine and the 
prospective power of still less costly 
sea weapons give us promise of com- 
plete security from invasion if we multi- 
ply them with the large sums hitherto 
devoted to battleships. Before the war 
we were spending 67 per cent of our 
federal income on war past and future, 
while Germany spent 55 per cent, Japan 
45. and France and England 35 per 
cent. 

Says Herbert Quick : 

"At the moment, sea power is func- 
tioning just as the galleys functioned at 
the battle of Lepanto, for perhaps the 
last time. The submarine is the nega- 
tion of sea power. It creates a uni- 
versal stalemate at sea. It can pre- 
vent the transport of troops by water, 
thus putting an end to conquests. It 
makes peace at sea the only practicable 
thing. Defence is made perfectly prac- 
ticable against overseas expeditions 
everywhere." 

Nikola Tesla declares that "we can 
maintain peace for ourselves and help 
to maintain it for the world by adopting 
radically different methods from those 
that have so signally failed in Europe" 
and he prophesies that in the near 
future we shall have adequate defence 
by wireless control of crewless vessels. 
Let us peace workers encourage the 
development of this type of defence for 
the hypothetic foe whose ghost is scar- 
ing our American public. Let us waste 
no more taxes on $15,000,000 battle- 
ships. 

Let us challenge the mad cry that we 
have "only two alternatives," one a regu- 
lar army five to ten times as great as 
we have now or an equally great reserve 
army with military training for all boys. 
There need be no such alternatives. 



The danger to this country from the 
psychological effect of required military 
training upon millions of youths far 
outweighs in loss the increased cost of 
time and money involved. Every youth 
will believe that, whereas there was no 
need for this before the war, something 
has happened now to necessitate an 
utter change of policy. A citizen army 
will be needless for us as it has been 
necessary for little Switzerland sur- 
rounded by old enemies a yard across 
her border-line. A citizen army or a 
great regular army will enormously in- 
crease our spirit of suspicion and fear 
which is one of the primary causes of 
war. It will be bound to fill the minds 
of youth with false theories that war is 
inevitable, that government is based on 
force, and that new substitutes for war 
are negligible. No such results will 
come from increased coast defences of 
the type referred to, which should be 
our sole reliance against a hypothetic 
invasion. 

Justioe to the Orient 

In addition to a more effective, though 
not more costly, naval defence, we 
should demand that such justice be done 
to the Orient as shall undermine any ill 
feeling which now exists and remove 
one of the possible causes of serious 
friction. Federal control of aliens and 
righteous readjustment of some of our 
international relations with China and 
Japan are measures which, if advocated 
by the Pacific coast, would be supported 
by a unanimous nation. Our primary 
thought must be not arbitration, or ad- 
justment, but prevention. It was upon 
this matter of prevention that Elihu 
Root instructed the delegates to the 
second Hague congress to lay their em- 
phasis. Tbere is where emphasis must 
always be put. War will come until 
causes of war are removed. The prob- 
lem of our relations to the Orient is 
quite as serious as that of our relations 
to Europe. 

Why multiply military defence to 
protect us against ill-will that can be 
absolutely wiped out by act of congress ? 
For years, the clamor about evil de- 
signs from Japan has been created by 
a few vicious interests which have de- 
luded many timid citizens. The wanton, 
wicked talk of war has had no valid 
foundation and has done infinite harm. 
It is time for every patriot to demand 
that it shall end, that we cease to talk 
about the "mastery of the Pacific" as 
if any one of eleven nations bordering 
on this great highway of the world 
could be its "masters." It is time to 
plan to neutralize the Philippines and 
to grant them independence in the very 
near future and thus remove our great- 
est cause of apprehension and a source 
of expense not profit. This need not 
mean withdrawing benevolent, unofficial 
influence. The Philippines will doubt- 
less welcome paid advisers as do larger 
Oriental nations. It would mean no 



92 



The Survey, October 23, 1915 



shirking of obligation. It would enable 
us to lessen our navy about one-half and 
thus encourage less militarism among 
our poorer neighbors across the Pacific 
who for every battleship that could 
match ours most by so much deprive 
themselves of the bare necessities of 
education and internal development. 

Now is our glorious opportunity to 
help save the forward looking masses 
of Asia from taking the path which has 
led to Europe's agony. Now is our 
blessed opportunity to help China de- 
velop, not costly armaments beyond such 
coast defences as have been referred to, 
but to develop science and capital. It is 
lack of these, not lack of a fleet that 
has made her the object of aggression. 

The Pacific coast can do no greater 
service to humanity than to take instant 
action to persuade congressmen this 
winter to present bills which cover a 
just, impartial treatment of those mat- 
ters in which we as a strong nation 
dealing with less privileged ones have 
acted sometimes ungenerously and even 
shamefully. Two methods are open to 
us in dealing with the aggrieved. We 
may multiply the numerator of defence 
or we may divide the denominator of 
danger. The security in each case will 
be the same but removing danger often 
costs no more than a government's 
pledge, while multiplying the defence 
not only brings crushing taxation but 
creates suspicion and rivalry. Should 
the third Hague conference neutralize 
the Latin republics and render needless 
our Monroe doctrine, it would be the 
best guarantee against attack. 

For the first time in history, we hold 
an International Peace Congress where 
men and women stand on a political 
equality. As I look at you, enfranchised 
women of this glorious free west, I cry 
out to you in earnest supplication. You 
have more power than the men of this 
great state. You may, like them, guide 
your congressmen to deal rightly with 
our relations to the Orient, but in addi- 
tion, you mothers and teachers are shap- 
ing the thought that may lead to a re- 
generated world. The youth of today 
must know vastly more than his father 
was ever taught if he is to cope with 



the perplexing new problems that con- 
front a world which will soon try to re- 
build half demolished civilization. 
Whether it shall retrace its steps or ad- 
vance depends largely on the one great 
world power that is not hopelessly em- 
bittered and in debt. What that power 
will do may depend largely upon preju- 
dices or the wisdom of American 
womanhood. Hitherto most of our 
great bodies of organized women have 
been largely silent, either apathetic or 
too timid to take a stand. While ab- 
horring war, they have yielded to the 
clamor for armaments with about the 
same emotion and credulity as men. 
The Woman's Peace Party and the 
noble band of women who braved the 
danger of the sea and went to meet 
their sisters from twelve different na- 
tions at The Hague have perceived the 
significance of this solemn crisis and 
woman's great opportunity to help turn 
the nations from the path to the abyss. 

They appeal to you to begin at once a 
campaign of education. Teach a for- 
getful public that one nation with its 
great oceans, its 4,000 miles of safe 
Canadian frontier, its thirty treaties of 
delay before hostilities, has unprece- 
dented non-military defence that must 
not be minimized. Teach it that a 
great, new force can soon be brought 
to bear which may be vastly more potent 
than short-lived, costly armaments. 

This is the force of concentrated, 
drastic non-intercourse. It is the boy- 
cott, the one weapon which even China 
single-handed has used with some effect 
though spasmodically and unsupported 
by the government. This method, when 
used by a league of nations to ensure 
peace, would be backed by international 
law and would cut off from any faith- 
less nation not only all intercourse by 
wire, wireless, railroad and shipping, 
but would cancel passports, patents, 
copyrights and would impose subse- 
quently heavier custom duties and pun- 
ish a nation as none has yet been pun- 
ished. This method of making anathema 
a recalcitrant until he yields to justice 
is the sole method of force advocated 
by the New Testament. It is worth 
trying as a powerful and bloodless com- 



pulsion since armaments have failed. 

We women may well study such sub- 
stitutes for war at our club sessions, 
even if folk-dancing and bird lore and 
some other things have to be omitted. 
During this period of uncourageous 
scare, when men assume that German 
invasion may follow this war, let us 
teach sanity in our households and re- 
mind its members that a possibly victori- 
ous Germany would have buried or 
maimed two million of its best men and 
would have no men left to hold down 
conquered Belgian, French, Italian and 
British colonies in Africa. It would 
not fight for South America within any 
time for which we need now to pre- 
pare increased equipment. Let not the 
nation that, when this war is over will 
be vastly the most resourceful in the 
world, continue this disgraceful terror 
about a Germany which would be over- 
run by defeated foes the week it sent its 
soldiers beyond sea. Let our women 
save us from being overcome by the 
mob spirit that threatens our republic. 

We all believe in God and know that 
reason must finally triumph, but we can- 
not look with tolerance at retrograde 
movement which will compel weak peo- 
ples to sacrifice bread for bullets and 
may eventually foment a world war far 
more colossal even than this European 
war. In the vast starry heavens our 
tiny planet with its throbbing human 
hearts is but a speck, and to the Al- 
mighty Father a thousand years are but 
a day, but to us children of time, our 
capacity for anguish seems infinite. 
Blindly to multiply now the certainty of 
more anguish and moral degradation, to 
throw our leadership away even though 
we believe that ultimately we should 
climb back out of the abyss and retrace 
our steps to where we now stand, can 
give little consolation to those of us 
who must pass on soon and who will 
not pass this way again. 

Let us courageously insist that no 
fatal backward step shall be permitted 
by our beloved land. Let America's 
womanhood with one voice call upon 
our republic to rise to its opportunity 
and lead the world in the new path to- 
ward federation, justice, peace. 




C . \ r PREPAREDNESS 

Tw<> cartoons representative of the atti- 
tude of a large proportion of the daily 
press. 

"To keep the peace," May in the I leve- 

land Leader. 

"Tlie Awakening of Rip Van Winkle," 

Donahey in the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 







•&M*? 






Social Agencies 



93 



Social Agencies 



THE local jail has long consti- 
tuted the entire process of 
treatment of the misdemeananr. 
It is his place of temporary de- 
tention, his abode while awaiting trial, 
his prison after sentence; it is his 
school, the haunt of his leisure hours, 
the place where most of his thinking 
is done, and too often it is his church. 
The jail is still doing a big business. 
The federal census shows that on Jan- 
uary 1, 1910, 32 per cent of the popu- 
lation of penal institutions were in 
county and municipal jails and work- 
houses. Worse still, 91.5 per cent of 
all prisoners committed during 1910 
were sent to these local institutions. 
Between 1904 and 1910 the total number 
enumerated in local prisons mere than 
doubled, and the number committed dur- 
ing twelve months more than quadru- 
pled. 

It is no longer necessary to prove 
that the jail is "an agency of vice and 
a school of crime." Certain general 
principles with respect to its adminis- 
tration have already been pretty well 
developed and emphasized. These re- 
late chiefly to security, cleanliness, food, 
moral supervision, classification of pris- 
oners, abolition of the fee system, state 
inspection and standardizing of jail 
rules and of specifications for construc- 
tion and repairs. 

These principles have not been part 
of a conscious social policy in the treat- 
ment of the misdemeanant. Until quite 
recently there has been no such policy. 
Within the past decade, however, newer 
ideals have come into prominence. To- 
day jail reform is one aspect of the 
problem of the petty offender. Let us 
see what these newer ideals include : 

I. Methods involving a change in the 
plan of incarceration. 

(a) State penal farms. Perhaps the 
most revolutionary and practical pro- 
posal for the cure of the jail evil is that 
prisoners sentenced for any but the 
briefest terms be sent to state farms. 
The plan has developed out of success- 
ful experiments in outdoor work for 
convicts, and of the removal of munici- 
pal houses of correction to the coun- 
try, beginning with Cleveland and Kan- 
sas City. A state farm for male misde- 
meanants 16 to 21 years of age is in 
process of establishment in New York. 
In Indiana 1,605 acres have been pur- 
chased for a state institution for mis- 
demeanants, and the construction of 
buildings has been begun. In other 
states movements are growing for the 
establishment of state farms for minor 
offenders. The creation of institutions 
of this character is the practically unan 



The Jail and the 
Misdemeanant 1 



By 

William T. Cross 

GENERAL SECRETARY NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF 
CHARITIES AND CORRECTION 



Digest of a paper read before the Amer- 
ican Prison Association at Oakland, Cal.. 
this month. 



imous desire of reformers in this field 
in the leading states. 

(b) Payments to prisoners in the na- 
ture of wages. This principle has been 
approved by the International Prison 
Congress as of interest to the state, the 
object being the support of the prison- 
er's dependents and their rehabilitation. 
Payments to convicts are optional with 
prison authorities in a number of states, 
and the way seems clear for the adop- 
tion of the principle with respect to the 
misdemeanant class. In the administra- 
tion of the Kansas City municipal farm 
up to $1 a day may be allowed the fam- 
ily of any prisoner, according to its 
needs as revealed by direct investiga- 
tion. 

(c) Revision of sentence. The prin- 
ciple of systematic revision of sentences 
on the basis of more complete knowl- 
edge of the criminal and of his action 
subsequent to conviction has been estab- 
lished through the success of the inde- 
terminate sentence acts. The principle 
needs yet to be extended to the misde- 
meanant class. 

(d) Habitual offender acts. A recent 
study at Springfield, 111., shows that 45 
per cent oi those convicted in the city 
courts are repeaters. The desirability 
of a plan of sentence and treatment 
which takes into consideration the repe- 
tition of offenses is generally conceded. 
The British Parliament in 1908, after 
protracted attention had been given the 
subject, passed the prevention of crime 
act, under which it is possible to add 
from five to ten years to the sentences 
of recidivists, and a special preventive 
detention camp is now being completed 
on the Isle of Wight. 

(e) Educational work and mental ex- 
amination. The brevity of sentences of 
misdemeanants and the distracting cir- 
cumstances under which school work 
would have to be conducted are obsta- 
cles in the way of formal educational 
work. But such examples as that of 
the Baltimore city jail, where a school 
has been operated successfully for sev- 



eral years, cannot be ignored. Both 
school work and classification within the 
institution should be based on thorough 
mental examination of every prisoner. 
The work of the Juvenile Psychopathic 
Institute of Chicago and the establish- 
ment of the Research Department of the 
Chicago House of Correction point the 
way to the establishment generally of 
such bureaus as part of the public equip- 
ment for the treatment of misdemean- 
ants. 

II. Methods involving supervision un- 
der conditional liberation. 

(a) Adult probation. Adult proba- 
tion laws have been adopted in twenty- 
three states. The experience of proba- 
tion authorities has turnished some of 
our most illuminating information on the 
character and problems of prisoners in 
local jails, and their activities have 
brought about some of our best remedial 
legislation. In Cook county, Illinois 
(which includes Chicago) during the 
first three years' operation of the adult 
probation law the earnings of probation- 
ers amounted to over $1,000,000. 

(b) Parole. Supervision on the basis 
of conditional pardon from penal insti- 
tutions, a method that has met with un- 
deniable success in many states when 
applied to felons, has lately begun to be 
adopted for misdemeanants. It is not 
uncommon at municipal workhouses. A 
successful instance appears in Onondaga 
county, New York. 

( c ) Out-work for local prisoners. It 
is quite common for local prisoners to 
be used on road work. The Wisconsin 
Legislature of 1913 passed a law requir- 
ing that the sheriff should hire out the 
prisoners in the county jail and that he 
should supervise their employment, turn- 
ing over their earnings, to the extent of 
$1 a day, to their dependents, in case 
there are any. Though the law has not 
met with universal success, it is in op- 
eration in twenty-one counties, and the 
results seem to be commendable. One 
county reports turning over more than 
$6,000 to the dependents of prisoners. 

(d) Honor system. Although there 
has not been the opportunity to build 
upon the trustworthiness of prisoners in 
case of misdemeanants that there has 
been in case of felons, occasions for it 
seem to increase with the employment 
of prisoners in larger numbers, as on 
municipal or state farms. 

( e ) Restitution. An outstanding evil 
of the present system of criminal proced- 
ure is the fact that the punishment of 
the offender does not include reparation 
to the injured party. The possibility of 
reform in this respect seems reasonable. 
This end is being attained informally 
through the operation of the adult pro- 
bation laws. Massachusetts reports the 
collection of restitution money aggre- 
gating $10,000 annually, and Cook coun- 
ty, Illinois, more than $8,000. 

(f) Change in system of commitment 
for fines. One of the most abhorrent 
features persisting in our system of 
treatment of petty criminals is that of 
imprisonment in lieu of payment of fines. 
In the study at Sprinfigeld, 111., it was 
found that 29 ner cent of those fined 
actually paid the penalty \vith prison 
service. Unless graded according to the 
ability of the offender to pay, fining is 



94 



The Survey, October 23, 1915 




A T0UC HIM, 



Oh Mill) in Cli VCltlllil i 0. I l.railt 
STREET S ENE 



a poor means of attaining justice ; and in 
case of certain classes, like prostitutes, 
it serves merely as a licensing system. 
The International Prison Congress has 
advocated that fines be made payable in 
installments or on public work. An en- 
couraging sign is the collection of $28.- 
000 annually on fines through the oper- 
ation of the adult probation law in 
Massachusetts. 

II. Rehabilitation of the offender. 

(a) Special treatment for special 
classes. With such abundant evidence 
that the jail is in no way a curative of 
the evils with which it deals, we should 
not continue to use it as a cure-all for a 
great variety of ills, for which, for the 
most part, other institutions and modes 
of treatment have already been estab- 
lished. In most communities it is still 
common to find the jail the chief means 
of handling inebriates, vagrants, cases 
of wife desertion and non-support, pros- 
titutes, and even the feebleminded. 

(b) Co-operation with community 
agencies. Only an imaginary line sepa- 
rates the social problems of dependence, 
defectiveness and delinquency. The 
agencies which deal with these three 
evils should, therefore, be closely inter- 
woven in matters of practical adminis- 
tration. Juvenile courts, playgrounds, 
homes for discharged prisoners, associ- 
ated charities, societies for the reforma- 
tion of drunkards, boards of health, and 
a great number of other agencies are 
likely to be as definitely focussed on the 
problem of crime as any penal institu- 
tion the state may establish. 

(c) Case work. One of the greatest 
contributions made to the science of so- 
cial betterment is the method of case 
work developed in the charity organi- 
zation societies. Whatever be the na- 
ture of the maladjustment through which 
the offender is finally committed to 



prison, the prime need is for some 
agency to undertake to see through to 
the end the process of his rehabilitation. 
Whether as leader or as co-operator, the 
penal institution ought definitely to take 
part in this process. 

IV. Improvement in the process pre- 
liminary to conviction. 

( a ) Psychopathic study. Recent 
studies of the feebleminded delinquent. 
the establishment of bureaus of psycho- 
pathic research in connection with courts 
and penal institutions, with such results 
as the production of Dr. William Healy's 
revolutionary work, The Individual De- 
linquent, may be regarded as heralds of 
the ultimate establishment of the princi- 
ple of psychopathic study as a basis of 
judgment and treatment of criminals. 

il>) Reforms in legal procedure and 
police administration. The report of the 
so-called Merriam Crime Commission in 
Chicago this year depicts in a convinc- 
ing way the almost hopeless tangle of 
outgrown legal forms and bad police 
practices at the basis of the crime that 
heads up in the local jails. The Spring- 
field survey revealed the fact that only 
34 per cent of those arrested finally paid 
penalties. The whole program of re- 
form of legal procedure, the reorganiza- 
tion of court systems on the basis of 
modern principles of administrative 
efficiency, such sensible arrangement as 
is common in England for the appear- 
ance of a large percentage of petty of- 
fenders on summons without the incon- 
venience and disgrace of incarceration, 
the matter of police reform which now- 
adays is so commonly discussed, the 
maintenance of comprehensive schemes 
of registration and identification of crim- 
inals and other classes — these ami simi- 
lar practical measures are definitely in- 
volved in the modern system of treat- 
ment of misdemeanants. 



V. Supervision. 

( a ) State supervision and control. The 
principle of state control of the treat- 
ment of misdemeanants is clear, for 
crimes are committed against the state. 
As was impressed forcefully on the 
Washington meeting of the Interna- 
tional Prison Congress, our best pros- 
pect lies in the direction of improve- 
ment of state supervision and extension 
of direct state control of local jails. A 
permanent policy of this kind would fa- 
cilitate in many ways the adoption and 
operation of principles enumerated in 
this report, would establish confidence 
and respect on the part of the people 
in the effectiveness of penal adminis- 
tration and increase the respect of 
would-be criminals for the law, and 
probably would result in huge financial 
saving. 

(b) Statistics. The meagerness and 
useless quality of statistics of misde- 
meanants in America is notorious. In 
contrast. o:.e reviews with admiration 
the comprehensive and telling figures of 
the English Prison Commission and of 
authorities in other countries. 

In considering its effects on the local 
jail problem, the system here suggested 
should be taken as a whole. The prin- 
ciple of punishment is not eliminated 
from the new system, but rather is it 
made more effective. The tendency is 
on one hand, toward continual super- 
vision of the criminally-inclined under 
the circumstances of ordinary life, and 
treatment of certain types by specialized 
institutions and agencies; and. on the 
other hand, toward a reorganization of 
the plan of penal treatment for those who 
must be incarcerated. The local jail is 
left virtualh a place of detention only, 
and that elusive ideal of our penology, 
separate confinement for the unconvict- 
ed prisoner, i- brought a step nearer. 

THREE YEARS OF A CENTRAL 
SOCIAL COUNCIL 

Three years' work of the Cen- 
tral Council of Social Agencies of St. 
Louis. including preliminary reports 
prepared in the general local survey of 
social work being made as a basis for 
new standard-, is set forth in a report 
just issued. 

For several years the council was ac- 
tive in legislative matters as well as in 
co-roperation between organizations, but 
that activity has recently been turned 
over to the Social Service Conference 
because a i^roup composed of individuals 
can act more freely and quickly on legis- 
lative propositions than a group of dele- 
gates from organizations. The work is 
set forth under the heads of Survey and 
Standards. Special Investigations, 
operative Relations. Charitable and Phil- 
anthropic Betterment and Legislation. 

The report shows that there are ap- 
proximately 140 social service organi- 
zations in St. Louis maintained by vol- 
untary contributions to the amount oi 
$1,500,000 annually. The Central Coun- 
cil is composed of representatives ol 56 
associations and 21 individual members. 
It co-operates closely with the Charities 
Committee of the Business Men'- 
League, an endorsement body. J. Lion- 
berger l>.i\is is chairman and \. W. 

lone-. Ir.. -( cretan . 



Votes by Women 



95 



VOTES BY WOMEN 

[Continued from page 87.] 

The change in election day, due not 
only to the presence of women at the 
polls but to the use of schoolhouses as 
polling places, is noted from many cities 
and perhaps most tersely put by Prof. 
Guido H. Marks of Leland Stanford 
University : "A neighbor's gardener 
complains, 'Election day ain't what it 
was. It's been all shot to pieces.' He 
was human in his feeling about the loss 
of privilege. But elections now are a 
sort of civic holiday." 

That women are studying government 
and thrashing out election issues in a 
thorough way is evident from the many 
references to study clubs, classes and 
civic leagues. These, says Arthur H. 
Briggs of Los Gatos, "have been formed 
in almost every large town in the state." 

L. E. Blochman of Berkeley sends a 
copy of the state primary election laws 
to be voted on this fall and points out 
that a comparative table is quoted from 
the California Civic League, made up 
entirely of women. The copy of the 
laws, which is issued by the secretary 
of state, states that the league's table "is, 
of course, prepared from an entirely 
neutral standpoint and presents a very 
excellent comparison of these two laws." 

The very real part which women are 
playing in public affairs is widely noted 
and may be summarized in this sentence 
from Vinnie C. Hicks, clinical psycholo- 
gist of the Oakland schools: "Interest 
in all public questions has increased al- 
most beyond belief." "As a long time 
teacher of history and civics," says Sara 
L. Dole of Los Angeles, "I see a change 
in the attitude of the boys. As to the 
teaching itself, it has all the difference 
between discussion of a theory and train- 
ing for a vocation." 

That woman suffrage, however, stakes 
its chief claim to something much 
broader than laws passed, reforms 
achieved or rascals turned out, is wit- 
nessed in a striking number of Califor- 
nia letters. The feeling is well put by 
Katharine C. Watson of Pasadena : 
"My own experience [in three cities] 
makes me feel very strongly that the ex- 
tension of the suffrage to woman is a 
progressive measure of enormous and 
far-reaching educational value not only 
to women but to the whole race. This 
may seem an extravagant statement of 
too large a hope, but the removal of an 
artificial restriction from one-half of any 
population by which thousands of per- 
sons are encouraged to exercise facul- 
ties hitherto unused appears to me to 
be a measure of such importance as to 
justify these great expectations. For 
I see in woman suffrage, as many do, no 
panacea for political ills nor even a sure 
means toward a tangible and definite 
end, but a step forward in a never-end- 
ing movement by which the whole race 
may be strengthened and improved be- 
cause the whole must benefit by what- 



ever benefits the half of all mankind 
who are women." 



Idaho 



DRESIDEXT MELVIN A. BRAX- 
NON of the University of Idaho be- 
lieves in suffrage "because it distributes 
the responsibility of government and 
civic control over all classes of intelli- 
gent people." It has not. he believes, 
"particularly affected the situation as to 
social legislation in Idaho, where manu- 
facturing interests are of small im- 
portance at present," but its effect has 
been notable "in reference to educa- 
tional offices, such as county and state 
superintendents of public instruction." 

President W. J. Boone of the College 
of Idaho is for it as "reasonable, just, 
practical, good results." Its effects on 
his town, Caldwell, are "no saloons, no 
gambling, fine schools, good libraries, 
civic clubs, a clean town." 

O. J. Langston of Xampa credits 
women voters with the nine-hour law 
for women and the law granting women 
the right to own and dispose of property 
independently of their husbands. "Cour- 
age," he says, "has been placed in the 
backbone of the politician who desired to 
do the right thing; restraint has been 
placed on the man who was not exactly 
straight, and the notoriously bad man 
has no doubt been prevented from seek- 
ing office in many instances." 

Caroline Witman Gilfillan, writing as 
a newcomer to the state, finds that "the 
farmers' wives, who are my neighbors, 
as well as the farmers themselves seem 
very much at home as voters. I can 
see no real difference in that respect be- 
tween the women and the men. It seems 
to me that both are in need here as else- 
where of enlightenment, but I do notice 
that there is a more lively interest in 
local matters than there was amongst 
our neighbors in Washington, D. C, 
where all were disfranchised alike. My 
husband and I cast our votes together." 

Kansas 

QUITE in contrast to Governor Cap- 
per's careful statement in another 
column, President J. B. Hobson, of the 
Paola Library Board, sends this engag- 
ing quotation: 

"They talk about a woman's sphere as though 
it had a limit : 
There's not a place in earth or heaven, 
There's not a task to mankind given, 
There's not a blessing or a woe. 
There's not a whisper, yes or no 
Thert's not a life, or death, or birth. 
That has a feather's weight of worth 
Without a woman in it.'' 

Kansas women have had the school 
and municipal franchise for 28 years, but 
the full franchise only since 1912. That, 
and the general progressive trend of the 
state for several generations, are com- 
monly given as reasons for a compara- 
tively small body of social legislation. 
Since 1912, however, women are cred- 
ited with helping pass a minimum wage 
act, establishing a child hygiene depart- 



ment in the state Board of Health, se- 
curing an appropriation for the im- 
provement of birth registration and a 
mothers' pension bill. 

On the general tone and trend of poli- 
tics and on local situations they are 
freely given credit. "The general high 
level of honest and progressive city ad- 
ministration may be credited to a con- 
siderable extent to the participation of 
the women in the municipal franchise in 
this state," writes C. H. Talbott, head 
of the Municipal Reference Library of 
the L T niversity r of Kansas. "This state 
has more commission government cities 
than any other in the country, and our 
municipal ownership results and benefits 
have been notable. Equal suffrage has 
proved its case in this commonwealth." 

"There is a tendency to make the elec- 
tion day cleaner and more open and 
the whole thing becomes more of a com- 
munity affair," is the comment of Guy 
T. Gebhardt. county secretary of the 
Y. M. C. A. at Marion. 

"On all moral questions and in the 
matter of things that are for the better- 
ment of nealth conditions, the women 
have been active, and listened to, when 
heretofore they were largely ignored," 
is the comment of T. F. Garver a law- 
yer of Topeka. That 90 per cent of the 
registered women voted at the municipal 
election of 1913 is the testimony of Sec- 
retary W. S. Hannah of the Kansas 
City Mercantile Club. 

"It has given a tonic to politics; it 
has given keenness and thrust to public 
opinion," writes the Rev. Benjamin 
Young of Topeka. 



Oregon 



\X/"OMEX have voted only two years 
in Oregon, so that, a number of 
correspondents believe, it is too soon 
to expect much state legislation from 
them. Moreover, their ballots are not 
counted separately, so that it is impos- 
sible to say their vote carried this or 
that measure as against the men's. But 
it is agreed by practically all Oregon 
writers that the women actively sup- 
ported state prohibition, abolition of cap- 
ital punishment, mothers' pensions and 
the extension of the minimum wage for 
women and children. 

There is no doubt, writes Frederika 
Van Benschoten, that they carried the 
adoption of commission form of govern- 
ment in Portland. 

Millie R. Trumbull, of the state Child 
Labor Commission, writes: "The sheriff 
in our most populous county was de- 
feated for re-election — admittedly by 
women's votes — because he refused to 
heed their requests for better treatment 
of women prisoners and improved quar- 
ters in tin county jails." 

Robert G. Dieck, commissioner of 
public works in Portland, states: "In 
the recent legislature the insistence of 
women saved from discontinuance a 
home for delinquent girls under 16 



96 



The Survey, October 23, 1915 



years of age, in the face of determined 
opposition by several political factions." 
Further, he says, "Equal suffrage has 
eliminated from public discussion the 
thought of a segregated district, has 
made for a cleaner Police and Munici- 
pal Court and has brought about the em- 
ployment of a public defender." 

"Such mistakes and shortcomings as 
may be charged to their share," says the 
Rev. Frederic Kendall Howard, superin- 
tendent of the Episcopal Social Service 
League, "may be justly brought against 
any new movement and any body of per- 
sons lacking in extensive experience. On 
the other hand, women have brought 
things to pass which the masculine minds 
have long considered hopeless of change." 

This position is warmly seconded by 
President C. J. Bushnell of Pacific Uni- 
versity who, in addition to many specific 
reasons for equal suffrage, believes that 
"the historic progress of democracy 
makes it inevitable, as suggested not 
only by the progress of universal suf- 
frage in the past, but by the spread of 
woman suffrage in the present." 

Chester C. Maxey, assistant professor 
of political science at Oregon Agricul- 
tural College, makes a very practical 
point: "As a teacher of government 
and political science with large classes 
of both men and women, I find that the 
average excellence of the latter is quite 
equal to that of the former and that 
the women invariably evince as intelli- 
gent insight in the discussion of the 
more perplexing problems of govern- 
ment as do the men." 



Washington 



U i T ADIES specially welcome,' — I 
viewed the campaign billboard 
being driven through the streets with an 
inward smile, for I had just arrived from 
New York," writes Mary Frank, libra- 
rian of the Public Library of Everett. 
Wash. "Naturally, I was very much in- 
terested, for I think most New Yorkers 
are, one way or the other — at least, that 
part of the population which reads the 
Times ! 

"I immediately tried to sense public 
opinion on the subject of woman suf- 
frage," continues Miss Frank. "I found 
it was not a topic of particular interest. 
Among the intelligent and thoughtful it 
was regarded as a self-respecting trib- 
ute of men to women, who realize the 
mutual need of each others' support." 

A note of impatience over raising the 
suffrage as an issue runs through many 
of the Washington letters. "Yes. Why 
not? The burden of proof is with the 
negative," writes the Rev. Walter C. 
Jones of Waitsburg. 

"It seems as natural as air or water. 
1 know of no one who desires to re- 
turn to the old way," says the Rev. 
Sydney Strong of Seattle. 

"As a matter of fact," says O. B. 
rhorgrimson, "giving women the vote 
lias had much less effect than most of us, 



who have always been in favor of wom- 
an suffrage, expected it to have." 

Feeling thus, less claim is made for so- 
cial legislation than in some other states 
where the fight to secure suffrage has 
been harder. Nevertheless, women are 
credited with supporting and re-enforc- 
ing the progressive element among the 
men. The state prohibition measure is 
generally credited to them and, says Dr. 
Strong, "our laws in Washington in re- 
gard to women and children are largely 
the result of the initiative on the part 
of our women and the gentle suggestion 
made to the legislators in view of the 
fact that women hold votes." 

On this point, A. R. Gephart, general 
secretary of the Social Service Bureau 
of Spokane, states that "it is a matter 
of considerable pride to most of us that 
48 hours constitute a week's work in our 
department stores and offices and that 
$10 per week is the minimum wage." 

As to local results, the recall of Mayor 
Gill of Seattle and of Mayor Fawcett 
of Tacoma are acknowledged as due to 
women, as is the subsequent re-election 
of Gill on a new kind of platform. "In 
substance his is a reform administra- 
tion," says Paul B. Phillips of Seattle. 

"Woman in politics is not party-fixed ; 
hence the political boss is disappearing, 
especially in city politics," says M. O. 
Roark of Spokane. "Women helped in 
the abolition of open gambling and an 
open town. More thought is given now 
to beauty, wholesome pleasure, clean 
politics, an intellectual interest in civics 
and economics," writes Adella M. Par- 
ker, instructor in economics in the 
Broadway High School of Seattle. 

To sum it up : "Washington would vote 
for equal suffrage with a much larger 
majority today than it did when it be- 
came a law." says E. O. Rice of Prosser. 

Utah 

PHE situation with regard to legisla- 
tion in Utah is stated to be differ- 
ent from that in the other states because 
of the complicating factor of the Mor- 
mon church and because of the compara- 
tively slight need for social legislation. 

As James H. Wolfe, of Salt Lake 
City, puts it: "Some claim that the 
Mormon church (reactionary in ten- 
dency) controls its women. This is, to 
a certain extent true," but "there is cer- 
tainly an inevitable growth to indepen- 
dence of opinion even in the Mormon 
church." Others who discuss this point 
ask that they be not quoted. 

Bishop Paul Jones of Salt Lake Cm 
holds that "equal suffrage is the only 
democratic way to run things"; and 
Supt. E. S. Hinckley, of the state In- 
dustrial School at Ogden, affirms: "It 
has brought the power of the mother in 
the home before the public for good: it 
has given women fewer hours of service 
in the business world at a fair compen- 
sation; it has made for cleaner, more 
Sanitary conditions in cities." 



Arizona 

T N Arizona, correspondents agree, suf- 
frage is still young and on trial. Yet, 
the librarian of the University Library 
at Tucson points out, "The influence of 
the women of Tucson with the public 
officials, in their effective campaign for 
pure milk, was undoubtedly strength- 
ened by their vote." 

Alice Clary of Redington credits 
women with the success of the prohibi- 
tion measure — "I have not met a woman 
who is not proud of having voted for 
prohibition." She has lived in two states 
where women vote "and there seems to 
be little question about it among most 
people after it has been tried. It has 
given a new impulse to better prepara- 
tion for citizenship." 

J. J. Sanders, state parole clerk, be- 
lieves that "world-wide woman suffrage 
would sound forever the death-knell to 
international war, as it would also for- 
ever banish from the earth the general 
use of narcotic poisons." 

Montana 

44 I BELIEVE in woman suffrage be- 
cause woman is a factor of the 
body social," writes Dr. Maria M. Dean 
of Helena. "There is nothing vicarious 
about it. She. herself, must answer the 
call which has been hers since human 
life evolved, viz., to strive not only to 
conserve and protect human life, but to 
help provide the constructive influences 
out of which a sound body social de- 
velops." 

Montana enfranchised its women only 
last November. Dr. Dean reminds us, 
yet last winter's legislature was influ- 
enced by representatives of the women's 
good government leagues to provide 
equal guardianship for children, a child 
aid or mothers' pension law. ami iu le- 
fuse to repeal the juvenile court and 
probation law. against which there was 
an organized attack. 

The Rev. Hugo P. J. Selinger of Dil- 
lon, who has seen woman suffrage at 
work in Washington as well as in Mon- 
tana, believes that the latter will, like 
the former, now "face the social conse- 
quences of the liquor evil in a business- 
like manner." In his own town suffrage 
has already "resulted in a good govern- 
ment club, a chautauqua. an alley move- 
ment, an effort to better moving-pic- 
tures and a healthy sentiment in the 
regulation of saloons and prostitution." 



w 



y 



omin 



g 



TM I K single letter from Wyoming — 
where The Survey's subscription 
list is infinitesimal — is from a librarian 
who asks that her name lie withheld. 
She "lives in a state that has always 
had equal franchise." and cannot, ap- 
parently, think oi arguments for or 
against it as of any more validity than 
arguments for or against riding on trcl- 
lev cars or wearing hairpins. 



Personals 



97 



PERSONALS 



PHE Rev. Daniel Woodward, four 
years warden of the Wisconsin 
state prison at Waupaun, has accept- 
ed the position of superintendent of the 
Montana Society for the Friendless. 
This organization, like those of similar 
name in other states, aims to put on their 
feet paroled or pardoned prisoners, or 
prisoners who have completed their 
terms. Work of this character is com- 
paratively new in Montana. Prisoners 
from Deer Lodge Prison, for example, 
are turned out with only a small sum of 
money and left to their own resources 
in finding employment. Most of them go 
to Butte. In Wisconsin released men 
are transported back to the places from 
which they came. 



J^ABBI RUDOLPH I. COFFEE, of 
the Tree of Life Synagogue, Pitts 
burgh, enters a new field as director of 
the social service work of the Indepen- 
dent Order of the B'nai B'rith with na- 
tional headquarters in Chicago. Dr. 
Coffee is known to readers of The Sur 
vey not only as a frequent contributor 
to its pages, but as one of a militant 
group of younger civic reformers in 
Pittsburgh who put their best energies 
into the charter movement, vice con- 
trol, the development of the school sys- 
tem, housing reform, city planning, and 
the general forward undertakings of the 
period from 1909 to 1913. 

Both because their abilities attracted 
attention elsewhere, and because tbe 
forces of reaction which they dislodged 
ultimately sought, and in some cases se- 
cured, reprisal, Pittsburgh has lost one 
after another of this younger element — 
among them William H. Matthews, for- 
mer head worker of Kingsley House: 
Charles F. Weller, former secretary of 
the Associated Charities; Allen T. 
Burns, former director of the Pitts- 
burgh Civic Commission; Pierce Wil- 
liams, former assistant secretary of the 
Chamber of Commerce; Addie S. Weihl, 
former director of the Columbian school 
and settlement ; Beulah Kennard, for- 
mer president of the Playground Asso- 
ciation, and George E. Johnson, its for- 
mer director. 

Dr. Coffee has shown much ability 
and in more than one instance, notably 
in the vice campaign, his insurgency 
was a force disturbing to some of the 
settled interests of the town. As a di- 
rector of the Pittsburgh and Allegheny 
Milk and Ice Association; chairman of 
the Committee on the Insane of the 
western Pennsylvania branch of the 
Public Charities Association; member 
of the Associated Charities committee 
on municipal lodging house; member of 
the Allegheny County Board of Visita- 
tion ; director of the Allegheny County 
Branch Child Labor Association, he was 
counted upon for vigorous constructive 
work in the social activities of the city. 
It was as a member of the Morals Ef- 
ficency Commission for 1912-13 that he 



carried forward his most vigorous con- 
tribution to the community life, being 
one of the three strong members of that 
body who, at Harrisburg and at the City 
Hall, and no less in Second avenue and 
in the brothel streets in the Hill District 
and Allegheny, set going a work not 
merely of repression but of rehabilita- 
tion and prevention. 

Dr. Coffee is a Californian, a gradu- 
ate of Columbia University, and of the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of New 
York. He left the superintendency of 
the New York Hebrew Orphan Asylum 
in 1905 to become Rabbi of the Tree of 
Life Synagogue of Pittsburgh. There 
for nine years he has welded his con- 
gregational work with work for the 
community. 



JOTTINGS 



By an oversight the credit line was 
omitted from the hygiene charts on page 
53 of The Survey of October 9. These 
charts are from a series prepared bv Dr. 
C.-E. A. Winslow, Division of Public 
Health Education of the New York state 
Department of Health, and should have 
been credited to the state Department of 
Health. 



A recent London letter to the Journal of 
the American Medical Association gives a 
list of fortunes accumulated by patent medi- 
cine men. The proprietor of Eno's fruit 
salts, who died a few months ago, derived 
from his "health-giving, pleasant, cooling, 
refreshing, gentle and safe" mixture, a total 
of $8,000,000; the Hon. George Taylor Ful- 
ford, proprietor of Dr. Williams' pink pills, 
$6,500,000; Alfred B. Scott, of Scott's 
emulsion, $850,000; Thomas Beecham, of 
Beecham's pills, a modest $400,000. 



Two hundred copies of Franz Schneider, 
Jr.'s Survey of the Public Health Situation 
in Ithaca — an investigation carried on by 
the Department of Surveys and Exhibits of 
the Russell Sage Foundation for a local 
group of citizens under the chairmanship 
of Professor Willcox — are being distributed 
by the New York State Department of 
Health. This is by suggestion of Dean E. 
A. Woodruff of the Cornell College of Law 
who held that the report would inspire like 
surveys of other towns. 



A warning letter against "a concern 
known as the Bureau of Social Service In- 
formation with headquarters in New York," 
which publishes "the Social Service Re- 
view," has been issued by a meeting of de- 
nominational secretaries connected with the 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 
in America. The letter states that "this 
publication does not represent either the ac- 
tivities or the spirit and purpose of the 
denominational social service agencies con- 
nected with the commission. ... Its 
statements concerning them have not been 
accurate. The denominational secretaries 
have been unable to locate either its finan- 
cial or other responsibilities, and have been 
unable, after diligent search, to obtain any 
knowledge whatever as to the person or 
persons who may be operating the organi- 
zation." The warning is issued by the Fed- 
eral Council Commission and the secretaries 
of the Baptist, Congregational, Methodist, 
Presbyterian and Protestant Episcopal so- 
cial service organizations. 



PAMPHLETS 



War Prices in Canada. A review of the pric 'S 
situation since the outbreak of war. — Somn 
interesting Tabular Statements. Reprinted 
from the Labour Gazette. Issued by the au- 
thority of the minister of labour, Department 
of Labour, Canada. 



Preliminary Report of the Health Survey 
<>f El Paso. By Jessie P. Rich and B. I.. 
Amies. M.D. Housing Health Survey. By 
■Tos. H. Grossman. Survey under the au- 
spices nf El Paso Chamber of Commerce, 
Texas. 



Next Steps in Dealing with Prostitution. 
By Abraham Flexner. Reprinted from Social 
Hygiene, American Social Hvgiene Associa- 
tion. Inc., 105 West 40 Street, New York. 



The Feeble-Minded: the Need of Research. 
By Amos W. Butler, secretary. Board of 
State Charities of Indiana. No. 37. National 
Conference of Charities and Correction, 315 
Plymouth Court, Chicago. 



Official Outdoor Relief and the State. By 
Amos W. Butler, secretary Board of StatV 
Charitii's of Indiana. No. 38. National 
Conference of Charities and Correction, 315 
Plymouth Court, Chicago. 



charity Organization Statistics. Report of 
the Committee on Statistics of the American 
Association of Societies for Organizing 
Charity, Price 10 cents. Charity Organiza- 
tion Department, Russell Sage "Foundation, 
130 East 22 Street, New York city. 



Fifty. Benevolent and Social Institutions 
in and near New York. A brief guide for 
visitors. By Mary Grace Worthington. 
l'rice 25 cents. The Now York School of 
Philanthropy, 105 East 22 Street, New York 
city. 



sickness in Ddtchess County, New York 
Its extent, care and prevention. September. 
1015. No. 136. By Committee on Hospitals. 
State Charities Aid Association, 105 Hast 2'J 
Street. Thomas Thompson Trust, 60 State 
St iict. Boston. 



Ki port of Cases under the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act, Determined on Appeal, by 
the Supreme Judicial Court. Bulletin No. 
12. April 1, 1915 to May 20, 1915. inelus 
ive. Massachusetts Industrial Accident 
Board. State Printers, 32 Derne Street. 
Boston. 



Five Playlets. By Hester Donaldon Jenkins. 
Written for the Department of Social Better- 
ment, Bureau of Charities, 09 Schermerhorn 
Street, Brooklyn, New York. l'rice 25 cents. 



Intraspinal Administration of Antitoxin in 
Tetanus. By Matthias Nicoll, Jr., M.D. 
Department of Health, corner Center and 
Walker Streets, New Y'ork city. Reprinted 
from the Journal of the American Medical 
Association. 



Radium in the Light of Recent Discovery, 
radium and rejuvenescence. By Paul I'iirn 
sen, 301 Tennessee Ave., N.E., Washington, 
D. C. Price 25 cents. 



Venereal Diseases. By Louis Chargin. M.D., 
chief of the division of venereal diseases. 
Reprint series. No. 33. August, 1915. De- 
partment of Health, corner Center and Walk- 
er Streets. New York city. 



Food Regulations of the Department of 
Health. Reprint series, No. 31. July, 191.".. 
Department of Health, corner of Center and 
Walker Streets, New York city. 



The Mosquito as a Pest and as a Carrier of 
Malaria. By the Bureau of Preventable Dis- 
eases and the Sanitary Bureau. Reprint 
series, No. 34. August, 1915. Department 
of Health, corner Center and Walker Streets, 
New York city. 



Are Women a Force for Good Government? 
An analysis of the returns in the recent 
municipal election in Chicago. By Kdith 
Abbott, associate director, Chicago School 
of Civics and Philanthropy, 2559 Michigan 
Avenue. Chicago. Reprinted from National 
Municipal Review, 



98 



The Survey, October 23, 1915 





CALENDAR OF 
CONFERENCES 





INFORMATION DESK 

The following na'.ional bodies will gladly and freely supply information and advise reading on the subjects 
named by each and on related subjects. Members are kept closely in touch with the work which each organi- 
zation is doing, but membership is not required ot those seeking information. Correspondence is invited. Always 
enclose postage for reply. 



Items for the next Calendar should 
reach The Survey before November w. 

OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER 

Blindness, National Committee for the 
Prevention of. First annual meeting. 
New York city, November 4. Sec'v, Miss 
Carolyn C. Van Blarcom. 130 East 22d 
Street, New York. 

Charities and Correction. Iowa State 
Conference of. Waterloo. Iowa, Novem- 
ber 21-23. Sec'y, P. S. Peirce, Iowa City. 

Charities and Correction. Kentucky State 
Conference of. Lexington, Ky.. Novem- 
ber 4-5. Sec'y, Mr. Charles Strull, 531 
S. First Street, Louisville, Ky. 

Charities and Correction, New York 
State Conference of. Albanv, N. Y., 
Nov. 16-18. Sec'y, Richard W. Wallace, 
Box 17. Albany, N. Y. 

Child Welfare, Annual Conference of. 
Dallas, Texas, Oct. 26-28. Conducted by 
Texas Congress of Mothers and Parent- 
Teachers' Associations. Pres., Mrs. F. 
W. McAllister, San Antonio, Texas. 

Consumers' League, National. Sixteenth 
annual meeting. Cleveland, O., Novem- 
ber 4-5. General Sec'}, Mrs. Florence 
Kelley, 6 East 39th Street. New York. 

Humane Association, American. St. Au- 
gustine. Fla., November 8-11. Sec'y, Na- 
thaniel J. Walker, Albany. N. Y. 

Infant Mortality, American Association 
for the Study and Prevention of. Sixth 
annual meeting. Philadelphia, November 
10-12. Executive Sec'y, Miss Gertrude B. 
Knipp, 1211 Cathedral Street, Baltimore. 

Municipal League, National. Dayton, O., 
November 17-19. Sec'y, Clinton Rogers 
Woodruff, North American Building, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Municipalities, League of Texas. Green- 
ville. Texas, November 11-12. 

Probation Officers, New York State Con- 
ference of. Albany, N. Y.. November 
14-16. Sec'y, Charles L. Chute, State 
Probation Commission, Albany, N. Y. 

Social Hygiene, Central States Conference 
on. Held under the auspices of the 
American Social Hygiene Association. 
Chicago, 111., October 25-26. Field Sec'v, 
Walter Clarke, 1949 Peoples Gas Bldg., 
Chicago, 111. 

Tuberculosis, North Atlantic Conference 
on. Held in conjunction with the New- 
York State Conference on Tuberculosis. 
Albany, N. Y., November 4-5. Further 
information may be secured by address- 
ing the National Association for the 
Studv and Prevention of Tuberculosis. 
105 E. 22d Street, New York. 

LATBR MBETINGS! 

National 

Marketing and Farm Credits, National 

Conference on. Chicago, 111., November 

29-December 2. Sec'y, Charles W. Hol- 

man. 230 South La Salle Street. Chicago. 

State and Local 

Social Agencies, California State Confer- 
ence of. Los Angeles. Cal.. May 1-5, 
1916. Sec'y, Stuart A. Queen, 533 Plielan 
Building, San Francisco, Cal. 

Social Welfare, Missouri Conference for. 
Marshall, Mo., November 14-16. Sec'y, 
Oscar Leonard, 901 Carr Street, St. Louis. 

Sociological Congress, Southern. New 
Orleans, La.. March 27-:;o. 1916. Sec'y, 
J. E. McCulloch, Nashville. Term. 



Health 



SEX HYGIENE — Society of Sanitary and 
Moral Prophylaxis, 105 West 4uth St., 
New York City. Edward L. Keyes, Jr., 
President. Six educational pamphlets. 10c 
each. Quarterly Journal, devoted to sex edu- 
cation, $1.00 per year. Dues — Active, $2.00; 
Contributing, $5.00 ; Sustaining, $10.00. Mem- 
bership includes current and subsequent liter- 
ature. Maintains lecture bureau. 

CANCER — American Society for the Control 
of Cancer, 289 Fourth Ave., New York 
City. Curtis E. Lakeman, Exec. Secy. 
To disseminate knowledge concerning symp- 
toms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publications free on request. Annual member- 
ship dues $5. 

SCHOOL HYGIENE —American School Hy- 
giene Association. Pres., Dr. Henry M. 
Bracken, Chairman State Board of Health, 
St. Paul, Minn. Sec v., Thomas A. Storey, M.D., 
College of the City of New York. New York. 
Yearly congresses and proceedings. 

MENTAL HYGIENE— National Committee 
for Mental Hygiene. 50 Union Square, 
New York City, Clifford W. Beers. Sec'y. 
Write for pamphlets on mental hygiene, pre- 
vention of insanity, care of insane^ social ser- 
vice in mental hygiene. State Societies for Men- 
tal Hygiene. 

NATIONAL HEALTH -Committee of One 
Hundred on National Health. E. F. Rob- 
bins. Exec. Sec, 203 F. i'7tli St.. New 
York. To unite all government health agencies 
into a National Department of Health to in- 
Iniin the people how to prevent disease. 

TUBERCULOSIS — National Association for 
the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 
105 East 22nd St. New York. Charles J. 
Hatfield, M.D., Exec. Sec'y. Reports, pamph- 
lets, etc., sent upon request. Annual transac- 
tions and other publications free to members. 

RACE BETTERMENT— National Confer- 
ence on Knee Betterment. Regeneration 
of Uace through eugenics and euthenics. 
Interesting exhibit at Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position. Official Proceedings first conference, 
650 pages, now ready. $2. no. Addn ss Secre- 
tary, Battle Creek, Michigan. 

PUBLIC HEALTH-American Public Health 
Association, Pres., Win. C. Woodward, 
Washington ; Sec'y. S. M. Gunn, Boston. 
Founded for the purpose of advancing the cause 
of public health and prevention of disease. Five 
sections : Laboratory, Vital Statistics. Muni- 
cipal Health Officers, Sanitary Engineering and 
Sociological. Official organ American Journal 
of Public Health. $3.00 a year published month- 
ly. 3 months' subscription, 50 cents. Address 
755 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUB- 
LIC HEALTH NURSING— Object : to 
stimulate the extension of public health 
nursing; to develop standards of technique; to 
maintain a central bureau of information. Pub 
lications • Pub. Health Nursing Quarterly. $1.00 
per year, and bulletins. Address Ella Phillips 
Crandall, It. N. Exec. See.. 25 West 45th St.. 
New York City. 

THE AMERICAN RED CROSS -Through 
its Town and Country Nursing Service. 
maintains a staff of specially prepared 

visiting nurses for appointment to small towns 
and rural districts. Pamphlets supplied on 
organization and administration of visit Ing 
nurse associations: personal assistance and ex 
hil.it s available for local use. Apply to Su- 
perintendent, Red Cross Town and Country 
Nursing Service. Washington, D. C. 

SOCIAL HYGIENE— The American Social 
Hygiene Ass,.,. Inc., 105 West loth St. N. 
v.: Branch Offices: 122 South Michigan 
Ave., Chicago; Plielan Bldg.. San Francisco. 

To promote sound sex education, the reduction 
of venereal diseases, ami the suppression of com 
merclallzed vice. Quarterly magazine "Social 
Hygiene." Monthly Bulletin, Membership. (5; 
sustaining. $10, Information upon request. Pres.. 

Abrain W. Harris; Gen. Sec'y. William F. 
Snow. M.D : Counsel. James B. Reynolds. 



Racial Problems 



NEGRO YEAR BOOK — Meets the demand 
for concise information concerning the 
condition and progress of the Negro 
Race. Extended bibliographies. Full index. 
Price 25c. By mail 35c. Negro Year Book 
Company, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 

In addition to information in Negro Year 
Book, Tuskegee Institute will furnish other 
data on the condition and progress of the Ne- 
gro race. 



HAMPTON INSTITUTE, HAMPTON. VA. 
— Trains Negro and Indian youth. "Great 
educational experiment station." Neither 
a state nor a government school. Supported 
by voluntary contributions. H. B. Frissell, 
Principal : F. K. Rogers. Treasurer : W. H. 
Scoville, Secretary. Free literature on race ad- 
justment, Hampton aims and methods. Southern 
Workman, illustrated monthly, $1 a year; free 
to donors. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE 
70 Fifth Avenue. New York. Publishes 
Thr Crisis, a monthly magazine. Fifty branches 
and locals. Legal aid. literature, speakers, lan- 
tern slides, press material, etc. President. 
Moorfield Storey ; Chairman of the Board of 
Directors, J. E. Spingarn : Vice President and 
Treasurer, Oswald Garrison Viltard: Director 
of Publications and Research, W. E. B. DuBois, 
Secretary. Mary fluids Nerney. 



Social and Economic Problems 



AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION 
Objects : "the encouragement of economic 
research," "the issue of publications on 
economic subjects," "the encouragement of per- 
te<i freedom of economic discussion." The mem- 
bership includes the professional economists 
of the country together with many others inter- 
ested in scientific study of economic problems. 
Publications : American Economic Review. Pro- 
ceedings of Annual Meetings, and Handbook 
Dues $5.oo a year. Secretary A. A. Young, 
Ithaca. N. Y. 

UNIVERSITIES AND PUBLIC SERVICE 
A book by Charles McCarthy. Morris 
Llewelyn Cooke, Mayor Mitchel. S. S. 
Met 'hue, Edward A. Ross, John Dewey and 
others. Pp. 289. Price one dollar postpaid. 
Ask tor list of other publications on this sub- 
ject, or any other questions on training for 
public sri-ci::. univ: r:;itv :.\tensi:in mil ti II 
training. Address Society for the Promotion 
of Training for Public Service, Box 380, Madi- 
son. Wisconsin. 



Immigration 

COMMITTEE FOR IMMIGRANTS IN 
AMERICA -Clearing house and bureau 
of consultation on transportation, em- 
ployment, standard of living, savings and in- 
vestments, education, naturalization, legislation 
and public charges. Frank Trumbull. Cb. : Felix 
M. Warburg and Frances A. Kellor. V.-Ch. ; 
Wm. Fellowes Morgan, Treas. Dues $5 a year 
including Immigrants in American Review and 
literature. 05 Madison Ave.. N. Y. City, 

IMMIGRANT GIRLS— Council of Jewish 
Women t National I, Department of Immi- 
grant Aid. with headquarters at 216 E. 
Broadway, New York City,— Miss Helen Wink- 
ler, chairman,- gives friendly aid to immigrant 
girls: meets, visits, advises, guides: has inter- 
national system of safeguarding. Invites mem- 
bership. 

BOOKS ON SOCIAL PROBLEMS-The Sur- 
yej Associates, Inc.. 105 E. 22d Street. 
New York are publishers for the Russell 
Sage Foundation and agents for books on in- 
dustry, health, recreation, relief, civic prob- 
lems, immigration, se\ hygiene, hospitals, tuber- 
culosis, settlements, prison reform, child labor, 
women ill industry, vocational guidance, hous- 
ing, cltj planning. 

List Of books on special topics submitted on 

request Also current fiction dealing with so- 
cial problems, 




SOKOW 





Peace and Preparedness 

The International Peace Congress at San Francisco 
By Louis P. Lochner 



Tom More and Tom Osborne 

The Prophecy of Utopia Fulfilled at Sing Sing 
By Mary Breese Fuller 




Public Service Pensions 

National Conventions on 
Housing Reform 

Prison Reform 

Social Hygiene 

A Lesson in Free Speech 



Price 10 Cents 



October 30, 1915 




Volume XXXV, No. 5 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 



PUBLICATION OFFICE 

105 East 22d Street 
New York 



PUBLISHERS 

Robert W. deForest, President 
Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary Frank Tucker. Treasurer 



WESTERN OFFICE 

2559 Michigan Ave. 
Chicago 



Vol. XXXV, No. 5 



Contents 



October jo. ioif, 



COMMON WELFARE 

FOR PRFPAKEDNFSS IN PFACE AND WAR 

AN ORGANIZATION TO FIND WANDERING JEWS 

NIPPING INCIPIENT INSAN1IY IN NhW YORK 

PUSHING UP I HK SCHOOL AGE TOWARD MANHOOD 

LOOKING AHEAD IN HOUSING IMPROVEMENT . 

THK LhNGTH AND BREADTH OF PRISON REFORM 

EBB AND FLOW OF BATTLE 

SOCI \L HYGIENE THRO' GH MORAL STANDARDS 

JOHN BARLHYCORN IN CRAYON 

FOR BAKER'S PLACE IN TOM JOHNSON'S SHOES 

PEACE CHALLENGING PREPAREDNESS .... 



WHY? a poem 



CONTKIRUTFD ARTICLES 

A PROPHECY AND ITS FULFILLMENT 

HOW (INK TOWN LEARNED A LESSON IN FREE SPEECH 

CAGf-D-A QUESTION OF MAN OR BHAST 

PEfVSION FUNDS FOR PUBLIC SERVICE EMPLOYES . 

PITY, a poem 

PICNICKING IN AN EMPTY RESERVOIR 

AN EDUCATIONAL STATESMAN 



Louis P. Lochner 
Mary Carolyn Davies 



Mary Breese Fuller 
. Wallace M. Short 



Louis Roth 

M. Rainsford Haines 

Felix J. Koch 

William Anthony Aery 



HEAI TH 

CIVIC VALUE OF HOSPITAL RECORDS . 
SAFEGUARDING THE HEALTH OF TRAVELERS . 
A HEALTH EXHIBIT IN FAR BOMBAY 
GOLD MI-DAL OF AMERICAN MEDICINE 
APPLYING I HK BINhT TEST T< > BLIND CHILDREN 
LHPROSY: WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT IT . . . 
WHO'S WHO IN PUBl IC HKALTH ORGANIZATIONS 
A UNIVKRS1TY IN THE FIELD AGAINST CANCER 
MILWAUKEE OFFERS FREE MEDICAL ADVICE 

BOOK REVIEWS 
BOOKS RECEIVED 
COMMUNICATIONS 
JOTTINGS 
PAMPHLETS 



99 
99 
100 
100 
100 
101 
101 
102 
102 
103 
101 
104 



105 
106 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 



113 
113 
113 
113 
114 
114 
114 
114 
114 

115 

117 

117 

118 

119 



Price 



Single copies of this issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular 
subscriptions $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Issued weekly. 
Changes of address should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing 
commercial practice when payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 



COPYRIGHT, 



ENTERED A3 SECON 



1915, BY SURVEY ASSOCU 
T THE POST OFFICE AT N 



NDER THE ACT OF 











INDEX NOW READY 




% Index for Volume XXXIV of The Survey, from 
April, 1915, to September, 1915, inclusive, will 
be sent free on application. 

^ Bound volumes, in stout cloth with leather back 
and corners, $2.50 plus postage. 

{J Survey binders, for the current issues, handy and 
serviceable, $ 1 .00 postpaid. 









The GIST of IT— 

THE International Peace Congress at San 
Francisco took a firm st?nd against pre- 
paredness, sent Dr. Jordan as a herald to 
urge President Wilson to move toward a 
mediating conference of neutrals, heard in- 
teresting testimony from China and Japan 
and a plea for a union of republics in 
temperate America. Page 103. 

JIVING four hundred years apart, Sir 
Thomas More and Thomas Mott Os- 
borne are strikingly alike in their philoso- 
phy of crime and criminals. More would 
have made a good warden for Sing Sing 
and Osborne would have been perfectly at 
home in Utopia. Page 105. 

THE story of how a small city struggled 
all winter with the I. W. W. and finally 
got out of an unseemly situation by remov- 
ing the gag from street corner oratorv. 
Page 106. 

A N argument in rebuttal of the opinion 
of the Georgia Railroad Commission 
that public service corporations should not 
contribute to employes' pension funds. Mr. 
Roth believes the company should stand its 
share and that the fund should be under 
the supervision of the official commission. 
Page 109. 

§OME glimpses of Cincinnati's rollicking 
municipal picnc. Page 111. 

WISCONSIN children of 16 and 17 who 
are not in school must now attend con- 
tinuation school for half a day a week for 
eight months in the year. Page 100. 

]SJ EW YORK state is extending its dis- 
pensary system for treating convales- 
cent cases of insanity outside of institu- 
tions and catching incipient cases before 
they become severe. Page 100. 

fHE importance of venereal disease and 
the insistence on higher standards of 
morals were the chief points of emphasis 
at the annual meeting of the American 
Social Hygiene Association. Page 102. 

J) ISCUSSION at the annual meeting of 
the American Prison Association took 
the broad ground that "the final object of 
prison reform is to prevent crime, stop the 
production of criminals and abolish pris- 
ons." Page 101. 

THE movement for better housing has 
mown to such dimensions that the an- 
nual National Housing Conference has been 
broken up into special sections on the pat- 
tern of the National Conference of Char- 
ities and Correction. The recent annual 
meeting showed that Minneapolis, where 
the conference was held, along with its 
freedom and beauty and its fine city plan, 
has serious housing problems to face. Page 
100. 

T"l" National Americanization Commit- 
tee lias started campaigns for "the Eng- 
lish language first," "America first" and 
"efficiency first" which, among other re- 
sults, are expected to diminish strikes and 
sabotage, i'.igc 99. 





C09KB0: 




FOR PREPAREDNESS IN PEACE 
AND WAR 

The National Americanization 
Committee, which grew out of efforts 
last summer to make July Fourth 
"Americanization Day" throughout the 
country, is extending its work. From its 
headquarters in New York city it is 
undertaking "to tell the people what to 
do and how to work for Americaniza- 
tion." Some of its announced means to 
this end are : 

An "English language first" campaign 
for getting immigrants into schools. 

An "America first" campaign to facili- 
tate the naturalization of foreign-born 
citizens. The committee assists in the 
preparation of Americanization Day 
programs. It has prepared a syllabus 
on civics for public school work that is 
being printed by the United States Bu- 
reau of Education. It has asked 150 col- 
leges to take definite steps to train men 
and women to become leaders in 
Americanization. It has supplied a 
thorough course for this purpose. 

An "efficiency first" campaign to con- 
serve the country's labor supply and pre- 
vent labor riots and wars. The com- 
mittee says it is "making an analysis of 
conditions among immigrant workmen 
in munitions plants, mines, quarries and 
railways and in industries upon which 
preparedness primarily depends and sug- 
gesting measures which will diminish 
strikes and sabotage. We are furnish- 
ing employers with civic lesson leaflets 
to be used in pay envelopes." 

The "America first" campaign was 
launched at a dinner October 15 at the 
home of Vincent Astor in New York 
city. The speakers urged preparedness 
on both the military and civilian side. 
"It is time to lay the keels for both," 
says an announcement of the committee, 
which further describes its work thus: 

"It is an emergency call. Battleships 
and coast defenses are no more imme- 
diately important than it is to have 
all citizens and residents of the United 
States, foreign-born and native alike, 
agree on American patriotic ideals, and 
the meaning of American citizenship. 
And the ways of attaining this internal 
preparedness are quite as definite and 
practical as is the building of battle- 
ships." 

"The business man with a large num- 

Volume XXXV, No. 5 



ber of foreign workmen," says the same 
announcement, needs to know how to 
bring them into touch with American 
citizenship and American ideals — if not 
as a civic service, then as a practical 
self-interested ,move, a method of pre- 
venting strikes and sabotage." 

The committee declares that it has 
the co-operation of the United States 
Bureau of Education, Pennsylvania De- 
partment of Labor and Industry, Rhode 
Island Commission on Immigration, 
California Commission on Immigration 
and Housing and the New York State 
Department of Education. It has been 
asked to secure the adoption of the 
recommendations made by the Mas- 
sachusetts Commission on Immigration 
last year. 

Some of the members of the commit- 
tee are : Thomas A. Edison, Gen. Leon- 
ard Wood, C. H. Mackay, P. P. Claxton. 
John H. Finley, Cardinal Gibbons, John 
Mitchell, Mrs. Vincent Astor, Mrs. E. T. 
Stotesbury, Nicholas Murray Butler, 
T. Coleman Du Pont, Frederic C. Howe, 
Julius RosenWald, Frances A Kellor. 



□ 



AmericaFirst' 




□ 



Naootul Aflxncantzation CoramHUx w U. S. Bureau <rf Education 



FOR INTERNAL PREPAREDNESS 

The poster of the National Americaniza- 
tion Committee. It measures 32 by 20 
inches. 



AN ORGANIZATION TO FIND 
WANDERING JEWS 

To locate missing families 
and relatives in the war zone for Jews 
residing in this country, to study con- 
ditions among Jews in Europe, and to 
spread a knowledge of our immigration 
laws with a view to discouraging per- 
sons coming here who are ineligible, 
Isidore Hershfield, a New York lawyer 
and member of the Board of Directors 
of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immi- 
grant Aid Society of America, sailed for 
Europe last week. 

Mr. Hershfield, whose trip has the 
support of the State Department at 
Washington, will establish a clearing- 
house at The Hague for the receipt of 
all inquiries regarding individuals. Reg- 
istry offices will be opened in large cities 
in the countries at war and a staff of 
persons will be employed to handle the 
work. 

One of the serious consequences of 
the war has been the breaking up of 
thousands of Jewish families in Russia 
and Galicia by the devastation of towns 
and wholesale expulsions. It is esti- 
mated that one and a half million Jews 
have been driven from their homes, sent 
from district to district, and have not 
yet found a permanent resting place. A 
large part of the Jewish population of 
America is vitally concerned in this 
tragic upheaval, as most of the Jews 
living here have relatives in the war 
zone. The Hebrew Sheltering and Im- 
migrant Aid Society of America has 
received thousands of letters from every 
part of the country from persons who 
are anxious to locate their families 
abroad. The society has also received 
from European organizations the names 
of thousands who desired to be put into 
communication with those to whom they 
are related in the United States. 

Mr. Hershfield will carry with him 
letters to all consular and diplomatic 
representatives abroad, as well as en- 
dorsements by leading Jews of this 
country. William B. Wilson, secretary 
of labor, hopes that the machinery to be 
set in motion will be effective in con- 
veying a knowledge of the mental, moral 
and physical conditions that debar immi- 
grants from admission into the United 
States. 

99 



100 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 



NIPPING INCIPIENT INSANITY 
IN NEW YORK 

If the legions of insane who 
wore paths to the shrines and holy wells 
of mediaeval Europe, seeking relief from 
the demoniacal spirits believed to pos- 
sess them, could be subjected to modern 
methods of treatment many of them 
would not have to leave their own front 
doors to be cured. The number of those 
being treated in their homes or at mental 
dispensaries is constantly increasing. 

Governor Whitman last week became 
an ally of this movement when he re- 
quested the New York State Hospital 
Commission to establish five new dis- 
pensaries, to enlarge the activities of 
those already started, and to employ a 
field agent in connection with each. 
This request followed a conference with 
the commission and will be carried out, 
with the co-operation of the State 
Charities Aid Association, as rapidly as 
possible. 

This is a long step in the direction of 
the prevention of insanity. Two years 
ago the legislature authorized the sup- 
erintendent of each state hospital for 
the insane to establish an out-patient de- 
partment or dispensary, assign a phy- 
sician to it, and employ a paid field 
agent in connection with it. Seven of 
the fourteen hospitals have established 
out-patient departments, but only three 
have appointed field agents. The five 
new dispensaries will be opened by the 
state hospitals at Buffalo, Binghampton, 
Middletown, Utica and Willard. It will 
be extended in those at Ogdensburg, 
Brooklyn, Poughkeepsie, Collins, Ward's 
Island, Kings Park and Central Islip. 
Long Island. 

A mental dispensary is a place where 
people may go at a specified hour of the 
day for diagnosis and advice by a mental 
specialist. A child whose mother 
realizes that he is "different" from 
others; a man who has found his work 
grown suddenly difficult and is conscious 
of loss of memory; a youth who fears 
that he is hopelessly entangled in some 
sexual difficulty; the anxious wife of a 
man who "was always a good husband 
although he drank a bit," but has lately 
become morose, irritable and suspicious 
and has lost four jobs in quick succes- 
sion because "people are all against 
him"; the brother of a patient in a 
hospital for the insane, who has become 
obsessed with the fear that he is follow- 
ing in his brother's steps — these are 
types of the cases that come for help. 

A field agent visits the home, sees that 
the doctor's directions are carried out, 
leads the family to understand the pa- 
tient's condition, finds suitable employ- 
ment, or makes other desirable adjust- 
ments. Heretofore, many persons on 
the verge of nervous or mental break- 
down have become insane through 
neglect or delay. Specialists agree that 
many of these can be helped by prompt 
treatment and that the needed care 



can be given in the patients' own homes. 

The extension of out-patient depart- 
ments will also increase the number of 
convalescing patients who can be 
paroled to their families or friends un- 
der supervision. Last year the number 
of state hospital patients on parole was 
increased by 439. Each patient cared 
for in his own home represents an an- 
nual saving to the state of $208; conse- 
quently, the saving in maintenance ef- 
fected by this growth in the number on 
parole was $91,312. Furthermore, every 
patient put on parole makes room for 
one new patient in a hospital. New 
construction to house these 439 patients 
would have cost $1,000 a bed, or a total 
of $439,000. Thus the total saving to 
the state by the extension of the parole 
system amounted to $530,312. 

As the fourteen state hospitals house 
nearly 34,000 patients, although their 
rated capacity is less than 28,000, the 
need of preventive measures is evident. 

PUSHING UP THE SCHOOL AGB 
TOWARD MANHOOD 

Wisconsin, by act of her latest 
legislature, has pushed the age of com- 
pulsory school attendance farther than 
any other state. Hereafter children be- 
tween sixteen and seventeen not attend- 
ing the regular public school will have 
to attend day continuation school for 
a half day a week eight months of the 
year. This provision applies to all chil- 
dren, whether working or idle, in cities 
of more than 5,000 population. 

Change was made also in the provis- 
ions affecting those under sixteen. For 
the past three years children in employ- 
ment were compelled to attend day con- 
tinuation school a half day a week for 
eight months a year. This has now been 
raised to ten months and applies hence- 
forth to all, whether working or not, if 
they are not in attendance at the regular 
public schools. 

It is expected that these changes will 
raise the attendance at the day continu- 
ation schools of the state, now about 15,- 
000 from 40 to 50 per cent. The state 
Board of Industrial Education was given 
full power to employ teachers and other 
necessary assistants to meet this in- 
crease. 

"The advance to the seventeenth 
year," says H. E. Miles, president of 
this board, "requires a superior educa- 
tional content. Eighty-seven per cent of 
working children from fourteen to six- 
teen are in dead end, blind alley jobs. 
They arc not allowed to work with ma- 
chinery. Schooling is, therefore, only in 
the elements of the occupations. At six- 
teen the child is a man under the law. 
He can work at difficult machines. His 
continuation schooling must be related 
to this larger work and opportunity. 
This period will be a sort of bridge lead- 
ing to apprenticeship and is expected to 
cause many employers to look to these 
schools for superior workers whom they 
will indenture to be taught all of the re- 
spective trades in which they work." 



L 



OOKING AHEAD IN HOUSING 
IMPROVEMENT 



The progress of the housing 
movement in America was clearly shown 
at the fourth National Housing Confer- 
ence in Minneapolis, October 6-8. De- 
spite the war, which cut down Canada's 
delegation to one, and despite the dis- 
tance from the center of housing activity 
winch, for all the recent awakening 
throughout the Middle West and the 
South, still remains near the Atlantic 
seaboard, the number of registered dele- 
gates was 245. Only the far South and 
the Rocky Mountain states were un- 
represented. 

Another evidence of progress was 
given by the attendance and the spirited 
discussions at the section meetings 
where the subjects presented were of a 
highly technical character little calcu- 
lated to interest those who are not al- 
ready facing serious practical prob- 
lems. The technical section meetings 
were held in the mornings. In the after- 
noons what might be called semi-techni- 
cal subjects were presented, such as 
Housing and the Police Power, the 
Place of Housing Work in a Health De- 
partment, and the Alley Problem. These 
could scarcely be called popular in 
their appeal, but they are of immediate 
concern to all who are working for bet- 
ter conditions. 

In this they differed from the ques- 
tions which were proposed at the sec- 
tion meetings — Land Sub-division from 
the Point of View of a Development 
Company, the Planning of Low Cost 
Houses, and the Removal of Outdoor 
Closets and Vaults — which are of the 
greatest practical importance to those 
who are actually building or to those 
who are enforcing sanitary regulations. 

This classification of subjects seemed 
to solve a problem which has confronted 
the National Housing Association, as it 
has other organizations, which while 
carrying on a propaganda designed to 
interest the general public must also pro- 
vide for the needs of those who are 
engaged in some phase of housing work 
and who look to the annual conference 
as an opportunity for exchanging opin- 
ion and experience with fellow work- 
ers in different parts of the country. 

Minneapolis contributed in every way 
to the success of the conference. The 
Civic and Commerce Association, which 
with the city government and thirty-eight 
civic and social organizations, acted as 
host, had aroused local interest by its 
housing investigation and its campaign 
for a housing code. It also assembled 
an interesting exhibit and organized a 
housing institute for the day following 
the close of the conference. At this 
institute there was a spirited discussion 
of standards for housing codes and of 
the feasibility of a garden suburb for 
workingmetl — a project now under con- 
sideration in a new industrial district. 
The association also held a round table 



Common Welfare 



101 



luncheon on the question of Woman's 
Part in the Housing Movement, at which 
Albion Fellows Bacon of Indiana pre- 
sided. The last speaker at the luncheon 
said that she had attended many con- 
ferences, but that this one was different, 
— she felt she had that day attended a 
sort of revival meeting and experienced 
a new kind of religion. 

An automobile trip, carried out in 
spite of biting winds and a flurry of 
snow, showed the delegates again that 
fundamentally the housing problem is 
the same in Minnesota, as it is in Mass- 
achusetts or in California. Minneapolis 
is a beautiful city. Within its more ex- 
pensive residence districts are a series 
of lakes. In other sections are thou- 
sands of attractive cottages where most 
of the wage-earning population lives. 

Yet Minneapolis has also its other 
side. It has at least one apartment 
house where the air shaft — all air shafts 
are now forbidden in New York's new 
tenements — contains a garbage chute ! 

Three years ago Minneapolis believed 
itself to be the exceptional city which 
is without a housing problem. Today it 
realizes that despite all nature has done 
for it, despite the lack of any hampering 
bounds to prevent its spreading out in- 
definitely, it needs regulation to stop the 
development of the worst housing evils 
and constructive effort to secure for its 
people better houses than those provided 
by the automatic working of supply and 
demand alone. This was shown by the 
attendance at the evening sessions of 
the conference when such subjects as 
Causes and Effects of Bad Housing and 
Taxation were discussed; by the great 
turnout of business men at the luncheon 
where Dr. W. A. Evans of Chicago de- 
scribed the Next Step in Health Work 
and where Otto W. Davis, Charles 
B. Ball, Lawrence Veiller and several 
local speakers told of the Needs and Op- 
portunities of Minneapolis. 

Perhaps the characteristic feature of 
this conference was its emphasis upon 
the future. There exist now many evils 
in city housing, relics of the past. These 
were dealt with vigorously. But the 
keynote was struck by Dr. Evans at the 
first session when he showed the pro- 
gress that has been made in the past — 
the cutting off of high peaks of disease 
epidemics by better sanitation, the per- 
manent lowering of the death-rate by 
the application of the germ theory; and 
then declared that we are and shall con- 
tinue to mark time until we attack along 
a new and constructive line. 

The same motive underlay the paper 
by John Nolen on Land Sub-division and 
its Effect upon Housing and that of 
Frederick Law Olmsted on Land Sub- 
division from the Point of View of a 
Development Company. Mr. Olmsted, 
in discussing the most economic size and 
shape of lots developed a rule which one 
of the delegates described as a sliding 
scale of general application. 



Copyright by International News Service 




EBB AND FLOW OF BATTLE 

A divided roadway in Poland with fresh, able-bodied German soldiers marching 
to the front on one side and, on the other, Red Cross ambulances creeping toward 
the rear with their loads of broken bodies. 



T 



HE LENGTH AND BREADTH OF 
PRISON REFORM 



The strongest program ever 
presented at a meeting of the American 
Prison Association — -such, writes Stuart 
A. Queen of San Francisco, was the 
verdict of officers and delegates in at- 
tendance at the congress which was held 
October 9-14 in Oakland, Cal. The 
breadth of view that ruled the discus- 
sions was set forth by Joseph P. Byers 
in his presidential address: 

"Prison reform, to most of us," he 
said, "is something that concerns the 
improvement of our penal and correc- 
tional institutions. It is this, to be sure, 
but it is more. It embraces the criminal, 
who he is, what he is, why he is. It 
covers the questions of our laws and 
their enforcement, and penalties and 
their adjustment to the offender. It 
goes even further than this; for the final 
object of prison reform is to prevent 
crime, stop the production of criminals, 
and abolish prisons." 

Perhaps the most striking feature of 
the program was the attention given to 
the relation of mental defectiveness to 
problems of crime and penology. The 
necessity for careful psychological 
studies was urged not only as a pre- 
requisite to intelligent and successful 
treatment of the individual offender, but 
also as essential to any adequate under- 
standing of the causes of delinquency. 
There was an absence of the extreme 
emphasis upon heredity which has char- 
acterized many discussions of this sub- 
ject. Instead, there was a wholesome 
consideration of both hereditary and en- 
vironmental factors which may contrib- 
ute to criminalistic tendencies and habits. 

The papers and the open discussion of 



prison discipline alike advocated the 
honor system, but it was pretty generally 
agreed that the mental defective and the 
habitual criminal will not and perhaps 
cannot respond to an appeal to honor. 
Careful selection of the men to be put 
on their honor, whether in prison or on 
probation or parole, was emphasized re- 
peatedly. The success that may attend 
a parole system wisely administered was 
shown in the paper by Amos W. Butler 
of Indiana in which he stated that dur- 
ing the eighteen years of the operation 
of the parole law in Indiana the per- 
centage of unsatisfactory cases was only 
26.3. Significant, too, was his evidence 
that under an indeterminate sentence 
prisoners spend on the average a con- 
siderably longer time in the institution. 

The problems of managing an indus- 
trial school for boys were set forth 
very concretely by Guy C. Hanna of 
Indiana. The discussion which followed 
brought out much difference of opinion 
on the questions of dormitories vs. indi- 
vidual rooms, the best educational facili- 
ties and the honor system. But the im- 
portance of thorough segregation seemed 
to be settled beyond a doubt. A sum- 
mary of the report of the committee on 
jails, lock-ups and police stations was 
given in The Survey last week. 

Altogether about 300 delegates and 
visitors were registered from forty-one 
states, Cuba and Canada. The president 
of the 1916 congress, to be held in Buf- 
falo, is Arthur Pratt of Salt Lake City, 
warden of the Utah State Prison ; the 
secretary, Joseph P. Byers of Phila- 
delphia. A special committee was ap- 
pointed to report to the next meeting 
a new plan of organization with the 
hope of securing a fuller expression of 
the will of the entire membership. 



10: 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 




JOHN BARLEYCORN IN CRAYON 



| OHN BENGOUG1I, a cartoonist of Toronto, Canada, has 
J been enlisted in the year's campaign to make known the 
tacts about alcohol to the English, Portuguese, French and 
Poles in the working population of New Bedford, Mass. The 
campaign is in the hands of social workers and the Catholic 
Total Abstinence League, — re-enforced by Elizabeth Tilton 
of the Poster Campaign Against Alcohol. 

Mr. Bengough used the cartoons reproduced above in tell- 
ing of the investigations of the Commission on Drunkenness. 



In No. 1 the solemn commission — C-o-m — is talking to the 
liquor traffic, which is much concerned. In No. 2 the com- 
mission announces it will make a clean sweep of the subject, 
and the liquor traffic is scared to death. But in No. 3 the 
commission has reported, suggesting better text-books in the 
schools and better asylums for the wrecks of drink. With a 
few strokes the cartoonist put a feather in the hands of the 
reformer and a guffaw in the mouth of the liquor traffic, which 
had feared prohibition and got only an inebriate asylum. 



SOCIAL HYGIENE THROUGH 
MORAL STANDARDS 

The two outstanding features 
of the annual meeting of the American 
Social Hygiene Association in Boston 
were the emphasis by various speakers 
on the great factor of venereal disease 
and, on the other hand, the insistence 
that higher moral standards incorpor- 
ated in law, court procedure and popu- 
lar custom are the foundation of all 
thorough-going betterment of the evils 
connected with sexual life. 

Much has been accomplished since the 
foundation of the social hygiene move- 
ment, said Drs. Donald R. Hooker and 
William F. Snow, — progress not only in 
greatly increased membership in national 
and in local associations during the past 
year, but in the change in point of view- 
in regard to dealing with venereal dis- 
eases and legalized prostitution. "It is 
no longer possible for any community to 
officially tolerate prostitution. This pro- 
gress is the outcome of popular educa- 
tion." 

"The campaign against venereal dis- 
ease," said Dr. Edward L. Keyes, Jr., 
of New York, "dealt ten years ago al- 
most wholly with explaining the perils 
of disease. Today the emphasis has 
shifted to the constructive side, the de- 
velopment of principles and habits of 
physical hygiene, sex hygiene and social 
hygiene. The campaign has proved to 
be many sided, it is bearing upon edu- 
cation as well as upon social practice. 
There is scarcely a social or religious 
body in the country today which, is not 



taking cognizance of this subject." 

Dr. Gardner T. Swarts of Rhode 
Island, spoke on the venereal disease 
quack, and Drs. Allan J. McLaughlin 
and George H. Kirby on the problem of 
syphilis. Dr. McLaughlin gave the fol- 
lowing as his program for a state de- 
partment of health : 

Syphilis should be reportable in a 
modified way. 

Wassermann tests should be made free 
of charge by the state upon requests of 
physicians. 

Salvarsan should be furnished free by 
the state to physicians for cases reported 
by number which have been found 
"positive" in the state Wassermann 
laboratory. 

Illegitimacy was discussed by Ada E. 
Sheffield of Cambridge, the activities of 
the Morals Commission of Chicago were 
described by Dr. Anna Dwyer, a mem- 
ber, and Prof. Maurice A. Bigelow of 
Columbia outlined an educational pro- 
gram. 

Frederick 11. W'hitin of the Com- 
mittee of Fourteen, New York city, de- 
scribed as the chief obstacle to the sup- 
pression of prostitution, the amount of 
evidence and the kind of evidence usu- 
ally required by the courts for convic- 
tion in cases involving either men or 
property. Many courts have been 
using legal technicalities instead of 
common sense in accepting evidence, the 
real reason being the pervading senti- 
ment that prostitution is inevitable, that 
it cannot be suppressed, and that we 
merely have to make a show of keeping 



down its worst features. This attitude, 
however, is gradually changing and 
with it are going the vicious systems of 
levying fines, and sending women of- 
fenders to jail on short sentences. 

Dr. George W. Goler, health officer 
of Rochester, presented the Part of the 
Municipality in Solving the Venereal 
Disease Problem. Joseph Lee of Bos- 
ton, in a characteristic address on Recre- 
ation and Social Hygiene, gave his 
familiar, stirring message that every 
boy should be a boy and every girl a 
tom-boy for a while, and that evening 
centers in the schools with music, art 
and literature are one of the big con- 
structive agents. 

Charles W. Eliot, participating in the 
discussion, suggested a more compre- 
hensive organization to promote social 
hygiene — an organization of a national 
character which would include as sec- 
tions the special movements against 
venereal disease, for sex education, for 
the proper care of the feebleminded, for 
adequate recreation provisions, and the 
like. Dr. Eliot believes that these 
special activities, now largely in the 
hands of separate organizations, would 
each face the public on a firmer foun- 
dation if all were co-ordinated as parts 
of one general body — each a department 
in charge of an expert but with the 
oversight of a central and unifying con- 
trol. 

President Abram W. Harris oi North- 
western University was elected presi- 
dent of the association to SUC1 
Charles W. Flint, who becomes honor- 
ary president. 



Common Welfare 



103 



FOR BAKER'S PLACE IN TOM 
JOHNSON'S SHOES 

Mayor Newton D. Baker of 
Cleveland, is retiring after four years in 
office. His family and private affairs, 
he says, need his attention. Peter Witt 
— once a moulder, disciple, like Baker, 
of the late Tom L. Johnson, most re- 
cently street railway commissioner re- 
sponsible for the continuation of the 
three-cent fare, active in his espousal of 
the workingmen's welfare — is running 
against a divided field and, therefore, 
seems most likely to win at the election 
November 2. 

Although Witt is the administration 
candidate and is strongly backed by 
Baker, his nomination was not dictated 
by the present mayor. He announced 
his own candidacy and is his own most 
eager sponsor. 

The probable effect of the election 
upon the social gains and policies es- 
tablished by the Baker administration is 
naturally of interest. The social achieve- 
ments of the administration include a 
municipal light plant, selling electricity 
for home use at three cents a kilowatt, 
the lowest rate in the country, according 
to administration figures ; completion of 
a plant for filtering the lake water; 
great advances in the building equip- 
ment of the city hospital; elimination of 
many railroad grade crossings; installa- 
tion of a high-pressure water system for 
fire protection in the down-town dis- 
tricts; adoption of a modern "home rule" 
city charter; completion of a new City 
Hall as part of the group plan of public 
buildings ; extensions and improvements 
in the street-car system, which is oper- 
ated under city direction; the operation 
of a Bureau of Immigration, reckoned 
one of the most useful city agencies of 
the sort in the country; and the housing 
and partial maintenance of a State-City 
Labor Exchange, also highly successful. 

All the candidates were asked to ap- 
pear at a meeting of the City Club on 
October 23 to answer and discuss ques- 
tions framed by the Cleveland Welfare 
Council. These questions concerned : 
the appropriations to the municipal wel- 
fare department; qualifications for the 
director of public welfare; a recreation 
policy; the honor system and other 
methods of handling work-house pris- 
oners; reorganization of the outdoor re- 
lief bureau as recommended by the 
Cleveland Foundation Survey; sanitary 
inspection; health laws and their en- 
forcement; completion of the new city 
hospital buildings; erection of a conval- 
escent hospital; and completion of the 
tuberculosis sanatorium; the division of 
employment, including the Women's 
Bureau and the Bureau of Immigration ; 
and the establishment of the division of 
research and publicity provided in the 
charter in order to stimulate public in- 
terest in the problems of the welfare de- 
partment. 

At this meeting Mayor Baker spoke 



for Witt; whose throat trouble caused 
his absence. Citizens were assured that 
the welfare department appropriation, 
now as large as consistent with present 
city finances, would be considered next 
in importance to fire and police protec- 
tion, and would be increased as rapidly 
as possible; that the Bureau of Recrea- 
tion would be transferred as soon as 
possible from the Department of Pub- 
lic Service to the Department of Public 
Welfare, and that progressive effort 
would be made along the other lines in- 
dicated by the questions. 

None of the other candidates gave 
such categorical and well-informed an- 
swers to the questions, but all expressed 
approval of welfare developments as 



far as consistent with city finances. 
One, however, attacked what many peo- 
ple consider the lax policy of paroles 
from the correction farm. 

Although the anti-administration 
Democratic candidate is declared by his 
opponents to stand for a wide open 
town, no one seems to fear that, what- 
ever the outcome of the election, there is 
any danger of a return to a segregated 
vice district or a toleration of gambling. 

Two social questions to be decided by 
referendum vote are a minimum wage of 
$2.50 a day for laborers on city work 
and a bond issue to care for an oper- 
ating deficit incurred by the present ad- 
ministration. Witt is vigorously urging 
the higher pay for city work. 



Peace Challenging Preparedness 

By Louis P. Locbner 



SECRETARY CHICACO PEACE SOCIETY 



THE International Peace Con- 
gress which assembled at San 
Francisco and Berkeley, October 
10-13, was like the International 
Congress of Women at The Hague last 
April, interesting not only as a mani- 
festation of the unflinching faith of the 
pacifists in the ultimate triumph of 
their ideal, despite the war now raging. 
but also as an illustration of how, by 
collective application to a problem, a 
conclusion can be arrived at and a plan 
for constructive action agreed upon, 
that at first seems impossible. 

Certainly when the congress as- 
sembled, no one believed that the presi- 
dent of the congress, David Starr Jor- 
dan, would be commissioned personally 
to take the following ringing resolution 
to President Wilson : 

"The outcome of recent missions to 
the governments of the warring nations 
warrants the belief that, while the na- 
tions at war are not willing themselves 
to begin negotiations or even signify a 
desire to do so, lest it be interpreted as 
a sign of weakness and place them at a 
disadvantage in the final peace settle- 
ment, there is nevertheless abundant evi- 
dence that those charged with the ad- 
ministration of the foreign policies of 
these nations would welcome, or at least 
not oppose, affirmative action by a neu- 
tral agency to bring about a peace based 
on international justice. 

"The congress therefore respectfully 
urges the President of the United States 
to co-operate with other neutral govern- 
ments in calling a conference of neutral 
nations, which would constitute a vol- 
untary court of continuous mediation, 
would invite suggestions of settlement 
from each of the warring nations, and 
in any case submit to all of them simul- 
taneously reasonable proposals as a basis 
for peace." 

As I read over the preliminary an- 
nouncements of the congress. I find that 



reference to the present world catastro- 
phe was studiously omitted. In the res- 
olutions committee there was at first 
skepticism as to the advisability of say- 
ing anything about means and methods 
of ending the present war. The speeches 
of the first four sessions concerned them- 
selves with action to be taken after the- 
restoration of peace. But once the two. 
distinguished European women, Rosika 
Schwimmer and Chrystal Macmillan, 
had an opportunity to state their case 
for a mediatory conference of neutrals, 
even the most skeptical could not but 
agree that the attempt to end the war by 
negotiation rather than by exhaustion or 
military advantage was at least worth 
the effort. 

November 12 is the date set by Presi- 
dent Wilson for Dr. Jordan's visit to 
him, and the hundreds of earnest men 
who took part in the congress, as well 
as the thousands of Americans through- 
out the nation who have been deeply 
stirred by the message of Miss Addams 
and her co-workers, will await the out- 
come of Dr. Jordan's visit with the 
keenest anticipation. 

Another important action regarding 
the present world situation that came out 
of the congress was the following reso- 
lution, unanimously adopted : 

"The numerous programs for a con- 
structive and lasting peace, formulated 
since the beginning of the war by na- 
tional and international conferences, 
prove a deep-seated and universal re- 
vulsion against the forces and ideals that 
have brought on the present conflict. 

"This popular demand for construc- 
tive peace, if directed into definite chan- 
nels, will exert a profound influence on 
the terms of peace. 

"This congress rejoices that the inter- 
national labor, women's and other move- 
ments are preparing for international 
meetings to be held at the same time and 
place as the conference of powers which 



104 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 



shall arrange the terms of peace. Pro- 
vision should be made by which other 
bodies, too, shaH be represented in a 
similar manner. 

"To this end the congress advocates 
the immediate constitution of a joint 
committee of representatives of all 
forces interested in the furtherance of a 
lasting peace along the lines outlined by 
the Emergency Peace Federation of 
Chicago, which committee shall estab- 
lish a central clearing house and insure 
a constant and persistent campaign of 
education and action, national and inter- 
national." 

Dr. Jordan in his presidential address 
on The Ways to Lasting Peace had 
shown that over thirty constructive peace 
programs had been adopted by respon- 
sible bodies since the beginning of this 
war, and demonstrated their great simi- 
larity. Senator Henri LaFontaine of 
Belgium, following him in a later dis- 
cussion outlined the opportunity before 
men and women of good will every- 
where if they will but crystallize this 
sentiment and bring the weight of pub- 
lic opinion to bear in an organized man- 
ner upon those charged with framing the 
terms of peace. The congress assented 
to these ideas in the resolution above 
quoted. 

It was but natural that a peace con- 
gress held on the Pacific Coast should 
concern itself prominently with the prob- 
lem of Oriental relations. The eloquent 
appeals of Prof. Yamato Ichihas'.i of 
Stanford University, of Kiyo Sue Inui 
and Sidney L. Gulick for a better under- 
standing of Japan, coupled with the 
dramatic recital by Prof. G. E. Uyehara 
•of Tokio of how Japan had reaped noth- 
ing by the hatred of the Koreans out of 
her conquest of her feeble continental 
neighbor, were particularly apropos at a 
time when the Hearst papers were pub- 
lishing articles regarding Japan's desire 
to invade America ! And Dr. Ng Poon 
Chew of San Francisco cut into the very 
hearts of his hearers when he showed 
how his ancient country, bit by bit and 
despite her own convictions and wishes, 
is being forced to become militarized by 
the so-called Christian nations, because 
a nation is great in their eyes only when 
it is prepared "in the shortest time, and 



and with the least cost to itself, to kill 
the greatest number of people in an- 
other nation." 

The congress went on record urging 
the Congress of the United States to 
adopt 

"an immigration policy based on the 
just and equitable treatment of all races 
— a policy that will grant the rights of 
citizenship regardless of race or na- 
tionality ; and to provide that all aliens 
should be under the special protection 
of the national government." 

Another topic of absorbing interest 
was that of Pan-American relations. To 
mention but one of the speakers, Prof. 
Bailey Willis of Stanford University 
made the interesting suggestion that the 
time had come for an expansion of the 
Monroe doctrine, not, however, into a 
Pan-American doctrine, but into one of 
the Temperate Americas. In other 
words, in his opinion the more stable 
South American republics in the Tem- 
perate Zone should be invited to share 
the responsibilities of preventing civil 
and international war on this continent, 
while the less stable republics of Central 
and tropical America be put on a "wait- 
ing list," so to speak, against the time 
when their political conditions would 
merit their entering the charmed circle 
of the Pan-American sisterhood of 
states. His ideas were endorsed by the 
congress in resolution form, to which 
was coupled an expression of apprecia- 
tion "of the policy for restoring order in 
Mexico by the co-operation with our 
government of other American repub- 
lics." 

It is impossible in a short account to 
touch upon all the speakers or to com- 
ment upon all the topics discussed. Suf- 
fice it to say that special sessions were 
devoted to the Church and Peace, War 
and the Workers, Education and Peace, 
Women and War, and A Century of 
Peace Among English-speaking Peoples. 
Each of these subjects drew a different 
local audience in addition to the regular 
delegates, so that the peace message was 
carried to a far greater number of peo- 
ple than the attendance at any one meet- 
ing would indicate. 

Nor is it possible to comment at length 



on each of the fourteen resolutions 
adopted. The program of the League 
to Enforce Peace was endorsed with 
certain reservations. The scientific study 
of international relations in colleges and 
universities was as heartily urged as the 
introduction of military training in our 
public schools was vigorously opposed. 
Woman suffrage as a step towards peace 
was endorsed. President Wilson was 
generously praised for his efforts to keep 
this country out of war. 

At a time when even men who hitherto 
have been pacifists are caught in the 
general hysteria for armaments, it is 
refreshing to know that the San Fran- 
cisco Peace Congress, despite the varied 
character of the delegations attending it, 
opposed "preparedness" in the following 
resolutions : 

"The defense of the Republic is not 
primarily a matter of armies and navies, 
but it lies in justice, conciliation and 
trust in international law. While we do 
not urge disarmament under present con- 
ditions, we are opposed to the current 
widespread demand for costly prepara- 
tion against hypothetic dangers. If ex- 
hausted Europe is an increased menace 
to America, it must likewise be so to 
other neutrals, while armament expan- 
sion on our part invites similar action 
in the nations of South America and 
Asia. 

"The hoped-for leadership of America 
in the achievement of a new world order 
would be defeated by her surrender to 
the belief that the lesson of the great 
war is that she should seriously enter 
further into the old world competition 
in armament, for, in the words of Wash- 
ington, 'Overgrown military establish- 
ments are, under any form of govern- 
ment, inauspicious to liberty, and are to 
be regarded as particularly hostile to 
republican liberty.' 

"This congress looks with apprehen- 
sion on the presence in advisory boards 
of the United States government of men 
personally interested in the preparation, 
manufacture or sale of munitions of 
war. 

"The congress further questions the 
propriety of appointing on congressional 
committees men who are or who have 
been concerned with the manufacture or 
trade in war materials." 



WHY? 

Mary Carolyn Da vies 



WHY do you die for them, men.' 
Why do you rot for them, then? 
Why do you bow to their call anyhow 
When will yon break from them — when? 

When will you rise up and say 

' ' My life is my own, ' ' anyway 1 

When will you thrust off the yoke of these kings, 

Generals, war lords, and other such things ? 



Why do you work for them, men.' 
Why do you toil for them, then? 
Why do you live by the orders they give 
When will you break from them, when I 

When will you stand up alone 

And tell them, "My work is my own." 

When will you thrust off the chains of these kings. 

Money lords, magnates, and other such thiiu 



A Prophecy and Its Fulfillment 

Mary Breese Fuller 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, SMITH COLLEGE 



A FASCINATING occupation in 
these days is to watch the ful- 
filling of a great piece of so- 
cial prophecy of the sixteenth 
century — the Utopia of Sir Thomas 
More, written in 1516. Detailed reforms 
of his imagination have been realized 
with greater rapidity in the last twenty 
years than in the four hundred and 
eighty years preceding. The modern 
hospital, with its contagious ward, the 
"spirit of play in the city streets," even 
eugenic marriage, and incubators were 
all parts of the reformer's extraordinary 
vision. A six-hour working day; the 
abolition of a standing army ; the pre- 
vention of war by assassinating the dip- 
lomats on both sides ( !) ; the creation 
of a mighty national temple of worship, 
— these idealisms still remain to be car- 
ried to practical realization. 

Just now I am most interested in the 
fulfillment of More's ideals in regard to 
the treatment of criminals by modern 
prison reformers, and I am particularly 
interested in the curious likeness be- 
tween the ideals and the personalities 
of More and of Thomas Mott Osborne, 
warden of Sing Sing. My excuse, then, 
for adding more words to the many that 
are being written about Mr. Osborne and 
his work is my hope that faith in the 
practicality of his ideals may be but- 
tressed by knowing that they are in sub- 
stance the revivification of those held 
by More, a prophet and teacher of recog- 
nized power, whose insight into truth, 
whose spirit of justice and common- 
sense, whose humour and whose belief in 
the possibilities of every individual are 
strikingly like the same qualities in this 
Thomas of the twentieth century — also 
not doubting, but full of faith. 

More was concerned chiefly with 
thieves, saddled in enormous numbers 
upon the English state by the economic 
conditions of the early sixteenth century. 
Osborne has to deal with all types of 
criminals, for whom the society of the 
twentieth century bears a slowly recog- 
nized responsibility. More protests 
against capital punishment "for a little 
money," i. <?., theft. Osborne protests 
against capital punishment for any of- 
fense. 

More was interested in reforming the 
society which produces thieves; Os- 
borne is interested chiefly in reforming 
the individual criminal. Both, however, 
attack the institutions of the state which 
propagate the criminal and the laws 
which maltreat him. Both reformers 
advocate fundamentally the same atti- 
tude of mind on the part of judge and 



warden toward the wrong-doer — the at- 
titude of the educator, not the punisher. 
Both More and Osborne advocate simi- 
lar methods of training the criminal in- 
to an upright and useful citizen by giv- 
ing him healthy conditions for body and 
mind, and responsibility in action, while 
he has about him an atmosphere of in- 
creasing trust, as he warrants that trust. 
Also, it is interesting to find that the 
criticism More implied would be given 
his theory by the public was exactly the 
same criticism as is given to the experi- 
ment of Osborne today. "If men 
thought their lives would be safe, what 
fear or force could restrain ill men ? 
On the contrary they would look on the 
mitigation of the punishment as an in- 
vitation to commit more crimes." 

To illustrate a few of the generaliza- 
tions made above, I quote, with the 
Utopia, mostly Mr. Osborne's own words 
in a speech made by him at Chautauqua 
on July 21. I might add that I went to 
hear that speech already convinced of 
the wisdom and value of Mr. Osborne's 
work, but prejudiced against his much 
talking. I heard him talk three hours 
and my prejudice disappeared. I quite 
agreed with ;!:e speaker when I heard 
him say aftei the lecture on the way to 
his train: "I think it pays to talk." 

A little group was standing about Mr. 
Osborne on the trolley platform, and 
among those greeting him was a tall old 
man with a simple honest face. "I was 

a warden in Penitentiary," he 

said, "and I tried to do some of the same 
things you are trying to do, but the poli- 
ticians got after me. and I couldn't talk 
like you can. so I lost my job." 

Mr. Osborne responded warmly to the 
older warden. "Well, I think it pays to 
talk. The politicians are after me too, 
and I want the people to know the facts 
of what is being done." 

During this talk Mr. Osborne said: 
"Surely the system that sends men back 
to prison again and again must be lack- 
ing in common-sense. Even the very 
young men in Sing Sing, many of them, 
had served their "bit," — some of them 
eleven times. Punishment so far as I 
know has never succeeded in reforming 
a single human being." 

Compare More : "This way of pun- 
ishing thieves [hanging them] was 
neither just in itself nor good for the 
public. ... In this, not only you in 
England, but a great part of the world 
imitate some ill masters that are readier 
to chastise their scholars than to teach 
them. ... It were much better to 
make such good provision by which 



every man might be put in a method how- 
to live." 

Still on the purpose of imprisonment, 
the warden went on : "There is no man 
living good enough or wise enough to 
determine how much punishment a man 
should have. . . . The only way in 
which we can mete out justice is to give 
to every man an indeterminate sentence, 
and then keep him until he is cured 
enough to go out into society again and 
not be a menace, just as we do in a hos- 
pital. When a patient enters, the phy- 
sician does not say when he passes 
through the door, 'You must stay four 
weeks and no longer' ; he keeps him until 
he is cured. There are some men so 
dangerous to society at large that they 
should be kept in prison all their lives. 
There are other men again whom it is a 
crime to keep in prison. The aim of the 
prison should be to make every man 
capable of living an honest and a useful 
life." 

This is what More says: "Extreme 
justice is an extreme injury." "None 
[in the Utopian state] are quite hopeless 
of receiving their freedom, since by their 
obedience and by giving good grounds to 
believe that they will change their man- 
ner of life for the future, they may ex- 
pect at last to obtain their liberty : and 
some are every year restored to it upon 
the good character that is given of them. 
If only in England when the sentence of 
death was passed upon a thief, the 
Prince would reprieve him for a while 
and make the experiment upon him — 
so also on the vagabond against whom 
we have made many laws, yet we have 
not been able to gain our ends." 

What was this experiment of More's, 
as pictured among the "Polylerits," his 
imaginary nation? "They are neither 
imprisoned nor chained unless there hap- 
pened to be some extraordinary circum- 
stances in their crimes. They go about 
loose and free, working for the public. 
If they are idle and backward to work, 
they are whipped; but if they work hard, 
they are well used and treated without 
any mark of reproach, only the lists of 
them are called always at night, and 
then they are shut up. They suffer no 
other uneasiness, but this of constant 
labour; for as they work for the public, 
so they are well entertained out of the 
public stock, which is done differently in 
different places." 

In going on to describe their cropped 
hair and ears, their peculiar habit of 
dress, and their being forbidden to earn 
or to have money, the sixteenth-century 
Thomas falls short of his usual pro- 

105 






106 



The Survey, October 30. 1915 



phetic daring. Nor does he mention 
moving-picture shows, so far as I am 
aware, nor any other form of recrea- 
tion. Since the life of the Polylerit 
prisoner is out-of-doors largely, as on 
Osborne's prison farm, and his work 
seems to have possessed great variety, 
entertainment was not as much needed 
we might judge, as in Sing Sing prison. 

The ideal of freedom to be out-of- 
doors as much as possible, the preserva- 
tion of physical health, is not only shared 
by the two reformers, but, more vitally, 
the education by responsibility for 
others belongs to the ideals of both men. 

"Vice is not only destroyed," say the 
Utopia, '"and men preserved, but they 
are treated in such a manner as to make 
them see the necessity of being honest, 
and of employing the rest of their lives 
in repairing the injuries they have form- 
erly done to society." Osborne told of 
one convict (from the point of view of 
the warden) worthy of commutation of 
sentence, who refused to accept the offer 
of help in having his time shortened. 
"I can never do as much good anywhere 
else as I am doing here," he said. And 
the warden knew that this criminal's 



work for society was exactly the work 
of helping other prisoners, as a pris- 
oner. 

There is no mention of a Mutual Wel- 
fare League in the Utopia, but the same 
sort of responsibility is indicated by an- 
other phase of the life of the Polylerit 
prisoner. "So little do travellers appre- 
hend mischief from them that they gen- 
erally make use of them as guides, irom 
one jurisdiction to another." 

This reference to the prisoner as a 
guide again suggests the Sing Sing ex- 
periment illustrated by Mr. Osborne in 
his Chautauqua speech. "The fact that 
we had four runaways shows that Sing 
Sing is not heaven yet, and the fact that 
the men who hunted the prisoners were 
prisoners themselves showed that the 
system has some merit. One of the men 
who took most active part in the search 
was an old man called by the name of 
Bill who had been famous as a crook 
and a dangerous man to cross. Another 
of the prisoners, in speaking about the 
present system said: 'They may say 
what they like about the present system. 
and I will tell you there is just one an- 
swer and that is that old Bill was out 



all night alone and come back.' It is 
not a miracle: it is only the way God 
works in the soul of man. Give a man a 
chance to be self-reliant, give him a 
chance to choose between right and 
wrong, to make a decision between good 
and evil and we do not know why, we 
only know that the fact shows that there 
is something in him that makes him 
choose the right." 

"A colored prisoner who had been con- 
victed because his partners in burglary 
had 'double-crossed him,' the greatest 
sin among criminals, had vowed that 
when he was released from prison, the 
first thing that he would do would be to 
'get' his perfidious mates. After he had 
been out a while he wrote me a letter 
and the end of it said this, 'Don't you 
know how it is when somebody is playing 
a tune that you don't know and you begin 
to hum it to yourself and then he makes 
a great discord? That is the way that 
•getting' that fellow now seems to me. — 
out of tune with everything.' Is not that 
a wonderful expression of the new 
spirit that pervades Sing Sing? Re- 
sponsibility has been placed upon these 
men and thev rise to it." 



THE town is situated on the Mis- 
souri river: population fifty 
thousand. It claims for its trade 
territory most of South Dakota, 
together with corners of a half-dozen 
contiguous states. 

On October 15. 1914, an event oc- 
curred which was not chronicled in the 
public press. In the early morning hours 
of that day two or three men slipped 
quietly from the brake-beams of an in- 
coming freight train. They were mem- 
bers of the Industrial Workers of the 
World. One of them carried in his 
pocket a charter for the new organiza- 
tion which they had come to establish. 
These men rented an obscure room in 
that part of town where the people are 
thickest, began to hunt jobs by day to 
keep the wolf from the door and to 
preach at night the gospel of the soli- 
darity of workingmen. For a period of 
some seven weeks the city took no 
notice of them — in fact, did not know 
that they had arrived. Then there oc- 
curred a "providential" event of the 
kind always sure to come in due time to 
every man who has eyes in his head. 

It happened almost over night that the 
warm, beautiful weather of November 
turned into the fierce cold of a northern 
winter. Then the astonishing fact broke 
upon the slumbering city thac there 
were a thousand unemployed men in 
town. Observant people had already 
suspected the situation, for the town al- 
ways has unemployed men on its streets 
in winter. They are the men who har- 
vest the Dakota wheat fields in the 
summer, work on railway construction, 
and are ready at call for all sorts of 
odd jobs which summon men in large 



How One Town 
Learned a Lesson 
in Free Speech 

By 

Wallace M. Short 



numbers here and there across the coun- 
try. They are the migratory workers 
that fill so important a place in our 
economic system. In the winter there 
are no wheat fields to harvest, and the 
construction jobs are shut down. There 
is no place for these men to go but to 
the nearest city. They cannot camp on 
the Dakota prairies. In the city they 
pick up a good many odd pieces of work ; 
and many are engaged for some weeks 
in the ice harvest, another task which 
the migratory worker turns his hand to 
as he can. 

When the cold came last fall, the mis- 
sion halls, which furnish a warm place 
for men to sit for an evening, with a 
crust of bread for the hungry and a bed 
or a stretch of floor to sleep on, began 
to fill up. Then the I. W. W. men. who 
know how to make use of tides and oc- 
casions, sought larger quarters in the 
very center of the town. Thev moved 
into the Socialist Hall which ordinarily 



is not much used except for one or two 
meetings a week. 

They began to feed the hungry. They 
held meetings every night and preached 
their gospel to a crowded house. Hun- 
gry men are pretty sure to come where 
food is to be found. The members of 
the I. W. W. knew how to solicit from 
the merchants food for the hungry, and 
how to prepare and serve it. For many 
days hundreds of men were served at 
Socialist Hall with the one decent meal 
they got in twenty-four hours. The mis- 
sions gave a crust and a cup of taste- 
less coffee, and dealt out orthodox sal- 
vation for another world, but the I. \\ . 
W. gave a bowl of soup, a plate of 
beans, and good bread and butter, which 
satisfied hunger and sustained life. 

Meanwhile, they preached the gospel 
of present salvation from hunger and 
poverty. They criticized industrial con- 
ditions. The wages and conditions of 
work in the ice fields which furnish the 
city's supply of summer coolness came 
in for their share of the criticism. That 
was where the trouble began. For 
some of the people who were criticized 
were business men of considerable in- 
fluence in the town. There is alwaj S 
more or less difficulty attendant upon 
preaching a gospel which is not merely 
academic, but which affects present 
company. The tact is that good citizens 
of the town, years before the I. W. W • 
arrived, had gossiped about conditions 
in the ice harvest. 

The majority of the workers receiv< 
15 cents an hour, being docked for time 
when not actually at work, and are 
charged 60 cents a day for the food 
which the ice company furnishes them. 



A Lesson in Free Speech 



107 



At Socialist Hall there was no lack of 
men circulating among the unemployed 
who testified from personal experience 
that they had worked many a ten-hour 
day on the ice and received 45 or 50 
cents after deductions were made for 
food and for idle moments. Cutting ice 
is far from pleasant work ; it is damp 
and cold, and warm clothing is neces- 
sary. Warm clothing costs money. The 
fact that the offices of the ice company 
were besieged by hundreds of men 
clamoring for work under these condi- 
tions gave the lie to the charge, that 
many comfortable people make, that un- 
employed men will not work. 

Some of the I. W. W. orators boldly 
declared that they would not work un- 
der such conditions. This fact began to 
leak out; the merchants began to with- 
hold their contributions of food ; hun- 
gry men who had been getting one meal 
a day now got none. Hungry men are 
likely to believe the charges which the 
I. W. W. bring against industrial condi- 
tions — they are in a state of body and 
mind which is next door to mental "con- 
viction." 

VJEANWHILE the Commercial Club 
had appointed a committee to in- 
vestigate conditions. The public press 
reported from day to day that the com- 
mittee was investigating. All this, how- 
ever, produced no results at the hall 
where hundreds of hungry men spent the 
day, and where as many of them as 
could slept on the benches and the floor 
at night. The orators began to demand 
something besides investigation. It seem- 
ed as though all the men had suddenly 
joined the I. W. W. Finally one day, at 
the noon hour, 150 of these men marched 
in a body to the cafe of the Commercial 
Club and said in no uncertain terms 
that they were desperately hungry. A 
few of the more reckless characters 
picked up slices of bread from the plates 
on the tables. A minister happened to 
be present whose sociology is of the 
practical and human sort. He gave a 
little talk to the men and assured them 
that the Commercial Club would take 
action, and the men peaceably dispersed. 
But in such an organization as a Com- 
mercial Club there are always some men 
who count such an act as the invasion 
of their lunch hour by the hungry and 
the unwashed as a criminal act. These 
men were alarmed and outraged. They 
put pressure upon the city officials. They 
set policemen to guard the doors of the 
Commercial Club. They brought in de- 
tectives to ferret out men who carried 
I. W. W. cards. The mayor hastened 
to interview the governor and to assure 
the public that the militia could be had 
promptly if desired. 

The minister of the human psychology 
reported from the committee of the 
Commercial Club that upon the commit- 
tee were a few broad-minded men who 
were in favor of handling the situation 



in a humane way. He mentioned espe- 
cially two, a Jewish merchant and the 
president of a brewery, who seemed to 
understand the situation. 

But the police were instructed that 
the I. W. W. was to be given no quarter. 
Pressure was brought to bear upon the 
Socialists to turn these men out of their 
hall, so they moved to a little basement 
room several blocks from the center of 
town. Announcement was made that 
street meetings would be forbidden. A 
certain citizen, one who has little sym- 
pathy with I. W. W. doctrines, but who 
does have some understanding and sym- 
pathy for human beings, went to the 
city hall to protest that if war were 
waged upon the I. W. W., the city 
would see riotous times and would in 
the end lose the battle. The I. W. W. 
quietly announced a meeting on the 
street. This citizen was present when 
the meeting began. Ten minutes later 
all the available policemen in the city 
were present. The citizen circulated 
freely among the crowd, chatted with 
the police, and no arrests were made. 

For two months the threatened war 
was held off, the street meetings were 
carried on by a little handful of propa- 
gandists, and the public largely forgot 
the presence of the radical organization. 
New quarters centrally located were ob- 
tained. But the I. W. W. was evidently 
getting ready to organize the harvest 
hands for the coming summer. Some 
business men of the city, who are hostile 
to labor organizations and who believe in 
forcible suppression, were restive. They 
wished to see the invaders driven out. 
The latter part of March they got the 
police started again. 

The police soon made an occasion for 
starting battle by arresting "on sus- 
picion" a man found at the I. W. W. 
hall with a membership card in his 
pocket. The I. W. W. accepted the 
challenge and went to police head- 
quarters in a body next day to demand 
the release of their brother. They found 
themselves confronted with arrest on 
some conventional charge of "vagrancy" 
or "disturbing the peace." They were 
tried in police court and thrown into 
jail. The battle was on. 

Events now moved swiftly. On 
April 10, 1915, there appeared in 
Solidarity, the national organ of the 

I. W. W., a letter "from the jail," 

and hundreds of men, from Boston to 
Seattle, headed for the scene of trouble. 
Meanwhile two or three men were drop- 
ping off almost every incoming freight 
train to add themselves to the conflict. 
By the middle of April eighty-three 
members of the organization were be- 
hind the bars. Some were college gradu- 
ates; others had been ministers or Y. 
M. C. A. secretaries; the majority were 
young men with economic theories at 
their tongue's end. 

The street meetings went merrily on 
with constantly increasing crowds in at- 



tendance. Every night at the appointed 
street corner there gathered six hundred 
to a thousand men to listen with increas- 
ing sympathy to the orators who were 
each evening "pulled off the soap-box" 
and dragged away to jail. The authori- 
ties evidently had prepared for the bat- 
tle beforehand. They built a stockade, 
shipped in rock, and proposed to set 
the men to breaking rock by day and 
sleeping in jail by night. They also 
threatened that the new arrivals might 
be charged with "conspiracy" and given 
a three-year penitentiary sentence, thus 
relieving the congested condition of the 
local jail, and passing the problem on to 
the penal institutions of the state. 

When the prisoners were led out to 
work, they went peaceably as a flock of 
sheep — and sat down passively on the 
rock pile. It was a humiliating situa- 
tion. There was the tantalizing inquiry, 
What are you going to do about it? 
The afternoon wore on and no work 
was done. The next day the police re- 
sorted to fists and clubs to make the men 
work. Some of the men were sent to 
the hospital with broken heads. The 
third day, when the men were ordered 
out they reposed quietly on the floor of 
their cells and waited for the police to 
come and get them. The fire-hose was 
turned on them, but the rock pile re- 
mained untouched. The men were re- 
duced to bread and water diet. Then 
they went on hunger strike. 

pHH jail is a damp basement, alive 
with vermin. An occasional "good" 
citizen has sputtered about it for many 
a year, but never did anything to im- 
prove conditions. The I. W. W. boys 
removed all clothing, or nearly all, so as 
to keep as free as possible from the live 
creatures. After a few days of this 
hopeless fight, they resorted to "direct 
action" — they swept together into a 
heap the vermin-infested blankets and 
rags and set fire to them. There was 
awful smoke. Some one has said that 
there is little danger of riot in a city if 
the chief of police can see a joke farther 
than any other man in town. About 
this time the whole town began to see 
the joke. Good citizens had felt out- 
raged and humiliated; it was a great re- 
lief to have a chance to smile. 

The next evening a public-spirited 
business man went at eight o'clock to 
hear the orators speak on the street. 
He saw an intelligent fellow taken from 
the soap-box and dragged to jail. The 
next morning he appeared at the police 
court and testified that the man had not 
said or done anything to warrant arrest. 
This act turned the tide. The police 
had come to their wits' end and were 
glad to try another method. But the 
eighty-three men who were in jail re- 
mained there. 

Then the little organization of Social- 
ists, out of their meager funds, printed 
a circular letter of a thousand words, 



108 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 



entitled, Let Us Right This Wrong. It 
was a letter of facts and reason and 
justice, such as any body of churchmen 
or organization of ministers might be 
proud to have written, if only church- 
men and ministers had the vision and 
courage to do such things. This circu- 
lar called attention to facts and condi- 
tions which city officials did not like to 
see in print. The police confiscated the 
circular, after a number of them had 
been distributed about the city. The 
promise was made to the I. W. W. 
that the authorities would treat with the 
prisoners with a view to arriving at some 
satisfactory solution. The result was 
that about the middle of April the men 



were turned out on the understanding 
that they would stop the immigration 
which was bringing in scores of recruits 
every day from San Francisco, Chicago, 
and almost every other city in the land. 
The day after the prisoners were 
turned out, fifty-two new recruits ar- 
rived by the morning trains, and almost 
as many more by the afternoon trains. 
It was lucky for the city officials that 
they discovered as soon as they did, that 
sitting on the safety valve is too hot a 
job. Some members of the I. W. 
W. evidently have a sense of humor. 
They went to the City Hall and asked 
permission to hold an I. W. W. banquet 
on the rock pile. The permission was 



given, and the organization assembled 
in hundreds for an evening feast. Then 
they began to steal out of town as silent- 
ly as they had come, leaving behind a 
little group to carry on the work of the 
organization. The street meetings drop- 
ped to the normal forty or fifty in at- 
tendance. 

A few days later the I. W. W. brought 
in one of their most effective national 
speakers, a "girl agitator," who on the 
night of April 27, as reported at some 
length in the papers the next morn- 
ing, addressed several hundred work- 
ers in the Socialist Hall. Thus they 
celebrated their victorv, and the war was 



Caged — A Question of Man or Beast 



lj NDER the general caption, The 
Greatest Crime in the United 
States Is the Wholesale Manufacture 
of Criminals, Henry M. Hyde of the 
Chicago Tribune is running a very- 
interesting series of copyrighted arti- 
cles. Through the courtesy of Mr. 
Hyde and the Tribune, The Survey 
is privileged to reproduce these strik- 
ing pictures, contrasting cages for 
men and wild beasts, which illustrate 
the second article in the series, A 
Night in Jail Because of Petty Laws. 

This article was written to answer 
the question, "What happens to a 
man who is arrested in any big 
American city for breaking one of 
the innumerable city ordinances?" 
The answer gives the result of 
many hours spent in the cell- 
rooms of police stations, where Mr. 
Hyde affirms "perhaps a million citi- 
zens, most of them with no criminal 
intent whatever, suffer this humiliat- 
ing experience every year." 




THE KING OF BEASTS IN THE LINCOLN PARK ZOO 



Copyright hit 
Chicago Tribune 



THE NORLEST WORK OF GOD IN THE MAXWELL STREET JAIL 




Among the titles of his other arti- 
cles are : Criminal Law Is Full of 
Freaks and Cruelty ; Trivial Queries 
Put to Jurors Help Fill Jail; The 
Abuse of Probation Laws Encour- 
ages Crime in Many Ways, but Cau- 
tion Cures Their Main Defects; The 
Feebleminded Make Paupers and 
Criminals. 

The articles are full of human in- 
terest stories which are used to point 
the most incisive appeals for per- 
sonal and public effort to right the 
wrongs disclosed. Many of them are 
being righted, as all of them may be, 
by such agencies as the New York 
Criminal Courts Committee and the 
joint commission for the investiga- 
tion of the criminal practice and pro- 
cedure of the courts of Chicago, in 
accordance with the recommendation 
oi the Merriam Crime Committee, 
referred to in The Survey for Octo- 
ber 9. The annual reports of the 

Bi ud of City Magistrates of the 
city of New York and of the Munici- 
pal Court of Chicago contain manj 
evidences of such reforms. 



Pension Funds for Public Service Employes 

By Louis Roth 



THE Georgia Railroad Commis- 
sion has recently considered the 
question whether contributions 
by a public utility corporation to 
an employes' pension and insurance 
fund shall be allowed as an operating 
charge upon the business. The case in- 
volved the city of Columbus and the 
Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph 
Company and was decided September 8, 
1914. 

The commission said : "We assume 
that such a practice is justified on the 
grounds : 

"1. That because thereof more effi- 
cient, better satisfied and more inter- 
ested employes can be secured, and 
consequently the character of service 
to the public improved; 

"2. That dependent employes are 
less liable ultimately to become a 
charge upon the general public, and 
that it is more equitable that such a 
charge should be laid upon that por- 
tion of the public in whose service 
they were incapacitated. 

"As it appears to us, the first argu- 
ment seems to ignore the fact that the 
public is entitled to efficient service; 
that it is the primary duty of the com- 
pany to furnish such ; that charges in 
the first instance are fixed upon the as- 
sumption that such service is being ren- 
dered and the public can be charged no 
more than the service is worth, however 
laudable the purpose which might be 
back of any additional charge. 

"The second assumption, it seems to 
us, is wrong in principle, and if fol- 
lowed to its logical conclusion might re- 
sult in immense burdens of indirect tax- 
ation, extending into every field of em- 
ployment, imposed upon the public with- 
out its direct consent, and as to which it 
would be without voice, control, or in- 
formation." 

The commission did not prohibit the 
company's contribution to the fund, as 
the amount chargeable to the city of 
Columbus was small, nor did it order a 
reduction in the rates. It found that the 
company was earning not quite 7 per 
cent on the valuation of its property and 
such a return was deemed not unreason- 
able. But the attitude indicated by the 
commission toward the treatment of an 
employes' pension and insurance fund 
was such as, if followed by other com- 
missions, would give rise to a serious 
problem. 

To make clear the basis for this de- 
cision, it should be understood that it 
is a well-established rule of the courts 
and of public utility commissions that 
rates charged by corporations engaged 
in public service may be high enough 
to yield a reasonable return on the fair 



JN this article Mr. Roth, who is 
librarian of the Public Serznce 
Commission of the First District 
of New York, which is New 
York city, discusses the opinion of 
the Public Service Commission of 
Georgia, disapproving contributions 
by a telephone company to a pen- 
sion fund. This position Mr. Roth 
considers wrong in principle and 
contrary to established standards. 

He describes the pension plan of 
the American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company, and states that 
the New York Commission for the 
Second District, after its recent 
inquiry into telephone rates in 
New York city, allowed contribu- 
tions by the company to the pension 
fund as reasonable, and allozvcd 
the company to maintain the fund 
as a charge on operating expenses. 
This, in Mr. Roth's opinion, should 
bring the pension fund itself under 
the supervision of the commission, 
a move which he thinks will have a 
tendency to safeguard the rights 
of the employe. — Editor. 



value of the property that is being used 
for the public. To determine the return 
under a certain rate, there are charged 
against the gross earnings the operating 
charges : namely, expenses of operation, 
cost of maintenance or repair, an allow- 
ance for depreciation, taxes, and in fact 
all other items, paid or payable, in con- 
nection with the operation of the plant. 
What is left is the operating income 
which may be paid out in interest on 
funded debt and in dividends on stock. 

There are differences of opinion with 
respect to the reasonableness of some 
of the charges that are not imposed 
by law, as for instance the allowance 
for depreciation, and the amount thereof 
must be passed upon by utility commis- 
sions in each particular case. The low- 
er the operating charges the greater is 
the operating income and the more may 
the rates charged to the public be ham- 
mered down to the margin of a reason- 
able return on the fair value of the prop- 
erty. To reduce the rates of public utili- 
ties, therefore, where dividends are not 
excessive, the commissions must reduce 
either the appraised value of the property 
or the operating charges. 

It is natural, following the same line 
of reasoning, that any increase in operat- 
ing charges will be carefully scrutinized. 
In the Georgia case, one of the problems 
before the commission was to determine 
whether contributions to a pension fund 
constituted a reasonable addition to such 
charges. In taking an unfavorable po- 



sition they were acting both upon un- 
sound reasoning, and contrary to ac- 
cepted standards. 

No modern economist would deny 
that the price of a utility may legiti- 
mately include a tax to provide a sub- 
sistence for the producer of such a util- 
ity when, after years of productive labor, 
he shall no longer be able to render any 
service. The cost of supporting him 
should rightly be a charge upon the 
utility he produced, and be paid by the 
users of such utility, rather than that 
he be subject to charity. 

This principle applies to a regulated 
utility as well as to an unregulated 
utility — perhaps even more to the form- 
er, because the producers of regulated 
utilities are in the employ of quasi- 
public corporations. A pension provision 
for the employes of public corporations, 
i. e., for teachers, policemen, firemen, 
and others in the employ of the larger 
cities, is now not an uncommon institu- 
tion. In fact, a powerful movement 
is on foot to institute pension systems 
for all city, state, and federal employes. 
Such pensions exist in Germany, and 
England has established an old-age 
pension system, the benefits of which are 
extended to employes of all industries. 

The Georgia commission would not 
permit a contribution to an employes' 
pension and insurance fund to be charg- 
ed to the cost of operation because such 
a fund is not required by the Georgia 
statute. But neither does the Georgia 
law prohibit that such a contribution be 
charged to the cost of operation. The 
approval of such a charge is entirely 
within the discretion of the Georgia 
commission, and it is sound economics 
and correct accounting. The uniform 
system of accounts of both New York 
state commissions and of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission require that con- 
tributions to pension funds be charged 
to the cost of operation. 

If, under a system of rate regulation, 
a contribution to a pension fund is at 
all, in the words of the Georgia com- 
mission, "laudable and praiseworthy," 
then it should be encouraged. The ex- 
istence of such a fund is, however, possi- 
ble only if contributions thereto are 
charged to cost of operation and paid 
by the consumers. The requirement 
that, if such a fund exist, it be sup- 
ported by the investors from surplus, 
which would otherwise go for the pay- 
ment of return on investment, could be 
justified only if the investors received 
more than a reasonable return on the 
fair value of the property. 

That might, however, be evidence that 
the rates were too high, and the com- 
mission could reduce the rates to the 

109 



110 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 



margin of yielding only a reasonable re- 
turn on the fair value of the property. 
To such a reasonable return the invest- 
ors are entitled without diminution even 
for praiseworthy purposes, so nothing 
is left out of which they could reason- 
ably be required to support an employes' 
pension fund. The only source from 
which the support of such a fund can 
come is, therefore, the rates. Hence, 
contributions to such a fund must be 
paid by the consumers. 

The American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company, which controls the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, 
the Western Electric Company, and the 
Bell Telephone System, employing 
throughout the country nearly 200,000 
men and women, established on Jan- 
uary 1, 1913, a plan for employes' pen- 
sion, disability benefits, and death bene- 
fits. The initial appropriation for this 
plan was $10,845,000. The fund draws 
4 per cent interest, and at the end of 
each year such additional contributions 
are made to the fund by the companies 
as are required to restore the fund to 
its original amount, subject to a limit of 
2 per cent of each company's payroll. 

A valuation of the property of the 
Xew York city telephone system was 
completed sometime ago in connection 
with a rate case pending before the Pub- 
lic Service Commission for the Second 
District. Under the uniform system of 
accounts the contributions to the em- 
ployes pension and insurance fund were 
charged to the cost of operation, to be 
paid for by consumers in rates. 



The plan of the American Telephone 
and Telegraph Company is far-reaching, 
and will cost a great deal more than 
merely an accident insurance under such 
an act as the workmen's compensation 
law of New York state. The establish- 
ment of this plan was a voluntary act of 
the directors, and the initial contribution 
was taken from surplus, which could 
have been paid out in dividends to the 
stockholders. The company had a right, 
therefore, to impose such conditions for 
the participation in the benefits in that 
initial contribution as it saw fit. The 
conditions are moreover very liberal as 
respecting the initial appropriation. 

Since, however, the annual contribu- 
tions to the fund are charged, as they 
should be, to the cost of operation and 
are paid by the public, the participation 
therein by the employes becomes a mat- 
ter of right, and not a privilege ac- 
corded by the company. To make such 
a right effective, the company should 
revise subdivision I of section 9 
of the plan, which provides: "Neither 
the action of the board of directors in 
establishing this plan for employes' 
pensions, disability benefits, and death 
benefits, nor any action hereafter taken 
by the board or the committee, shall 
be construed as giving to any officer, 
agent, or employe a right to be retained 
in the service of the company or any 
right or claim to any pension or benefit 
or allowance after discharge from the 
service of the company, unless the right 
to such pension or benefit has accrued 
prior to such discharge." 



It is not suggested that the company's 
right to discharge an employe from i:s 
service at any time be limited, but it 
does not seem altogether equitable that 
a discharged employe should, after years 
of service, lose all his right to a fund 
which has been contributed by the pub- 
lic and of which he would have been 
a beneficiary had he not been discharged. 
Who knows that such a provision may 
not tempt an unscrupulous employer to 
find fault with an old employe before 
his right to the benefit mature? The 
management of any large corporation 
may fall into the control of other in- 
terests, and there is no guarantee that 
a change in the management may not 
be accompanied by a change in the 
policy toward the employes. 

In order that the greatest good may 
be derived from the establishment of 
pension and insurance funds by public 
utility corporations and that justice may 
be done to all prospective beneficiaries, 
such funds should be governed by actu- 
arial principles. Public utility commis- 
sions could be instrumental in promot- 
ing the establishment of welfare work 
for the benefit of public utility employes 
I v providing, as the Xew York state 
commissions and the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission have done, that pen- 
sion and insurance funds be paid by the 
public. The commissions could then ex- 
ercise supervision over the proper dis- 
position of such funds, ami prevent the 
loss of benefit to employes through dis- 
charge or resignation after long years 
of service. 



PITY! 

"Show Thy pity upon all prisoners and captives: — 

We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord!" — i'hc Litany. 

M. Kainsfohd Haines 

PITY! Is it this we want .' 
We who labor — silent, gaunt ? 
Justice is our only plea : 
Give us manhood! Make us free! 
Virtue cannot pass these bars 
That blot out beauty from the stars. 
You in shining' silks and furs 
Pray for pity on us curs, 
Who with curses night-watch keep 
While you dream in pillowed sleep. 
In your mansions perilous 
Do you dare to pity us ! 
Narrow judgments of your class 
Banish pity. We, alas! 
Buffet storms by you unguessed 
In the shelter of your nest. 
Tainted was our infancy 
Born of lust and infamy. 
We should pity you wno pray 
Smugly on your gilded way! 
Stripes may brand our souls with shame 
Numbers may destroy each name — 
But man's justice crumbles fast; 
God shall be our judge at last. 



Picnicking in an Empty Reservoir 



111 









A' IE 


» 




3J 




\] 


* i 


£? 




^**^ 


fiLs* 




5- • H 


w^^^ 




- 

3 



III 




Picnicking in an Empty Reservoir 

i?jj' Felix J. Koch 

r^ — to paraphrase friend Dickens, who would have delighted in 
just such a party — there never had been such a party ! Rich 
man, poor man, beggar man, thief mudged elbows. The big munici- 
pal picnic, as they called it, was held in Cincinnati on Labor Day. 

A combination of circumstances may be charged with the suc- 
cess of the happy idea. To begin with, heavy rains had made the 
Cincinnati parks greener and lovelier than ever before; again, one 
of the monster reservoirs in Eden Park, the city's gem breathing- 
space, chanced to be empty for the moment to permit of minor re- 
pairs, and some. clever head among the park commissioners caught 
the idea of utilizing the smooth, concrete water-bed as a dancing- 
floor. What was more, Labor Day was pleasantly warm. 

Before the day of the party the city was placarded with great 
invitations bidding everyone attend the city's picnic in the parks. 
Of these city playgrounds, Eden Park drew the patrons in propor- 
tion of perhaps ten to one — of course, for a taste of the dance in 
the reservoir bed. City employes and others distributed free drink- 
ing-cups. At proper stations there were huge tanks of galvanized 
iron containing ice-water, and men stood ready with long tin dip- 
pers to serve. 

There were beauty contests for the girls, races for the men, 
and especially was there an eye for the children, and contests with 
many prizes for all ages. Great fun was the water-melon con- 
test, but more fun still was the grape-pie contest, where the boys 
lined up, hands behind them, before big, juicy grape-pies. There 
were band-concerts and the big free conservatories to visit, the 
water-tower to climb, and the Art Museum to visit. 

It was a great day, ^^^^ and somehow there was 

a feeling of co-opera- ML Bk tion, of everybody con- 

tri luting to the good ^fl Vjk time of everybody else. 

11k- city's picnic was wli^^ so successful that Cin- 

cinnati is resolved to f gg* ««4 7 repeat it, not once, but 

again and again ! 






PRIZE PIE EATER 


T, 


—The father-and-son-race, a pretty strenuous feat for middle- 




aged men ; 


II. 


— Everybody able to dance awhirl on the floor; 


III. 


—Popular with the pickaninnies, the water-melon contest : 


IV.- 


—Loathe to leave, the last stragglers going home. 



112 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 











An Educational Statesman 

By 

William Anthony Aery 












MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM TO ROBERT CURTIS OGDEX AT HAMPTON INSTITUTE 

Ludlow and Peabody of New York designed the auditorium, the estimated 
cost of which is $100,000. Nearly one-third of the required amount has already 
been donated. Funds are being collected by a national committee, with William 
Howard 1 "aft as president and the hearty support of influential men and women. 



ROBERT CURTIS OGDEN ex- 
ercised rare tact and skill in 
working with men and women 
who were carrying heavy bur- 
dens and fighting a hard fight against 
ignorance, indifference and bad economic 
conditions. He was one of the able 
major-generals in the campaign for uni- 
versal education, not only in the South 
but throughout the nation. He was most 
successful in winning through friend- 
ship the co-operation of schoolmen, 
business leaders, editors and public of- 
ficials. 

It is altogether fitting that the na- 
tional tribute of a grateful multitude to 
an educational statesman, who had al- 
ready won unusual success in business 
and had spent large sums of money to 
bring together the most thoughtful men 
and women of the nation, should find 
permanent expression at Hampton Insti- 
tute. Here it was that Mr. Ogden, work- 
ing with General Armstrong and Dr. 
Frissell, had come to find his call to 
larger educational service. 

The story of Mr. Ogden's relation to 
Hampton Institute and to the larger 
problems of education in which Hamp- 
ton's friends and workers have taken a 
hearty interest, is a brilliant chapter in 
education for service. Mr. Ogden and 
his associates in the Conference for Ed- 



ucation in the South, the Southern Ed- 
ucation Board, and the General Educa- 
tion Board, for example, marshalled 
with skill and persistence powerful edu- 
cational forces against widespread ig- 
norance. 

When General Armstrong came to the 
United States from the Hawaiian Islands 
he brought with him a letter of intro- 
duction to Mr. Ogden, who was then a 
young man beginning his career in New 
York. For thirty-odd years Mr. Ogden 
and General Armstrong worked together 
with a single purpose. To them, help- 
ing men to help themselves became a 
passion. 

When General Armstrong went North 
for the first time to plead the cause of 
the unknown Negro school which he 
had started not far from Fortress Mon- 
roe, Mr. Ogden threw open his home and 
introduced the "statesman educator" to 
many influential men and women in New 
York and Brooklyn. These two high- 
spirited young men — the one speaking 
prophetically of a better day for all men 
through education, the other quietly co- 
operating to make prophecies become 
realities — won a host of friends to their 
cause. 

When, in 1893, the mantle of General 
Armstrong fell upon the strong shoul- 
ders of Hollis Burke Frissell. it was Mr. 



Ogden who came forward to serve 
Hampton as president of the Board of 
Trustees and to render the same loyal 
service which had characterized his rela- 
tion to General Armstrong for thirty- 
three years. For twenty years Mr. Og- 
den was a devoted worker as president 
of the Hampton board. 

Mr. Ogden spoke to younger men 
from a fund of experience which was 
inexhaustible. He knew himself the 
value of persistent work, of high ideals, 
of undaunted courage, of dependence 
upon God. His ability to secure the co- 
t peration of men to improve their own 
conditions and to plan for the future 
made him a most valuable member and 
officer of institutions and organizations 
for social betterment. Mr. Ogden gave 
of himself as well as of his means to 
advance causes in which he was inter- 
ested. 

In association with men like Dr. J. L. 
M. Curry, George Foster Peabody, 
William H. Baldwin. Jr., Dr. Charles 
I). Mclver, Edgar Gardner Murphy, 
Walter H. Page, Albert Shaw and oth- 
ers. Robert Curtis Ogden was able to 
help school men and public officials dis- 
cover for themselves, through the in- 
formal exchange of experience, the need 
of securing better public schools, high 
schools, and teacher training centers. 
He helped men to realize concretely the 
vn'ue of securing more money for pub- 
lic schools and community improve- 
ments by increasing state and local 
taxes. With wisdom and insight into 
character he was able to direct the 
thoughts of men and women to the solv- 
ing of immediate problems, while they 
were, at the same time, getting ready to 
meet more successfully the problems of 
the coming day. 

What, then, were some of the results 
of .Mr. Ogden's life and work? An 
enumeration of some results indicates 
the range of Mr. Ogden*s activities: 
The education of white children and 
black children ; wiser giving on the part 
of northern philanthropists; better 
knowledge of economic and educational 
conditions in the North as well as the 
South ; the development of a new public 
attitude toward common schools; the 
creation of thousands of better public 
schools; the formation of hundreds of 
citizens' leagues, and the awakening of 
universities to the importance of the 
public schools. 

The Ogden Memorial at Hampton In- 
stitute will express the nation's thanks 
to one who saw in every child, regard- 
less of race or class, possibilities of use- 
ful citizenship through training it- ca- 
pabilities. It will also express the pub- 
lic's renewed confidence in Hampton's 
ideas of education — the preparation of 
leaders in farming, the trades, home- 
making, and school-teaching; the exten- 
sion of useful knowledge, and the ele\ , 
tion of community life through the 
home, the church and the school. 



Health 



113 



Health 



G 



IVIC VALUE OF HOSPITAL 
RECORDS 



Can the medical and surgical 
records compiled in a modern hospital 
serve a wider field of usefulness? 
Elizabeth Greene, of Barnes Hospital, 
St. Louis, believes that they can. 

Every patient who enters an up-to- 
date hospital, Miss Barnes says, has a 
record that includes family history, per- 
sonal history both past and present, phy- 
sical examination, as well as various 
charts, analyses and tests. Such records 
are carefully preserved, indexed and 
kept accessible for reference and re- 
search work. 

This careful compilation of disease 
and its manifestations may serve a civic 
purpose. Crime is often disease, and 
possibly some hospital may have a rec- 
ord that holds the key to the situation. 
If such information had been civic 
property, the crime possibly might have 
been prevented. 

The record room with an efficient sys- 
tem should be able to furnish statistical 
matter, and a municipal research inves- 
tigator, properly accredited and medical- 
ly equipped, might have the files of a 
hospital to consult for more detailed in- 
formation, without violating medical 
ethics. The addition to a history of such 
information as a municipal investigator 
would need, should only increase its 
value for scientific work. Such inform- 
ation can readily be secured at the time 
the history is taken. 

If a closer relation between hospitals 
and organizations for civic improvement 
could be established, hospital records 



would become material not only for 
medical research, but also for municipal 
research, in matters pertaining to pub- 
lic health and welfare. In this way hos- 
pitals might become civic units for the 
scientific investigation of disease, its 
cause and prevention, and the carefully 
compiled material already on file, would 
serve a wider usefulness in adding its 
share toward civic betterment. 

This is not only interesting theory but 
a definite plan. Barnes Hospital itself is 
preparing to prove the truth of the civic 
value of records. 

SAFEGUARDING THE HEALTH OF 
TRAVELERS 

The Pennsylvania Railroad 
System has issued a folder of informa- 
tion for employes and the public con- 
cerning measures taken to safeguard the 
health of its passengers. These meas- 
ures include the selection of food and 
its protection against dust and infection. 
Employes in dining-cars and restaurants 
who have to do with preparing or serv- 
ing food must pass a physical examina- 
tion every thirty days. Medical ex- 
aminers inspect every restaurant and 
dining-car at least once a month. 

Preparations for ventilating and 
cleaning the cars have received much 
attention. It is estimated that the ven- 
tilation equipment of the Pennsylvania's 
more than 3,000 passenger cars has cost 
fully $795,000. On the Pittsburgh divis- 
ion, 304 people are employed solely in 
cleaning cars; the Philadelphia division 
has 443 cleaners and the eastern lines 
employ 1,150 cleaners. One room of 



the chemical laboratories is devoted en- 
tirely to analyzing drinking-water. Con- 
tainers are sterilized once a week, and 
icemen are provided with rubber gloves 
and ice-tongs, so that at no time does the 
ice come in contact with a handler. 

Other railroads also are planning to 
carry out strict sanitary measures, and to 
educate their employes. The Norfolk 
Southern Railroad, the Seaboard Air 
Line, and the Southern Railroad have 
asked for the co-operation of the North 
Carolina state Board of Health in this 
sanitary advance. 

A HEALTH EXHIBIT IN FAR 
BOMBAY 

There is a certain novelty in 
reading about even such familiar facts 
as pure food, baby hygiene and fly- 
screens, when they appear in a magazine 
published in far Bombay. 

In the first issue of the Social Service 
Quarterly, already noticed in The Sur- 
vey [October 16] Dr. Sumant B. Mehta 
tells that more than 48,800 people 
attended a health exhibition held in 
Baroda, one of the smaller states of 
western India just north of Bombay. 

There were explanations of the differ- 
ent exhibits for all visitors and demon- 
strations of first aid, nursing and infant 
hygiene. The exhibit of Indian gymnas- 
tics and competitive Indian games at- 
tracted large crowds. The Gujeratis are 
noted for their aversion to physical train- 
ing, it is said; but the rising generation 
seems to have noticed the terrible re- 
sults of exclusive devotion to literary or 
commercial pursuits, unaccompanied by 
physical training. So two tents were 
thronged where charts and implements 
illustrated scientific physical training, 
and members of eight Akhadas (gym- 
nasia) gave full drill. 

Americans may look enviously at 
the records of progress in preventive 
measures. For example, an illustration 
of cholera control is found in the fig- 




GOLD MEDAL OF AMERICAN 
MEDICINE 

TO those who know most intimately the work ac- 
complished by Dr. Rupert Blue, surgeon-general 
of the United States Public Health Service, the an- 
nouncement comes with most satisfaction that to 
him has been awarded the gold medal of Amer- 
ican medicine for 1915. The Survey of April 17 
commented on the annual report of the Public 
Health Service. This report is itself a tribute to 
Surgeon Blue's energy, breadth of vision, and 
medical skill. Perhaps his most significant accom- 
plishment is the movement started in California 
and continued in New Orleans toward rat-proof- 
ing as a means of plague eradication. 

Dr. Blue is from North Carolina, carrying de- 
grees from the Universities of Virginia and Maryland. He entered the Public Health Service in 1892, after receiving his 
medical degree, and ten years later became surgeon-general of the service. The interval found him assigned especially to 
hospital and quarantine duty, and brought him experience in handling threatened epidemics of cholera, yellow fever, malaria, 
and plague. Dr. Blue was director of sanitation at the Jamestown Exposition in 1907, and continued his special study of 
tropical diseases at the London School of Tropical Medicine. He served as adviser to the governor of Hawaii when that 
territory made special efforts to free itself of mosquitoes in order to guard against yellow fever and malaria after the open- 
ing of the Panama canal. 

The assignment of the gold medal in 1914 to Dr. George W. Crile of Cleveland [see The Survey for October 17, 1914], paid 
tribute to profound scientific research. The medal of 1915 recognizes the value to the present public health movement of a 
unique combination of professional skill and administrative ability. This twofold power possessed by Dr. Blue is recognized 
also by the American Medical Association, which, at its convention last July, appointed Dr. Blue president-elect of the 
association. 




114 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 



ures showing the number of attacks in 
former years in great religious and 
national festivals. On one such festival 
there were, in 1831, 465 attacks of 
cholera ; in 1904, but one is recorded. 
The record, however, that seems to Dr. 
Mehta most interesting and is both his 
warning and his challenge, is that show- 
ing the average length of life in differ- 
ent countries: 

Modern Duration of Life 

Country Males Females 

Sweden 1891-1900 50.9 53.6 

Denmark 1895 1900 50.2 53.2 

France 1898-1903 45.7 49.1 

England and Wales. 1891-1900 44.1 47.7 

United States 1893-1897 44.1 46.6 

Italy 1899-1902 42.8 43.1 

Prussia 1891-1900 41.0 44.5 

India 1901 23.0 24.0 

APPLYNG THE BINET TEST TO 
BLIND CHILDREN 

The blind superintendent of 
work for the blind in the public schools 
of Cleveland, Robert Irwin, is at work 
on a system for testing the mentality of 
blind children quite independently of 
the question of sight — a problem which 
has long puzzled him. 

Following a summer vacation spent at 
the Institution for Feebleminded at Vine- 
land, N. J., a year ago, Mr. Irwin de- 
veloped a tentative modification of the 
Binet-Simon series of mental tests. Ob- 
viously, all questions of visual concept 
had to be eliminated, and others, calling 
in the other senses, devised to take 
their place. This done, the new series 
had to be standardized for different ages, 
for a series of questions applicable to 
sighted children need not at all apply 
to the same ages in blind children, whose 
faculties develop at different rates. 

In order to further such standard- 
ization, Mr. Irwin arranged during last 
year for tests not only in the Cleveland 
schools for the blind, but in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Summit, N. J., Chicago, the West 
Pennsylvania Institute for the Blind in 
Pittsburgh, the Ohio State School for the 
Blind in Columbus, and the Montana 
School for the Blind. Dr. Drummond 
of Edinburgh, Scotland, adapted the sys- 
tem to English needs and undertook a 
series of tests. Finally, the Cincinnati 
Board of Education requested Mr. Irwin 
to organize its work for the blind after 
that of Cleveland; and a class for blind 
feebleminded children, including the 
maximum number of five, now is in 
operation. Mr. Irwin says that so far 
as he knows, this is the first class of the 
kind in the country. 

With the intimate experience of this 
class and the constant tests being made 
by those co-operating in the United 
States and Great Britain. Mr. Irwin 
hopes to be able to have a conclusive 
series of observations on hand by next 
I une, and to be able to announce during 
the summer a new series of tests, on the 
Binet-Simon. base, with which to grade 
accurately the mental age of any blind 
child. 

LEPROSY: WHAT IS KNOWN 
ABOUT IT 

The question (if what is known 
about leprosv, can be answered verj 
briefly. It is known that leprosy is 
caused by the lepra bacillus of Hansen ; 
that it is not hereditary: that it is not 
caused by eating decayed fish. 

But just how the disease is communi- 



cated from the leprous person to the 
normal person, is not known ; apparently, 
this does not take place by direct con- 
tact, by touch. Nor is it known whether 
or not insects play any part in carrying 
the infection. Mosquitoes apparently do 
not. On the other hand, the disease has 
been associated in all times with defec- 
tive hygiene, filthy surroundings and 
over-crowding, which would point to the 
possibility of infection being carried by 
body lice or fleas. Certainly it is true 
that people who live in proper hygienic 
conditions, may be in contact with lepers 
in intimate association and not acquire 
the infection, as is seen in hospitals 
where nurses and physicians remain un- 
infected. 

One of the most important points to 
be determined is the stage of the dis- 
ease when the danger of conveying in- 
fection is greatest, and this seems to be 
the early stage. Apparently the danger 
lessens in the later stages. Of course, 
segregation laws should be framed ac- 
• cordingly, and every effort be made to 
diagnose leprosy in the beginning; and 
to quarantine quite strictly at first, while 
later, the segregation may be much less 
complete. 



w 



HO'S WHO IN PUBLIC 
HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS 



The American Medical Asso- 
ciation has just issued a pamphlet com- 
piled by Dr. Selskar M. Gunn, secretary 
of the American Public Health Asso- 
ciation. It is a summary of results of a 
questionnaire issued last year to fifty 
different voluntary organizations work- 
ing in the field of public health. Re- 
plies came from all but six. Initiative 
for this action came from the Council 
on Health and Public Instruction of the 
American .Medical Association, the aim 
being to discuss possibilities of closer 
co-operation and the suitable division of 
the public health field, in order that 
duplication of effort might be as far as 
possible eliminated. 

The publication of this report marks 
the completion of the first part of the 
committee's work — collection, tabulation 
and distribution of official information 
regarding present activities in the pub- 
lic health field. No adequate idea of 
the scope and detail of this pamphlet 
can be given in a brief note, but its 48 
compact pages form a valuable hand- 
book of reference for all interested in 
modern health problems. 

A UNIVERSITY IN THE FIELD 
AGAINST CANCER 

The University of Missouri 
is the first state university to enter the 
field in the campaign against cancer. 
Its department of preventive medicine 
publishes this fall in the University 
Bulletin a special article on the early 
diagnosis and treatment of cancer, writ- 
ten by Dr. F. A. Martin, professor of 
pathology. 

Dr. Martin calls attention to the edu- 
cational work regarding cancer carried 
on by the American Medical Associa- 
tion, the American Society for the Con- 
trol of Cancer and other organizations. 
If the surgeon's progress in knowledge 
and skill is to avail, he says, there must 
Ik- co-operation on the pari of the pa- 



tients. People must learn the value of 
early treatment, and the danger of de- 
lay. The bulletin reviews some of the 
most common symptoms which should 
receive prompt medical attention. 

The university distributed copies of 
this bulletin while the supply lasted. And 
the American Association for the Con- 
trol of Cancer sent abstracts of it to 
fully sixty other American universities, 
suggesting that similar bulletins be pub- 
lished, especially by those active in the 
field of extension education. 

MILWAUKEE OFFERS FREE 
MEDICAL ADVICB 

Health Commissioner Ruh- 
land of Milwaukee is opening a series 
of free "diagnostic stations." The pur- 
pose of these stations is to give medical 
advice. No attempt will be made at 
treatment ; but when necessary, the case 
will be referred to a dispensary or to 
the family physician. 

'What I hope to do," writes Dr. Ruh- 
land, "is to train the public to the value 
of systematic, periodic, physical ex- 
aminations as a preventive measure. I 
believe that it will be a great deal 
cheaper for the municipality to engage 
men for this diagnostic work than to 
maintain and enlarge expensive hospitals 
where the unfortunate are taken care of 
when it is too late, and where their 
further existence represents merely 
economic loss." 

SECOND SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS 

Announcements have appeared of the 
Second Pan-American Scientific Con- 
gress which will assemble in Washing- 
ton, D. C, on December 27. This meet- 
ing will be held in accordance with the 
resolution of the first congress, held in 
Santiago, Chile, in 1909. These Pan- 
American gatherings originated in the 
scientific meetings held by the republics 
of Latin America for many years prior 
to the congress at Santiago in which the 
United States co-operated. 

The program will be arranged in 
nine sections: Anthropology; conserva- 
tion of natural resources: education: in- 
ternational law; mining; economic geol- 
ogy and applied chemistry; public health 
and medical science; transportation, etc. 
In charge of the section on education 
will be Commissioner of Education 
Claxton; in charge of the section on 
public health and medical science. 
Major-General William C. Gorgas. 
TUBERCULOSIS NURSES FOR LOS ANGELES 

In a referendum vote of the people of 
I. os Angeles, says Clinic Notes, on the 
question of employing one municipal 
tuberculosis nurse for each 100 cases 
reported in the city, the ordinance was 
adopted recently by 47,359 VOt< - 
against 25,681. There will lie about 20 
nurses finally assigned to duty. 

COURSE FOR FIELD NURS1NC 

The Chicago School i^i Civics 
Philanthropy announces a special m\'u' 
weeks' course for public health nurses, 
during the coming winter. The course 
is designed to meet the needs oi nurses 
either already engaged in some form or 
public health work or those desiring to 
enter the field who haw not had S| 
training. 



Book Reviews 



115 





Book Reviews 





Prof. Millis 

on 

The Japanese 



'?M& 



THE JAPANESE PROBLEM IN THE UNITED 
STAT ES 

An investigation for the Commission 
on Relations with Japan appointed by 
the Federal Council of the Churches 
of Christ in America. By H. A. Millis. 
The Macmillan Co. 334 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of The Survey $1.62. 

This is an interest- 
ing and useful little 
book. It presents in 
brief compass and 
readable form the es- 
sential facts about 
Japanese settlement in 
this country, and re- 
duces to definite out- 
line and proper per- 
spective a "problem" 
whicb is, for the most 
part, revealed to us 
only in lurid and terrifying glimpses 
through the vapors of popular agitation. 
The author has made a careful survey 
of the principal centers of Japanese col- 
onization in the western states, giving 
a first-hand and detailed account of con- 
ditions in each place. He also reviews 
the history of Japanese immigration to 
this country, analyzes and measures the 
varying currents of anti-Japanese feel- 
ing and traces the course of anti-Japan- 
ese legislation, especially that dealing 
with land ownership. 

The net impression left by the study 
is that the Japanese problem is of con- 
cern not for its size, but its quality. 
There are at the present time less than 
100,000 Japanese — native and foreign- 
born together — in our population of 
over ninety million, and the number re- 
mains fairly constant from year to year, 
the additions by immigration barely 
making up the number lost by death and 
emigration. 

These small numbers, it is true, are 
largely massed in a few localities, 
where their first entry into labor and 
trade, with their lower standard of 
wages and profits, resulted in some 
actual economic readjustments, which, 
with the fear of more and greater to 
come, Professor Millis considers the im- 
mediate cause of the anti-Japanese feel- 
ing so far developed. 

But the purely economic problem is 
solving itself more and more completely 
every day. Undisturbed by the pouring - 
in of low standard immigrants, the 
standard of living of the Japanese colon- 
ists, and with it the standard of wages 
and profits, is steadily rising, until in 
many communities it has reached a fair- 
ly normal level. 

Back of the economic objection, how- 
ever, is a social and racial antagonism 
which is more or less distinctly recog- 
nized even when the economic reasons 
are the only ones openly presented. The 
fear of actual race mixture, Professor 
Millis thinks, is pretty much of a 
''bogie," because this will not take place 



until there is a considerable degree of 
social assimilation. And this condition, 
he thinks, is far off, for while he points 
out that the Japanese have many per- 
sonal qualities that make for rapid as- 
similation, and have made much pro- 
gress along that line, even with limited 
numbers the situation in community feel- 
ing is such that assimilation is unlikely 
to occur in the required degree, and with 
large numbers it would not occur at all. 

For this reason Professor Millis ad- 
vocates legislation restrictive of immi- 
gration in general, rather than the pres- 
ent agreement which is always under dis- 
cussion and may end at any time, and 
rather than special legislation for the 
Japanese only, which he would consider 
an offensive discrimination. The plan 
he favors is the one made familiar in 
recent discussion — of restricting the 
amount of immigration of any one race 
in any one year to a certain small pro- 
portion (say 5 per cent) of the number 
of that race alreadv settled in the coun- 
try. 

But once admitted, he thinks, there 
should be no discrimination against any 
race — with respect to land-owning, edu- 
cation, citizenship, marriage or anything 
else. A sound conclusion, for obviously 
nothing can be more unwholesome in a 
state than the existence of social groups 
held in a permanent condition of legal- 
ized inferiority. 

Kate Hoi.laday Claghorn. 



MANUAL FOR HEALTH OFFICERS 

By J. Scott MacNutt. John Wiley & 
Sons. 650 pp. Price $3; by mail of 
The Survey $3.17. 

That a "manual" of 
public health admin- 
istration can fill over 
600 pages, is of itself 
a proof of the growth 
during the past de- 
cade of this branch of 
preventive medicine. 
Yet it is not easy to 
see what chapter or 
what paragraph even, 
might have been 
omitted. The author 



A Weapon 
Against 
Disease 



designs certain portions, such as those 
on tuberculosis, infant hygiene and pub- 
licity work, to be of service to unofficial 
organizations as well as to officers of 
city or state. 

Prof. William T. Sedgwick, of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
an expert in matters pertaining to pub- 
lic health, thus commends the volume 
in his foreword : 

"This volume, I believe, will be of 
great service to health authorities of 
every kind, who will here find care- 
fully laid down the fundamental data 
of their profession, and to all such 1 
therefore heartily commend it." 

G. S. 



Some Light 

on 

School Problems 



EDUCATION FOR INDUSTRIAL WORKEKS 

By Herman Schneider. The World 
Book Company. 98 pp. Price $.90; 
by mail of The Survey $.98. 

PROBLEMS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AD- 
MINISTRATION 

By Frank P. Bachman. The World 
Book Company. 274 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of The Survey $1.62. 

THE PORTLAND SURVEY 

By Flwood P. Cubberley. The World 
Book Company. 441 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of The Survey $1.62. 

The first two of 
these works are re- 
prints, with slight 
changes and addi • 
tions, of the authors' 
contributions to the 
report submitted by 
Prof. Paul H. Hanus, 
of Harvard Univer- 
sity, to the Commit- 
tee on School In- 
quiry of the Board 
of Estimate and Ap- 
portionment of New York city in 1912. 
The more important of these contribu- 
tions are now being published in perma- 
nent form under the title. The School 
Efficiency Series. The volume on the 
Portland Survey, though included in the 
series, was not part of the New York 
report. 

The publication of Dean Schneider's 
volume is especially timely just now 
when its author is sharing with William 
Wirt, superintendent of schools of Gary, 
I nd., the unique task of solving some of 
the most pressing problems presented by 
the public school system of New York 
city. 

Dean Schneider, of the College of En- 
gineering, University of Cincinnati, 
seeks an answer to the question, now be- 
ing asked in every city of the country. 
What kinds of vocational schools are re- 
quired to meet the needs of our youth 
who must go to work at an early age ? 
His answer is that we need schools pro- 
viding training that accompanies gain- 
ful employment — part-time or co-oper- 
ative industrial schools, and continua- 
tion schools. Says Professor Hanus in 
the preface: "His analysis of work and 
consequent classification of work as en- 
ergizing — that is, work requiring thought 
as well as skill — and enervating — that is. 
work requiring little or no thought and 
little or no skill — is an illuminating in- 
troduction to his discussion of the entire 
subject." 

Mr. Bachman's volume is a study, in 
the statistical method, of problems relat- 
ing rather specifically to New York city. 
One of these is the educational efficiency, 
the economy, and the educational oppor- 
tunities afforded by the intermediate 
school, i. c, the elementary school which 
receives only pupils promoted from the 
6B grade and in which the instruction 
is restricted to the seventh and eighth 
grades of the elementary school course 
of study. The greater part of the book 
deals with the progress and classification 
of school children, taking up such mat- 
ters as promotion and non-promotion, 
part time and over age. 

The Portland study, in reporting which 
Professor Cubberlev is assisted by Flet- 
cher B. Dresslar, Edward C. Elliott. J. 
H. Francis, Frank E. Spaulding, Eewis 



116 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 



The Place 

of 

The Helper 



M. Terman and William R. Tanner, goes 
into fundamental problems affecting 
every public school system. These re- 
late specifically to organization and ad- 
ministration, instructional needs, build- 
ings and health, and attendance, records 
and costs. There are chapters on the 
social and economic position of Port- 
land, the educational needs of such a 
city, outline of an education program 
adapted to local educational needs, and 
the present offering of the school dis- 
trict in vocational studies, with sugges- 
tions for improvements. 

Winthrop D. Lane. 

THE HELPER AND AMERICAN TRADE 
UNIONS 

By John H. Ashworth. The Johns 
Hopkins Press. 134 pp. Price $.75; 
by mail of The Survey $.81. 

When skilled jour- 
neymen, through the 
power of their unions, 
force wages above 
the market rate, it 
becomes advanta- 
geous for employers, 
whenever they can, 
to substitute lower 
paid "helpers" on 
journeymen's work. 
The unions, to pre- 
vent such encroach- 
ments, which if allowed to go on would 
destroy their advantage, have in many 
trades adopted rules restricting the tasks 
which helpers may perform. This is the 
trade union policy of restricting the uses 
of helpers. 

In the second place union journeymen 
have learned that when they are few 
in comparison to the demand for their 
services, employers hesitate to break 
with them, but that when there is a*n 
oversupply of journeymen high rates 
of pay and similar advantages are diffi- 
cult to maintain. Consequently, many 
unions have endeavored to limit the num- 
ber entering their trades, in part by 
adopting rules that prohibit or restrict 
the promotion of helpers. 

To a certain extent the policy of re- 
stricting the uses of helpers prevents 
their learning the trade and so supports 
the policy of restricting their promotion. 
The two policies, however, are distinct: 
either can exist without the other. Yet 
in The Helper and American Trade 
Unions the two are dealt with as one, 
and so confused as to seriously impair 
the clearness and force of the discus- 
sion. 

The first three chapters of the book 
describe union policies with regard to 
helpers, not only those already mentioned 
but such others as relate to the hiring 
and compensation and the organization 
of helpers. The final chapter endeavors 
to evaluate these policies from the stand- 
point of "economic welfare and social 
justice." 

The author's first conclusion is that 
labor unions should abandon efforts to 
prevent the promotion of helpers and al- 
low them to become journeymen when- 
ever employers are willing to pay them 
journeymen's wages. He fails to note, 
however, that unless union rules restrict 
the uses of helpers, such a plan leaves 
employers free to use them on journey- 
men's work at less than journeymen's 



wages. Furthermore, his argument con- 
cerning the superiority of the helper 
system over the apprentice system of 
learning a trade is unconvincing. 

In certain trades — glass blowing, for 
instance — the author admits that the 
helper has small chance to acquire the 
journeymen's skill, but in his sweeping 
conclusions in favor of helper promo- 
tion, he makes no mention of such 
trades. Moreover, he fails to consider 
the fact that in many trades — the ma- 
chinist's, for example — the helper train- 
ed journeyman is likely to be a special- 
ist, knowing how to perform the task 
he has "helped" with, but not being an 
all-around mechanic. 

The author's second conclusion is that 
it is undesirable for journeymen both 
to hire and to pay their helpers. He 
approves the hiring of helpers by jour- 
ney-men but contends that employers 
should fix their wage-rates. 

The third conclusion is that the unions 
have been right in keeping helpers sub- 
ordinate to journeymen in their organ- 
izations for the reason that "otherwise 
their [the helpers'] eagerness for in- 
creased wages and rapid promotion 
might work harm to the union." It is 
difficult to reconcile this reason with the 
fact that earlier in the book, by showing 
that almost every clash between helpers 
and journeymen has been decided by the 
latter group in its own favor, the author 
creates the impression that helpers have 
not been getting their just dues. 

Because of its originally collected ma- 
terial the volume will be of value to 
close students of labor problems. It 
leaves, however, a host of unanswered 
questions in the mind of the reader and 
one feels certain it has not said the last 
word regarding the helper and Ameri- 
can trade unions. 

Zenas L. Potter. 

HOW FARMERS CO-OPERATE AND DOUBLE 
PROFITS 

By Clarence Poe. Orange Judd Com- 
pany. 256 pp. Price $1.50; by mail 
of The Survey $1.60. 

In writing this 
book, the author states 
his ideal to be "to 
inspire the general 
reader with interest 
and enthusiasm for 
co-operation by means 
of genuine 'human 
interest' stories of co- 
operation experience, 
and also furnish, with 
the added help of the 
index, a practical 
guide-book practical for those engaged in 
organizing co-operative enterprises." 

The spirit of the book is sound; the 
author has a vision of true co-operation 
and urges it with abundant enthusiasm. 
But the volume is pathetically weak and 
short-sighted, showing a most unfortu- 
nate lack of familiarity with solid litera- 
ture on this subject both for Europe and 
America, and showing also a lack of 
understanding of the details of co-opera- 
tive method. 

The lack of discrimination of the au- 
thor is shown in the appendices in which 
he urges the true type of co-operative 
organization as exemplified by the Ex- 



The Fruits 

of 
Enthusiasm 



Everybody 

is 

Getting Richer 



celsior Fruit Growers' Association and 
the false as shown in the pseudo-co- 
operative joint-stock type of organiza- 
tion of the Lakefield (Minn.) Farmers' 
Co-operative Elevator Company, in 
which members vote not equally but by 
shares of stock owned. Powell's Co- 
operation in Agriculture, which is the 
best available American work on co- 
operative method, is apparently unknown 
to the writer, or at least not utilized. 
The same is true of the important local 
studies that have been made in a large 
number of American states. A "prac- 
tical guide book" so defective as this is 
unfortunately likely to mislead the 
reader. 

James Ford. 

the wealth and income of the peo- 
ple of the united states 

By Will ford Isbell King. The Mac- 
millan Co. 278 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of The Survey $1.62. 

In this day of no- 
table economic awak- 
ening, accelerated by 
continental butchery 
and wealth destruc- 
tion, all who are try- 
ing to understand and 
to answer the difficult 
social questions will 
welcome this pains- 
taking study by Dr. 
King. The subject 
matter of the study 
is basic to all the great economic ques- 
tions. 

Dr. King has selected discriminatingly 
from the wide, though still incomplete, 
range of material now open to the 
student of wealth and income. He has 
presented that selected material clearly 
and systematically, with a wealth of dia- 
grams and tables. The study is clearly 
the best and the most comprehensive at- 
tempt yet made to state wealth and in- 
come conditions in the United States. 

The earlier chapters, after distinguish- 
ing wealth and income, state American 
wealth changes since 1850. Comparing 
the average American of today with the 
average American of 1850, Dr. King con- 
cludes that the present-day American 
is far less richly endowed with nature's 
gifts, but is far better equipped with 
tools and machines and is supplied rela- 
tively luxuriously with dwellings, fur- 
nishings, vehicles, clothing and other 
consumption goods. 

A study of wealth distribution among 
families of the United States follows, 
the conclusions being compared with 
wealth distribution in Great Britain, in 
France ami in Prussia. "In every in- 
stance the richest 2 per cent of the peo- 
ple own considerably more property than 
all the rest of the population. ... In 
no instance does the poorest 65 per cent 
of the inhabitants control much more 
than one-twentieth part of the prop- 
erty. ... It seems safe to say that 
the rich have been growing richer, but 
that the poor are not becoming poorer 
hut are also gaining in wealth, though 
relativelv at a less rapid pace than the 
rich." 

The remainder of the volume deals 
with income. The national income 
whole and per capita is apportioned as 
produced by governmental, by commer- 



Book Reviews 



117 



cial and by professional classes and by 
manufacture, transportation, fishing, 
mining and agriculture. The summar- 
ized conclusion is that, in the sixty years 
from 1850 to 1910, the per capita product 
has increased at least five-fold in all in- 
dustries except agriculture, while in 
agriculture it has less than doubled. 

Brave and interesting attempts are 
then made to apportion the total na- 
tional income among the factors of pro- 
duction, land labor, capital and entre- 
preneur, to show the share of the cor- 
poration in the total national income and 
finally to show the distribution of income 
among families. The latter study con- 
cludes that 82 per cent of the families 
in the United States received in 1910 
less than $1,200 income each, while only 
1.2 per cent of the families received 
above $5,000 each. 

At various stages of the argument ma- 
terials are massed which are of special 
interest to students of taxation, of immi- 
gration, of population and of the living 
wage. 

The book is not consistently devoted 
to impartial statistical presentation of 
the facts of wealth and income. The 
author frequently interjects suggestions 
and judgments on moot questions. He 
closes with the proposition that, if the 
people of the United States would cure 
what poverty they have and would pre- 
vent other poverty from developing, they 
must exercise positive checks upon the 
growth of population and must greatly 
restrict immigration. 

Walter E. Clark. 

EUGENICS: A SCIENCE AND AN IDEAL 

By Edgar Schuster. Warwick and 
York. 263 pp. Price $.40; by mail 
of The Survey $.47. 

The author of this 
small book was the 
first Galton research 
fellow in eugenics at 
London University. 
He here endeavors to 
survey and interpret 
the eugenics move- 
ment, its definition, its 
aims, its problems and 
its methods of work. 
The creed of the eu- 
genist is that each in- 
dividual derives his active qualities at 
each moment from the interaction of two 
separate, yet not wholly independent 
causes, the one his inborn potentiality 
or capacity for development, the other 
the environment or the physical, mental 
and moral surroundings in which his 
life is spent from the moment of con- 
ception. 

The eugenists believe that if among 
men and women those who are by in- 
born potentiality better in mind and 
body leave more progeny behind them 
than those who are worse, mankind will 
enter into a continuous advance toward 
increased happiness. And it is to se- 
cure such increased happiness or at least 
to prevent much unnecessary misery, not 
to increase the commercial and fighting 
efficiency of the nation, that the author 
is working in advocating the eugenics 
program. 

Starting with historical times, the au- 
thor traces the incipiency of the move- 



The Main Facts 

of 

Eugenics 



ment under Sir Francis Galton, and then 
reviews the contribution of Mendelism, 
the methods of the biometricians and 
studies in human heredity. A chapter 
on Tuberculosis, Insanity, Feebleminded- 
ness and Epilepsy suggests the possi- 
bility that the facts concerning the in- 
heritance of these defects may be inter- 
preted in the light of the Mendelian 
law, but states that such is an hypoth- 
esis only, and, therefore, only pro- 
visionally tenable. Concluding chapters 
contain discussions of the influence of 
the environment, of marriage laws, of 
sterilization and segregation and of edu- 
cation for parenthood. 

The book is a clear and accurate state- 
ment of one point of view, a point of 
view with which many social workers, 
especially followers of Ward and Patten, 
will take exception. For those who wish 
a popular ' and condensed statement of 
the main facts concerning the eugenics 
movement, the book fills its place admir- 
ably. Amey E. Watson. 

BOOKS RECEIVED 

Camp and Outing Activities. By Cheley 
Baker. Association Press. 420 pp Price 
$1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.61. 

Young Hilda at the Wars. By Arthur Glea- 
son. Frederick A. Stokes Co. 213 pp. Price 
$1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.08. 

Laws Relating to Sex Morality in New 
York City. By Arthur B. Spingarn. The 
Century Co. 139 pp. Price $.60; by mail of 
The Survey $.66. 

The Barbizon Painters. Bv Arthur Hoeber. 
Frederick A. Stokes Co. 296 pp. Price $1.75 ; 
by mail of The Survey $1.88. 

The Evolution of the English Corn Market 
By Norman Scott Brien Gras. Harvard Uni- 
versity Press. 408 pp. Price $2.50 ; by mail 
of The Survey $2.70. 

Attila and the Huns. By Edward Hutton 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 228 pp. Price $2 ; by 
mail of The Survey $2.11. 

Aladore. By Henry Newbolt. E. P. Dutton & 
Co. 363 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of The 
Survey $1.61. 

A Book of Preferences' in Literature By 
Eugene Mason. E. P. Dutton & Co. 213 pp. 
Price $1.25 ; by mail of The Survey $1.31. 

Childhood in the Moslem World. By Sam- 
uel M. Zwemer. Fleming H. Revell Co. 108 
pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.07. 

When the Lads Comb Home. By Harry Jeffs. 
Joseph Johnson. 80 pp. Price $1 ; by mail 
of The Survey $1.05. 

A Handbook of Civic Improvement. By 
Herman G. James. Published by the author. 
119 pp. Price $1 (paper) ; by mail of The 
Survey $1.06. 

The Fundamental Error of Woman Suf- 
frage. By William Parker. Fleming H. Re- 
vell Co. 125 pp. Price $.50 ; by mail of 
The Survey $.57. 

Some Problems in Market Distribution. 
By A. W. Shaw. Harvard University Press. 
119 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey 
$1.06. 

The Belgian Cook-Book. By Mrs. Brian 
Luck. E. P. Dutton & Co. 151 pp. Price $1 ; 
by mail of The Survey $1.08. 

Eve Dorre. By Emily Vlele" Strother. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. 256 pp. Price $1.35; by mail 
of The Survey $1.45. 

Closed Doors. By Margaret Prescott Monta- 
gue. Houghton Mifflin Co. 183 pp. Price 
$1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.09. 

Undercurrents in American Politics. By 
Arthur Twining Hadley. Yale University 
Press. 177 pp. Price $1.35 ; by mail of The 
Survey $1.43. 

Vision of War. By Lincoln Colcord. The 
Macmillan Co. 149 pp. Price $1.25; by mail 
of The Survey $1.32. 

Prevocational Education in the Public 
Schools. By Frank Mitchell Leavitt and 
Edith Brown. Houghton Mifflin Co. 245 pp. 
Price $1.10; by mail of The Survey $1.17. 

The Liberty of Citizenship. By Samuel W. 
McCall. Yale University Press. 134 pp. 
Price $1.15 ; by mail of The Survey $1.22. 

The Holy Earth. By L. H. Bailev. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 171 pp. Price $1 ; by mail 
of The Survey $1.08. 

The Criminal Imbecile. By Henry Herbert 
Goddard. The Macmillan Co. 157 pp. Price 
$1 50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.59. 





COMMUNICATIONS 





THE BINET SCALE 

To the Editor: The article publish- 
ed in The Survey for September 18 in 
the Health Department notes is very in- 
teresting and valuable, but I should like 
the privilege of correcting one error 
which the editor has fallen into: He 
says "Dr. Bronner also questions the 
value of statistics based only on the 
Binet-Simon tests when applied to chil- 
dren over ten y-iars old. After this age- 
she thinks the scale practically value- 
less." 

If the above were true it would prac- 
tically rule the Binet-Simon scale out 
entirely. It is, however, a misappre- 
hension. What Dr. Bronner means is 
that the scale above ten years mental 
age is valueless. The vast majority of 
defective persons who are tested by the 
Binet-Simon scale are over ten year.-* 
of chronological age, but a great many 
of them are under ten years mental age. 
Dr. Bronner says, speaking of certain 
cases: "These are unsatisfactory for 
measuring the grade of intelligence of 
those with a mental age above ten years 
because the scale has no tests for 11, 13 
and 14 years, etc." And again : "The 
Binet-Simon tests are reliable only 
through ten years" in which she evi- 
dently means ten years mental age. 

Those of us who use the Binet scale 
and know its value are the most anxious 
to avoid extravagant claims for it which 
can only offset its usefulness ; on the 
other hand, we want to be fair in our 
criticism. I may say that, personally, I 
agree with Dr. Bronner in her criticism 
of the injudicious use of the Binet scale 
and of the results that people who are 
using it incorrectly are claiming for it. 
Alexander Johnson. 
[Field Secretary Committee on Provis- 
ion for the Feeble-minded.] 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

PRINTED 

To the Editor: What could per- 
suade you to print this word of truth 
and soberness, to offset the pathetic folly 
of the soft hearts and heads which is 
doing such harm? 

I would give much to see it blazoned 
on your cover. 

Erving Winslow. 

Boston. 

[Enclosure] 
"Any movement to interfere with the 
absolute defeat of Germany, such as 
neutral, femine or pacifist overtures for 
the settlement of the conflict under pres- 
ent conditions, is inimical to permanent 
world peace. Instead of such a move- 
ment, a strong and fervent appeal is 
urged, in the name of the vast but not 
inexhaustible charity of the American 
people, that such a measure of preven- 
tion may be taken by the government as 
a protesting withdrawal of relations 



118 



The Survey, October 30, 1915 



from the criminal ; for the cure of whose 
crimes in Belgium, Poland and Armenia 
we have been assiduous and unstinting 
camp-followers, since the war of aggres- 
sion began." 

SAID OF THE SURVEY 

To the Editor: It is with deep regret 
that I find it imperative to request you 
will stop sending The Survey to my 
address. 

I am an old worker for social progress 
in my country and I have made New 
York my abode for several years to 
study American methods of work. I 
have been an admirer of your country, 
an adherent to American principles in 
spite of America's failure to produce 
unity of life, that has been apparent at 
all times and has been grossly obnoxious 
since America is feeding the flames that 
rage over Europe for the benefit of 
greedy merchants, most especially the 
Morgan concern. 

The Survey has taken a prejudiced 
stand and has not shown that it is will- 
ing to understand Germany, the only 
country that is making fight for its very 
right of existence. There has not only 
been a deplorable lack of justice in The 
Survey since the war, but also a lack of 
correct judgment and information, a 
tendency to one-sided representation, 
that has destroyed my confidence in the 
ability of your editors. Your periodical 
is no better now than any of the New 
York papers of the low type that are at 
the bid and call of England's hypocrisy. 
I have been annoyed by your pictures 
and your words for months. Now the 
issue just received (July 31 ) with the 
"Kreuzland" is the last drop in the cut — 
it is not becoming in a paper supposed 
to be an instrument of peace, of justice, 
of the mutual respect between indi- 
viduals and nations, to reproduce this 
insulting plate, while it is your country 
that covers the ocean with vesssels car- 
rying the murder-tools to England. 

I request you will stop sending to my 
address this paper. You have lost a 
friend and have added to the anger and 
the contempt that earnest Germans now 
bear towards the United States. 

H. Bonfort. 

Altona-Othmarschen, Germany. 

FROM THE LETTER OF AN 
ENGLISH PLAYWRIGHT 

"I have just given a copy of your 
pamphlet, Toward the Peace That Shall 
Last [The Survey for March 6, 1915]. 

to Miss , whose name you may 

know as one of our Quaker pacifists. 
She was most interested to hear of your 
work, as she believes that the cause of 
peace is greatly furthered by those who 
bring joy into people's lives. 

"These are terrible times for English 
pacifists. There is extraordinary bitter- 
ness against them. Miss 

herself a pacifist, is now living in Lon- 
don in a flat over the rooms of Mrs. 

, a pacifist leader. They 

stand great danger of being raided, and 
have been warned to take all precautions 
in case the house is set on fire." 



JOTTINGS 



The Kansas City Post announces that as 
attorney for the owners, Frank P. Walsh, 
formerly chairman of the United States 
Commission on Industrial Relations, has 
assumed sole direction of the editorial, 
news and business policy of the paper. 



A course of eighteen lectures in The 
Science of Nations, Their Ideals and Their 
Contribution to Civilization as Shown in 
Their History, Literature and Art is an- 
nounced by the Women's Conference of 
the Society for Ethical Culture. The lec- 
tures will be given Friday mornings be- 
ginning November 5 in the Meeting House 
of the societv. Information may be had 
of Mrs. Henry W. Schloss, 156 West 75 
street, New York city. 



Announcement of a class in short-story 
writing by the Women's Trade Union 
League of Chicago brought 105 young 
women to register the first night— 105 
where preparations had been made for 
seven! The league has engaged extra 
teachers and has broken up the class into 
five courses on advanced English, rhetoric, 
composition, literature, short-story writing. 
Agnes Nestor, president of the Chicago 
league announces that the purpose is "to 
train the girls to write of the things they 
know— life in the shops and factories, — 
and if possible to help make a little more 
money." 



To the weekly half-holiday enjoyed all 
summer by department store clerks in 
Birmingham, Ala., has been added a 9 
o'clock Saturday night closing hour the 
year round. Both have resulted from the 
efforts of the Consumers' League Commit- 
tee of the Birmingham Equal Suffrage As- 
sociation of which Mrs. W. L. Murdock 
is chairman. A number of clerks marked 
the occasion by presenting Mrs. Murdock 
with a silver loving cup. While the Con- 
sumers' League has worked for twenty- 
five years for the early closing of stores, 
the movement has made slow advance in 
the South and Birmingham is one of the 
first to adopt it. 



In answer to the call of many teachers 
for help in teaching health facts to their 
classes, the North Carolina State Board 
of Health is sending by parcel post through- 
out the state exhibit cards for typhoid, tu- 
berculosis, and flies. Pamphlets covering 
these and other subjects and lectures with 
lantern slides are also available for schools, 
churches, moving-picture theaters, clubs, 
etc., at the cost of transportation. 



At last we have a Baedeker in social 
work. Mary Grace Worthington, super- 
visor of field work of the New York School 
of Philanthropy, has compiled a brief guide 
entitled Fifty Benevolent and Social Insti- 
tutions in and near New York. In 100 
pages cut to pocket size she has included 
complete information about where to go, 
how to get there and what to observe after 
arrival. The agencies selected are repre- 
sentative of practically every kind of in- 
stitutional work, from Sing Sing Prison 
to typical tenement houses. 



children's laws in the state, and of drafting 
needed new laws to be introduced in the 
legislature of 1917. Most of the work will 
be done at the State University through the 
departments of law, sociology and political 
science. The entire commission of twenty- 
one members has been divided into sub- 
committees to handle various sections of 
the comprehensive outline of work, modeled 
on the general outline sent out by the 
Federal Children's Bureau. Considerable 
help is expected from the data the latter 
is collecting on children's laws throughout 
the United States. The expenses of the 
commission will be met by voluntary con- 
tributions. Rhodes E. Cave, judge of the 
St. Louis Juvenile Court, is chairman, and 
Prof. Manley O. Hudson of the State Uni- 
versity, secretary. 



A Committee on Volunteer Service has 
been formed in connection with the Inter- 
collegiate Bureau of Occupations. 130 East 
22 street, New York city. It will attempt 
not only to connect up volunteer workers 
with work needing volunteers, but to select 
the individuals best fitted for each particu- 
lar task. There is believed to be a par- 
ticularly useful field in guiding into fruitful 
channels the eager desire to do some meas- 
ure of volunteer social service on the part 
of recent college graduates. 

In the hope of a favorable decision of 
the Supreme Court of the United States 
in the long-pending Oregon minimum wage 
case, the National Consumers' League is 
centering attention at its approaching an- 
nual meeting in Cleveland, November 4-5, 
on the general subject of minimum wages 
and hours of labor. The Rev. John A. 
Ryan of Washington will discuss The 
Present State of the Minimum Wage Ques- 
tion. The content of Father Ryan's paper 
is on the lap of the gods, or rather of 
the justices of the Supreme Court, where it 
has ' rested since last December. At that 
time Louis D. Brandeis presented the argu- 
ments for the constitutionality of the Ore- 
gon law and Rome G. Brown those against 
it. Since then, the work of one state com- 
mission after another, has been placed in 
abeyance awaiting the decision. This is the 
sixteenth annual meeting of the National 
Consumers' League and the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the founding of the New 
York city league. 



Somewhere in England. 



The Missouri Children's Code Commis- 
sion recently appointed by Governor Major 
has organized its work of codifying all 



The 1.000 members of the Woman's Mu- 
nicipal League of New York city are plan- 
ning to make a careful studv the coming 
year of the proposed reorganization of the 
schools after the Garv plan. Sub-commit- 
tees are being organized in every district 
of the city. These erouns will visit the 
schools of their neighborhood, confer with 
local school officials and study neighbor- 
hood conditions to find out whether or not 
the Garv plan will best meet the needs of 
that locality. The league further announcees 
the appointment of Agnes de Lima as exec- 
utive secretary. 

St. Louis, through its Civic League, has 
just published a summarv of the present 
status of all movements for the citv's wel- 
fare as a basis for the community's work 
for the season. It is being widely distrib- 
uted so that accurate information will be 
at hand regarding the progress of any given 
movement, with references to the organi- 
zation in charge of each and the local liter- 
ature published. The Civic I eague has also 
published a uninue little folder telling St. 
T ouis citizens The Truth about tlieir I ocal 
Government It gives in a few brief para- 
graphs the essential facts about all local 
governmental functions, showing the city's 
virtues and defects 



Pamphlets 



119 



HOUSES SUPPLYING 
INSTITUTIONAL TRADE 



Ready to Wear Garments. 

BROADWAY BARGAIN IIOTSR. 
For Men. Wompn and Children — Wliolesale 
G7U Broadway, New York Oily 



Dry Goods. 

FREDERICK LOESER & CO.. 

•JS4 FULTON STREET, BROOKLYN, N. V. 



Newspaper Clippings. 

HENRY ISOMEIKE, 
110-112 West 2Ulll Street. New York 



House Furnishing Goods. 

C. II. & E. S. GOLDBERG, 
West Broadway and Hudson Street, 
New York 



Hardware, Tools and Supplies. 
IIAMMACIIER, SCIIT.EMMER & CO., 
! Fourth Ave., Thirteenth St.. New York 



Groceries. 

SEEMAN BROS., 

Hudson and North Moore Sts., New York 



The Forerunner 

A Monthly Magazine 

Written, Edited, Owned and Published 

by 

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAM 

"The Woman Movement would have a tougher 
intellectual fiber, a widely and deeply conscious 
scope, would be more of sustaining inspira'ion, 
if the multitude of women who think they know 
what that movement means, were to know Char- 
lotte Perkins Oilman and her Forerunner."- It'm. 
Ma-ion Reerl)/, in The M irror.Nt.Lovix.Mo. 



$1 00 a Year 



10 Cents a Copt 



The Forerunner carries Mrs. Gilman's best and 
newest work; her social philosophy, her verse, 
satire, fiction, ethical teaching, humor, and com- 
ment It stands for Hummness in Women, and 
in Men; for better methods in Child-culture; for 
the Home that is no Workshop; for the New 
Ethics, the New Economics, the New World we 
are to make— are making. 

Enclosed find 25c. in stamps for four months' 
subscription to THE FORERUNNER 



Name. 



Address.. 



CHARLTON CO. 67 Wall St. NEW YORK 



A 



merican Association for Study 
and Prevention of Infant Mor- 
tality 

Sixth Annual Meeting, 

Philadelphia, November 10-12, 1915 

All who are interested are invited. 

For further information write to the 
Executive Secretary. 1211 Cathedral St., 
Baltimore, IV! d. 



PAMPHLETS 



Sound Business I'kinciples or Civil Ser- 
vice. By Dr. Henry Moskowitz. president. 
Municipal Civil .Service Commission. Muni 
cipal Building, New York city. 



A New Depasture in the Theatmext of In 
mates of Penal Institutions. Bv Samuel 
C. Kolis. director. Psychopathic Department. 
Series No. 1. Bulletin No. 1. July. 1015. 
Research Department, House of Correction. 
Chicago. 



What Scientific Management Means to 
America's Industrial Position. Bv Frank 
B. Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilh'reth. 77 
Brown Street, Providence, R. 1. Reprinted 
from the Annals of the American Academv 
of Political and Social Science. 

Complement Fixation in Pertussis. Bv 
Miriam Olmstead and Paul Luttinger, M.D. 
Reprint series. No. 32. July, 1015. Depart 
ment of Health, corner Center and Walker 
Streets, New York City. 



The Operation of the Indeterminate Sen 
TENCH and Parole Law. A study of the 
record of eighteen years in Indiana. Bv 
Amos W. Butler, secretary. Board of State 
Charities, 93 State House, Indianapolis. Ind. 



Report op the Police Department Commit 
tee on Distress and Unemployment. Win- 
ter of 1014-1915. Police Department. New 
York city. 



The Passing of Mars. A modern morality 
play. By Marguerite Wilkinson, Coronado, 
Cal. Price 50 cents, postpaid. 



Cincinnati Clean Up and Paint Up Cam 

PAIGNS OF 1914 AND 1915, WITH RECOMMEN- 
DATIONS for the Future. Bv J. J. Conway, 
chairman and C. R. Hehble, secretary, Con- 
tinuous Clean Up and Fire Prevention Com- 
mittee. Bulletin No. 2. Chamber of Com 
merce, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Citizen Control of the Citizens' Business. 
Issued by Bureau of Municipal Research, 813- 
820 Traders Bank Building, Toronto. 



League to Enforce Peace. By A. Lawrence 
Lowell. Vol. V, No. 5, Part 1. October. 
1915. World Peace Foundation, 40 ait. 
Vernon Street, Boston. 



Education for Life. By Samuel Chapman 
Armstrong, founder of Hampton Institute. 
Address, Hampton Normal and Agricultural 
Institute, Hampton, Virginia. 



Community Study. Parish of the Clinton 
Avenue Congregational Church, Brooklyn, 
New York. 



Malaria. Its cause and how to prevent it. 
By the Metropolitan Life Insurance Com- 
pany, 1 aiadison Avenue, New York city. 



Statistics of Railways, 1904-1914, United 
States. Consecutive No. 81. Miscellaneous 
Series No. 20. September, 1915. Bureau of 
Railway Economics, Washington, D. C. 

A Statistical Study of the Public Schools 
of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 
By Norman Frost. United States Bureau of 
Education. Bulletin, 1915. No. 11. Whole 
No. 6^6. Price 20 cents. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D. C. 



International Conciliation. Documents re- 
garding the European war. Series No. IX. 
Official correspondence between the United 
States and Germany. September. 1915. No. 
94. American Association for International 
Conciliation, 407 West 117 Street, New York- 
city. 

The Effect of the aiiNiMUM Wage Decree 
on the Brush Industry in Massachusetts. 
Minimum Wage Commission, Bulletin No. 7. 
September 16, 1015. Wright and Potter 
Printing Company, State Printers, 32 Derne 
Street, Boston. 



Standards in Visiting Nurse Work. By Lee 
K. Frankel. Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, 1 Madison Avenue, New York city. 

Preliminary Information Respecting Voca- 
tional Training fob Girls in Institutions 
in and About Philadelphia. For use in a 
conference on vocational training for girls. 
Department of Child-Helping, Russell Sage 
Foundation, 130 East 22 Street, New York 
city. 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartmenis, lours and Travel, Real Estate, twenty 
cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various head- 
ings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," etc., five 
cents each word or initial, including the address, 
for each insertion. Address Advertising Depart* 
ment, The Survey, 105 East 22d St., New York City. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



BY A WOMAN of liberal education, 
with attractive personality and rare gifts 
as a teacher : a position as social secretary 
to lady or gentleman ; or as resident or 
visiting tutor to growing children, or to 
children of retarded development; or as 
house mother in girls' school or Young 
Women's Christian Association. Highest 
references. Perfect health. Prefer vicinity 
of New York. For information address 
C. C. Albertson, pastor Lafayette Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, 85 South Oxford 
Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



POSITION as superintendent or buyer 
in institution, or headworker in settlement. 
Twelve years' experience in social and in- 
stitutional work. Address 2211, Survey. 



YOUNG woman of training and prac- 
tical experience desires a position in social 
settlement, institution for children, or as 
teacher of elementary domestic science. 
Address 2212, Survey. 



POSITION as companion. Middle-aged. 
Willing to travel. Healthful, cheerful and 
obliging. Address 2213, Survey. 



HELP WANTED 



District Nurse — graduate from an ac- 
credited hospital with training and experi- 
ence in social work. Apply for further 
information to Charity Organization So- 
ciety, Goldsboro. N. C. 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY for Asso- 
ciated Charities in Pacific northwest; sal- 
ary $110.00 per month ; must be able to 
train volunteers, reorganize case commit- 
tee, supervise case work and be good 
speaker. Address 2210, Survey. 



A WOMAN of thirty to thirty-five years 
with some experience in social work to 
act as visitor in a Boston Charity for Un- 
married Mothers. Resident position. Ad- 
dress 2214, Survey. 



WELFARE AND SOCIAL WORKER 

A large mercantile corporation in New York 
City requires a man thoroughly familiar with 
welfare work in its various phases. 

To one possessing the necessary experience, 
tact, initiative and a pleasing personality this 
offers a desirahle opportunity. 

State in detail experience, age and salary 
expected. Address by mail only. C. C. I-.. 38J 
4th Avenue, N. Y. C., Care of George Batten 
Company. 



HITI I ETINC "Five-Cent Meals," 10c; "Food 
DULLC.11N3. Values." 1 0c; " Free-Hand Cook- 
ing," 10c; "The Up-To-Date Home, Labor Saving Ap- 
pliances," 15c: "The Profession of Home-Making," 
Home Study, Domestic Science Courses, 100 pp. free. 
American School of Home Economics, 519 West 63th St., Chicago 



Co-operating Subscribers 
$10.00 each 



September Acknowledgments 



Adams, Arthur 
Addams, Miss Jane 
Adriance, Rev. Harris Ely 
Almy, Frederic 
Altschul, Frank 
Andrews, Miss Elizabeth B. 
Anthony, Prof. Alfred Wil- 
liams 
Austin, Louis W. 

Babcock, Mrs. R. H. 
Bacon, Miss Annie 
Bing, .Alexander M. 
Blauvelt, Warren S. 
Blossom, Frederick A. 
Bonbright, James S. 
Bowers, Ogden H. 
Boynton, Rev. Nehemiah 
Butler, Amos W. 
Byall, J. Bruce 

Callender, Miss Caroline 
Carpenter, Mrs. Augustus 
Case, Miss Fannie L. 
Chase, John H. 
Codman, Miss Catherine A. 
Commons, Prof. John R. 
Cooley, Miss Rossa B. 
Cornman, Dr. Oliver P. 
Crocker, Mrs. Alvah 
Lushing, Grafton U. 
Cushing, Mrs. G. W. B. 

Dale, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Damon, George F. 
Davenport, Mrs. John 
Dawson, Miles M>.' 
Devine, Edward T. 
Dole, Rev. Charles l\ 
Dore, Miss C. J. 
Drury, Mrs. S. S. 
Durand, Mrs. Frederic F, 
Dwight, Mrs. M. E. 
Dwight, Mrs. M. I.. 

Elkus, Mrs. Abram I. 
Emmet, Miss L. F. 
English, H. D. W. 
Evans, Mrs. W. H. 

Ford, Mrs. Bruce 

Gait, John 
Glasscock, W. N. 
Goldmark, The Misses 
Greenough, Mrs. John 

llanna, Mrs. H. M., Jr. 
Hartshorn, Mrs. Stewart 
Heinsheimer, A. M. 
Hoe, Mrs. Richard March 
Hooker, Mrs. E. H. 



SURVEY 




ASSOCIATES 



HE exact outcome of our fiscal year (1914-15) 

Tending September 30 last, as audited, was pre- 
sented at the annual meeting of Survey Asso- 

I ciates, Inc., October 25, and will be distributed 

to every reader in the annual report. This will 
be carried as a supplement in an early November issue. 

Roughly, the situation is this: our circulation has suf- 
fered, but we cleared the year without leaving behind a 
war deficit to plague us in the times ahead ; rather, we have 
a small working margin to begin the new year with. Our 
commercial receipts (advertising and regular subscriptions) 
shrank something more than $6,000 as against the year pre- 
ceding. Radical retrenchments throughout the twelve 
months enabled us to meet this. Moreover, by duplicating 
the contributions raised in 1913-14 we were able to keep our 
headquarters staff intact, and make a fairly good fist of the 
exacting reportorial work which was called for throughout 
the year. 

"""THE sustained interest of friends of THE SURVEY from 
•*• month to month has been more than gratifying. Co- 
operating subscriptions were the one dependable factor in 
the year's revenue. More, in the latter half of September 
the roster of co-operating subscribers mounted up over the 
900 mark, or fifty more than the year preceding. 
"\V7ITH such downright backing to count on, we want to 
** take up and carry thiough in 1915-16 some of the 
things shelved in 1914-15 because of the war depression. 
The outcome of this difficult twelve months gives us sure 
enough footing so that we are going to bend our best ener- 
gies not only to hold our own in the months ahead, but to 
get into our old stride; doing this, more than any other way, 
by serving SURVEY readers and co-operators, and through 
them reaching new and wider companies of those interested 
in the common welfare. 



SEPTEMBER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

GENERAL FUND 

'Macy, V. Ever It $3on 

Harmon, William E 250 

Carter, Richard 15 ion 

.Chapin. .Mis. Charles Hm> 

?Dodge, Miss Grace II 100 

Lawson, Victor F inn 

l.oeb. Albert II inn 

Ford, Mrs. John Battiee 50 

McGregor, Tracy W 50 

Morse. Miss Frances It ">n 

Norton. Charles l> 50 

Holt. Miss Ellen 

ColviD, Miss Catherine 2."> 

Piatt, Miss Laura N 25 

McCormick, James -'(> 

Emerson, Miss Helen:! Tilus 5 

Granger, Miss A. P 5 

Henderson, Miss Mary W "> 

Etingsland, Mrs. \V. M ."> 

Magee, Itev. John 5 

Barton, Miss Thyrza M :: 

Seaver. Benjamin F 3 

Total $1 .570 

'Second payment tbis year. 
'Deceased, 

INDUSTRY DEPARTMENT 

Cal>ol, I>r. Richard C *'<"'> 

Crane. Charles It 250 

Burnham. George, Jr -On 

Cabot, Philip 50 

Blow, Mrs. (J. 1' 25 

Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paper- 
hangers 10 

ISuell. Miss Lucy 15 10 

Wales. Miss Edna M. C 10 

Webber, M is. C. C 10 

French, Roy E 5 

Douglass, Mrs. T. 2 

Total $1,072 

CHURCH AND COMMUNITY DEPARTMENT 
McCormick, Mrs. X F $1,000 



Jackson. Miss Mary Louisa 
Johnson. Dr. Alexander 

Kellogg. Arthur P. 
Kellogg, Frederic R. 
Kennard, Miss Beulah 
Kent. Hon. William 
King, Mrs. Angeline E. 
King, Henry C. 
Kingsbury, John 
Knight, Rev. Franklin 
Kursheedt, Manuel A. 

Ledoux, Mrs. A. R. 
Lies. Eugene T. 
Lloyd, M. G. 
Logan, Hon. James 
Lynde, Charles E. 

Matz. Rudolph 
McBride, Malcolm L. 
McGinnis, Miss Adelaide S. 
McLean, Francis H. 

Mead, Miss Frances S. 
Moody, Prof. Herbert R. 
Moore, Miss Sybil Jane 
Morrisson, Mrs. James W. 
Muste, Rev. A. J. 

Nelson, Miss K. D. 
Xolan, John H. 
Olcott, Dudley 
Parker, Miss Linette A. 
Phelps. Mrs. von R.' 
Powlison. Charles F. 

Rauh. Marcus 

Rauschenhusch, Prof. Walter 
Rector, Mrs. James M. 
Robinson. Rev. J. H. 
Rotch. Mrs. W. J. 
Routzahn, E. G. 

Sailer. Dr. T. H. P. 
Sanderson. Dean E. D. 
Sandford, Miss Ruth 
Sedgwick. Rev. Theodore 
Smith, Herbert A. 
Smith, Theodore Clarke 
Staigg. Mrs. R. M. 
Swenson. J. R. 

Tarbell, Miss Ida M. 
Taussig. Prof. F. W. 
Taylor. William H. 
Thacher, Miss Margaret W. 
Thorp, J. G. 
Traiscr, Charles H. 

Vincent, George E. 

Warbasse. Mrs. James 1' 
Webber. R. H. 
Wierman, Miss Sarah 
Wilbur. Walter B. 
Wilcox. Delos l\ 
Wolff. Mrs. lewis s 

'Paid two Co-oper.\ting sul^scription*. 



TYRREL PKINT, NEW YORK 



t 



Q> 








SCtfWEtf 



From TTAe House on Henry Street 
Copyright by Henry Holt & Co. 




A 

MOTHER 
OF 
ISRAEL 



BY 

ABRAHAM 

PHILLIPS 



Price 25 Cents 



November 6, 1915 



Volume XXXV, No. 6 



STUDIES IN SOCIAL WORK 



Published by 



QUp 2faw fork 
£>rijflfll of pjtlantrjrrjpij 



105 East 22d Street 



JUST PUBLISHED 

Number 5. Facts About Wage Earners. By 
Mary Van Kleeck.. 

A series of 1 7 diagrams and statistical 
tables, based upon material in the United 
States Census, with a brief introductory 
text. Prepared for use in the course 
on Industrial Conditions in the School of 
Philanthropy, and adapted to class-room 
work in colleges and elsewhere inconnec- 
tionwith the discussion of lnbor problems. 
40 pp. 25 cents. 

Number 6. The Section en Charity from the 
Schulhan Arukh. 

A translation of the rabbinical teachings 
of the middle ages which are still held as 
authoritative among orthodox Jews. 
32 pp. 25 cents. 

OTHER NUMBERS IN THIS SERIES 

Single copies 5c; 25 copies one dollar. 

1 . Social Work with Families and Individuals; A brief 

manual for investigators. By Porter R. 
Lee. 1 6 pp. 

2. Organized Charity and Industry: A chapter from 

the history of the New York Charity 
Organization Society. By Edward T. 
Devine. 1 6 pp. 

3. The Probation Officer at Work. By Henry W. 

'Uhurslon. 24 pp. 

4. Is Social Work a Profession? By Abraham Flex - 

net. 24 pp. 

TO APPEAR IN NOVEMBER 

Number 7. Facts About the Death Rate. 

Number 8. Facts About Tuberculosis. 

Each a series of diagrams, with brief ex- 
planatory text. 



PROMOTE THE READING OF THE 

STANDARD WORKS OF 

LITERATURE 

Motion pictures visualizing Dickens, Oliver 
Goldsmith, Charles Reade, etc., at reasonable 
rental. Circuits now forming for distant ship- 
ments. Enter your name on our mailing' list. 

EUGENE L. KEEFE 

Everything for Projection 
1325 Vine Street - - Philadelphia, Pa. 



YOUR BUSINESS 

as an educator is to spread 

truth through the medium of 

well-expressed thoughts. 

OUR BUSINESS 

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PUBLISHERS 

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Arthur P. Kellogg, Secretary Frank Tucker, Treasurer 



WESTERN OFFICE 

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Vol. XXXV, No. 6 



Contents 



November 6, 1915 



COMMON WELFARE 

FIRST CONGRESS OF A SUBMERGED PEOPLE 

A STRIKE FOR ONE DAY OFF A MONTH 

SPREAD OF THE SAFETY MOVEMENT 

PUTTING TEN MILLION DOLLARS TO WORK .' 

AS TO SCHOOL DESKS, SPINES AND EYE-STRAIN 

BOY SCOUTS SAY THEY ARE NOT ANTI-MILITARY 

AN ALL AMERICAN CHILD-WELFARE CONGRESS 

COUNCIL ON PUBLIC HEALTH OF THE CHINA MEDICAL MISSIONARY ASSOCI- 

AIION 

LABOR CONDITIONS NOT A BAR AT ELLIS ISLAND 

NEW HEALTH COMMISSIONER IN NEW YORK 

HYGIENE FOR ITALY AT HOME AND AFIELD 

THE NURSE, a poem Herbert Creasy 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

THE LANTERN BEARERS, VI. Anthony Comstock— Liberal 

DISMISSING THE PKOFfcSSOR 

SOME EAST SIDE TYPES BY ABRAHAM PHILLIPS, Irom Lillian D. 

book. The House on Henry Street ............ 

THE TOWN THAT DID NOT STAY CONTENT .... Esther E. Baldwin 

VOLUNTARY MATERNITY Aletta H. Jacobs. M. D. 

THE ROCKEFELLER INDUSTRIAL REPRESENTATION PLAN, John D. Rockefeller. Jr.. 

John R. Lawson and J. E. Williams ........... 

EDITORIALS 

TEACHERS AND TEXTBOOKS 

THE ARTIST OF HENRY STREET 

WAR AND POPULATION . 

DEATH-RATE OF TRENCH WARFARE .... 

TREATMENT FOR EPIDEMIC DISEASES 

THE ROCKEFELLER PLAN 

WOMEN. WAR AND SUFFRAGE 

"EARNING" THE MINIMUM WAGE 



John Collier 

J. Russell Smith 

Wald's forthcoming 



John A. Fitch 

Jane Addams 

JJohn A. Ryao 



121 
121 
122 
123 
124 
124 
124 

125 
125 
126 
126 
126 



127 
131 

135 
139 

142 

143 



146 
146 
146 
147 
147 
147 
148 
150 



National Council 



ROBERT W. db F 
JANE ADDAMS. Chicago 
ERNEST P. BICKNELL, Washington 
ROBERT S. BEEWSTEB, New York 
J. LIONBERGER DAVIS, St. Louis 
EDWARD T. DEVINE. New York 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, Boston 
LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo. 
LEE K. FRANKEL. New York 
JOHN M. GLENN. New York 
WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York 
WM. TEilPLETON JOHNSON. San Die; 



OREST, Chairman 

WILLIAM J. KERBY. Washington 
JOSEPH LEE. Boston 
JULIAN W. MACK. Washington 
V. EVERIT MACY. New York 
CHARLES D. NORTON, New York 
SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia 
JULIUS ROSEXWALD, Chicago 
GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago 
FRANK TUCKER, New York 
LILLIAN D. WALD. New York 

:o ALFRED T. WHITE, Brooklyn 



The Survey Associates. Inc.. is an adventure in co-operative journalism ; incorporated 
under the laws of the state of New York. November. 1012. as a membership organization 
without shares or stockholders. Membership is open to readers who become contributors of 
$10 or more a year. 



It is this widespread, convinced backing 
has made The Survey a living thing. 



and personal interest which 



The Survey is a weekly journal of constructive philanthropy, founded in the 90's by the 
Charity Organization Society of the City of New York. The first weekly issue of each montli 
appears as an enlarged magazine number. 

From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an 
educational enterprise, to be employed and developed beyond the limits of advertising and com 
uieicial leceipts. 



Pri 



ce 



subset 



Single copies of this issue twenty-five cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regula 
:riptiens $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Issued weekly. Change 
Idress should lie mailed to us ten (lavs in ndvan^o in oomMnti™ n-ith o omnrino ™™,v,n,.,>i« 



Regular 
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of address should lie mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing commercial 
practice, when payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. 



ENTEREO AS SECOND CLASS MATTER MARCH 



RIGHT, ISIS, 6Y SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC. 
1909 AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, 



The GIST of IT- 
ANTHONY COMSTOCK was the traffic 
cop Taboo on the narrow path, keeping 
the people moving on when some there 
were who would loiter and look in shop 
windows. He did largely what all the rest 
of us think and what we are, says John 
Collier, the embodiment of middle class lib- 
eralism with its fiat modesty. Page 127. 

A MOVEMENT'S afoot for the sub- 
merged peoples of Europe to have 
their day at the conference of powers 
which settles the war. Page 121. 

X^A/HEN the University of Pennsylvania 
dismissed Scott Nearing two ques- 
tions were raised for the American people 
to answer: What shall be the college pro- 
fessor's tenure of office and by whom shall 
he be dismissed? Page 131. 

A WOMAN physician of Holland writes 
on birth control. Page 142. 

'yHE story of West Chester's playgrounds 
is a happy story of discontent, writes 
Miss Baldwin. The playground in a grove 
is the fruitful growth of the days of the 
Gay street gang when the grown-ups built 
on the vacant lots and pushed the children 
into the streets, then filled the streets with 
traffic and pushed them off to nowhere at 
all. Page 139. 

T^HE Rockefeller plan for friendly in- 
dustrial relations in Colorado discussed 
by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., John R. Law- 
son, the strike leader, and J. E. Williams, 
one of the most successful industrial medi- 
ators. The two latter agree in phophesying 
it will not work. Page 143. 

'J , HE Chinese character for tuberculosis 
is not T. B. but the methods of popular 
education on preventing it are identical. 
Page 125. 

DR. GOLDWATER has left the New 
York city Department of Health with 
a record of substantial achievements to his 
credit. Page 126. 

*yHE safety movement has grown from a 
tiny start in one industry five years 
ago to a national organization representing 
nine distinct industries with many branches. 
Safety men will have nothing to do with 
alcohol, even at their own banquet. Page 
122. 

]y| ILK drivers for a New York concern 
are striking for one day of rest in 
31. Page 121. 

JTALY, too, takes a crack at alcohol, al- 
ready staggering from many blows, in 
one of the popular leaflets which are a 
part of the campaign of hygiene for both 
soldiers and stay-at-homes. Page 126. 

^T the annual meeting of Survey Asso- 
ciates, Inc., with Edward W. Frost of Mil- 
waukee in the chair, the four directors 
whose term of office expired were re- 
elected : Jane Addams, Robert W. deForest, 
Julian W. Mack and Frank Tucker. The 
Survey's annual report will be published in 
next week's issue. 



America's Future 
Foreign Policy 

November 8-21 

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issouri Conference for 
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MARSHALL. MO. 
November 14, 15, 16, 1915 

ALL SOCIAL WORKERS IN MISSOURI 
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For further information address Miss Frances 
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For twenty years the American Journal ef 
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They cover the field of social science, are writ- 
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The Suvey may be kept for permanent, ready reference in a special loose 
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THE SURVEY stamped in gold letters both on the back and on the 
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THE SURVEY - - 105 East 22d Street, New York 



Ill 





OMfifflfl 





!/\i\\> 



,^&m 




FIRST CONGRESS OF A SUB- 
MhRGKD PEOPLE 

The vast fund of idealism re- 
leased by war, of which Jane Addams 
has written on another page, was con- 
cretely demonstrated in a cheering, hat- 
waving half thousand brawny young 
workingmen who almost raised the low 
roof of old Cooper Union in New York 
city last Saturday afternoon. 

The meeting was the first Congress of 
Ukrainians ever held in the United 
States. The delegates, 507 in all, repre- 
sented the 410 societies "composed of 
naturalized American citizens and of 
men and women about to become Ameri- 
can citizens" who comprise practically 
all of the half million Ukrainians in 
this country. And the shouting was a 
thundering affirmative vote for a resolu- 
tion demanding that the submerged 
races, the smothered folk, of Europe be 
given their day at the congress which 
shall settle the war. 

Following a preface in which the 
Ukrainians "declare their allegiance to 
this republic and pledge it their undi- 
vided support in peace and war," Presi- 
dent Wilson is called upon to present 
their case to the conference of powers 
on these grounds : 

"Imbued with the spirit of American 
democracy and believing in equality of 
man and woman in political and civil 
matters, having learned of the oppor- 
tunities afforded by the American insti- 
tutions . . . this congress proclaims 
the right to democracy and autonomy 
for all nationalities in Europe now the 
object of contest in war. 

"The above organization, composed of 
men and women who come from 
Ukraine, knowing the conditions prevail- 
ing in their motherland, naturally hope 
that when time of peace will come, their 
nationality will also be afforded democ- 
racy and autonomy. 

"For the reason stated above they de- 
mand for their brethren in Europe the 
•establishment of an independent Ukrain- 
ian state which should comprise the 
Ukrainians now inhabiting the countries 
of eastern Europe." 

A bit later a thick-set, bearded man 
stood on the platform where Lincoln 
spoke — the platform which for genera- 
tions has been hospitably open to every 

Volume XXXV, No. 6 



sort of protest — and spoke to them in 
rolling impetuous sentences of the Polish 
tongue which is the lingua franca of the 
Slavic East. All through he had his 
audience with him, admiring and eagerly 
applauding. But at one point the whole 
hall broke forth and would not down. 

"What does he say?" asked the half 
dozen native-born who were present. 

"He says," was the reply, "that 
Ukrainia cannot be free alone; that un- 
til all the submerged peoples of Europe 
are free none will be really free, and 
the Ukrainians must help the others to 
their freedom." 

The speaker was not a Ukrainian, but 
John Szlupas, M.D., president of the 
Lithuanian Autonomy Fund, which is as 
close kin to the meeting in purpose as the 
Lithuanians are in race. Its claims have 
been set forth in a volume published by 
Dr. Szlupas. 

And following Dr. Szlupas was Simon 
O. Pollock, a New York lawyer, who 
recalled with feeling some years of his 
childhood spent in the Ukraine. De- 
claring this the first congress of a sub- 
merged people, he prophesied similar 
meetings of the other stifled races who 
are fighting in all armies, ravaged by 
every conqueror and, in peace as well 
as war, oppressed by all tyrants. 

It was perfectly clear that the promise 
of both Czar and Kaiser of an autono- 
mous Poland was no promise at all to 
these men. For while they have no love 
of kings, the oppression they feel most 
is that of the Polish nobles, their over- 
lords in both Russia and Austria. They 
are insistent in pointing out that, though 
called Little Russians, they are as dif- 
ferent from the Russians as are the Bul- 
gars. 

Their case was set forth in English 
for Americans by the Rev. Bychynsky, a 
Presbyterian minister of Pittsburgh, and, 
in a volume by eight contributors pub- 
lished for the occasion. There are al- 
most 35,000,000 Ukrainians all told, 
mostly in Russia, occupying a territory 
larger than France. With no aristocracy 
and no middle class, they are a peasant 
race of ancient civilization, democratic 
in spirit, with a rich social life expressed 
in many forms of co-operative enter- 
prise. 



A 



STRIKE FOR ONE DAY OFF 

MONTH 



Asking for half as much rest 
a month as is given the horses they 
drive, and for other ameliorations in 
what they declare is one of the most 
body-wracking occupations in New York 
city, a number of milk wagon drivers of 
the Sheffield Farms-Slawson-Decker 
Company have been on strike for ten 
weeks. 

The men are demanding one day of 
rest a month. Their horses, they de- 
clare, are given two days a month, some 
of the more valuable animals three or 
four. They are asking also for the 
abolition of the one-dollar fine for com- 
ing late to work, for no discharge with- 
out good cause, and for no discrimina- 
tion for belonging to a union. They 
do not demand the closed shop. 

Back of the strike of these men is an 
almost unknown story of supplying a 
city with its milk for breakfast. At 
present the drivers of the Sheffield com- 
pany, one of the largest distributors of 
milk in the metropolitan district, work 
365 days a year. They are given no 
vacations. One of them, Samuel Gettle- 
man, declares that he was refused a 
night off on Christmas Eve, 1913, for 
the purpose of getting married. J. 
Deutsch says he was treated similarly 
when married on Washington's birthday 
this year. Drivers of milk wagons are 
excepted from the state law requiring 
employers to give their men one day of 
rest in seven. 

"A day's work," said one of the strik- 
ers, who was corroborated by his fel- 
lows, 'is from twelve to eighteen hours.' 
Each driver has five jobs: he delivers 
his milk, collects bottles, collects bills, 
canvasses his route for trade, and keeps 
his own books. 

"We begin delivery between 2 :30 and 
4:30 in the morning, depending on the 
length of our routes. If we punch the 
clock one minute after 4 :30, we are fined 
a dollar. Delivery takes till breakfast. 
We eat in restaurants on our routes. 
Then we go over the route again and 
collect empty bottles. This takes two 
or three hours. Then, if it is Monday, 
Tuesday or Wednesday, we collect the 
week's bills. We are supposed to do 
all the collecting on these three days. 
If it is Thursday, Friday or Saturday 

121 



122 



The Survey, November 6, 1915 



we solicit business instead of collecting; 
but there are always bills hanging over 
on these days, too. 

"After collecting or canvassing we go 
to the depot to unload. Probably there 
will be fifty to a hundred wagons ahead 
of you. I have waited two hours before 
I could unload. Then we unharness our 
horses and go into the office. Before 
we go home we have to enter every de- 
livery and every collection in a book. 
This takes an hour. Then we turn in 
our money and again often have to wait 
in line. It is 7 o'clock before most of 
us get home the tirst three days in the 
week. The last three, it is 2 or 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon. Sundays we get home 
earlier, but we have to spend Sunday 
afternoons making out our bills for next 
week's collection. 

"Delivering milk for four or five 
hours, let me tell you, is no cinch. Did 
you ever carry a server of milk? It 
holds ten quart bottles and each bottle 
weighs four pounds and a half. Some- 
times we carry two servers, or maybe 
some extra bottles under our arms or 
in our pockets. I suppose we carry on 
an average seventy pounds into every 
house we enter. And we average 300 
customers to a route. By the time you've 
gone up four or five flights of stairs, 
down into cellars and across roofs to 
serve 300 customers, with seventy 
pounds on you, you know you've been 
doing something. 

"You don't last long at this business. 
It takes the youth out of you quick. 
How many middle-aged men do you see 
on milk wagons? If you don't get one 
thing, it's another — rheumatism, bad 
heart, rupture. There's hardly a one of 
us that can't show a bad scar from 
broken bottles. I myself have got flat 
foot. I couldn't pass a civil service ex- 
amination, because I tried." 

The strike began ten weeks ago when 
fifteen drivers met in a moving picture 
theater to discuss conditions. They de- 
cided to send a committee to wait on the 
president of the company, Loton Horton. 
According to the men, one of their num- 
ber "squealed." Next day, they declare, 
all fifteen were discharged. 

Thereupon 300 of the 600 drivers in 
Greater New York struck. They organ- 
ized the New York Retail Milk Drivers' 
Union and affiliated themselves with the 
United Hebrew Trades. A house-to- 
house canvass of their routes was be- 
gun to induce customers to patronize 
other companies. After four days a set- 
tlement committee went to President 
Horton and stated their demands. Mr. 
Horton refused to recognize the union 
and the committee left. A second com- 
mittee, calling on him three weeks ago, 
received a similar refusal. 

The men have continued their efforts 
to extend the strike and alienate cus- 
tomers. They have had almost no pub- 
licity, the New York Call, a Socialist 
daily, being the only paper printed in 
English to give them space. They claim 
700 members for their union and say 
that 150 Sheffield employes are now on 
strike. They raised $300 the other night 



by selling tickets to a theater perform- 
ance. 

Other milk companies, they declare, 
have granted the union demands with- 
out a walk-out, and three are about 
ready to sign a recognition of the union. 

President Horton, when seen by a 
representative of The Survey, repeated 
that he would never recognize the driv- 
ers' union, and belittled the importance 
of the strike, declaring that not more 
than thirty men were now out. The 
strike had cost the company, he said, 
between 5,000 and 7,000 quarts of milk 
a day, out of a total business of 350,000 
quarts. He admitted that detectives em- 
ployed by the company were watching 
the strikers day and night, but declared 
that the question as to how many de- 
tectives were hired was impertinent 

Mr. Horton said that when Borden's 
Condensed Milk Company recently 
granted one day of rest a month to its 
drivers, he took this question up with 
his own board of directors. He told the 
directors that one day a month seemed 
to him too little to be of any value to 
the men and that summer vacations 
would be better. The board thereupon 
provided that after January 1, 1916, all 
drivers who had been with the company 
one year should have a week's vacation 
with pay, and those who had been with it 
five years should have two weeks. 

"When my men asked me if I would 
let some of 'em have a day a month in- 
stead," said Mr. Horton, "I told them 
'No, I'd do as I damn please.' " 

In a letter to The Survey, Mr. Hor- 
ton elaborated his interview, declaring 
that the one-dollar fine has been im- 
posed in only two of the company's thir- 
teen districts, and that it was instituted 
merely to save "the jobs of two or three 
of the older men in our employ in those 
divisions, who persisted in reporting so 
late that they could not properly serve 
their routes, and the money was returned 
to them if they reported on time, which 
was 4:30 a.m., for thirty days." 

Mr. Horton pointed out that he, and 
the presidents of two other large milk 
companies of New York and "the prin- 
cipal officers and best paid men in our 
employ commenced work in the milk 
business as milk drivers." He says 
further: 

"As in every other business involving 
service to the public the hours of work 
vary, but it is a misstatement to say 
that a day's work consists of from 
twelve to eighteen hours. It is a fact 
that at 2 o'clock on the day this letter 
is written every man at the 57th street 
branch had booked in and had left for 
home. This is not an uncommon occur- 
rence; in fact, it is general during the 
latter part of the week. If during these 
days the men so solicit, their work in 
this respect is recognized by commission 
payments, which increases their weekly 
wages. 

"All of our bookkeepers, who are 
necessary for booking, leave the office at 
1 o'clock on Saturdays in July and 



August. Our closing time is 5:30 every 
evening for our orhce employes, so that 
the statement that most of the men work 
until 7 o'clock is not true or never has 
been true." 

This letter was written on Friday. 
The men themselves say that on that day 
they get home at "2 or 3 o'clock." 

The wages of Snetneld drivers run as 
follows: for the nrst six months of em- 
ployment, $16 a week; for the next year, 
$17; for the next year and a half, $18; 
for the next two years, $19; for the next 
year, $20; thereafter, $21. In addition, 
the men are paid commissions on new 
business secured by them. 

The men contribute fifty cents a week 
to the funds of the Sheffield Farms 
Benevolent Association. This is sub- 
tracted from their wages before they 
are paid; often they are not asked, the 
men declare, whether they want to make 
this contribution. Before the workmen s 
compensation law was passed, they were 
allowed $10 a week for ten weeks if 
sick or injured. Now, they say, they 
are given $10 a week for only two weeks 
if injured. 

In 1908 the drivers of milk wagons 
went on strike and secured an increase 
in wages but not recognition of the 
union. An attempt to unionize by the 
drivers of the McDermott Dairy Com- 
pany failed three years ago. 

SPREAD OF THE SAFETY MOVE- 
MENT 

The growth of the safety move- 
ment since its beginning about five 
years ago with the electrical engineers 
in the steel industry, was marked by the 
number of industries represented at the 
fourth annual congress of the National 
Safety Council in Philadelphia, October 
19-21. Men from no less than nine dis- 
tinct industries, including mining, rail- 
roads, public utilities, foundries, laun- 
dries, wood-working establishments and 
cement, paper, and textile mills held 
separate sectional meetings to discuss 
the detailed technical problems that they 
have to meet. Beside these there was a 
section on safeguarding machinery, and 
a medical section that held largely at- 
tended meetings. 

Another interesting feature was tin 
attitude of the congress toward the 
liquor question. The safety movement 
seems to be taking very seriously the 
relation of intoxicants to work-acci- 
dents. One delegate told of a "Water- 
wagon Club" organized in an Ohio fac- 
tory. About half the employes joined 
the club. 

During the year following its or- 
ganization there were forty-three seri- 
ous accidents among members of the 
club, and over a hundred among non- 
members. If the water-wagon men bad 
been injured in tne same ratio as the 
others, there would have been one hun- 
dred and one serious accidents among 
them instead of forty-three. So com- 
pletely do the safety men disapprove ,-• 



Common Welfare 



123 



the use of intoxicants that they not 
only refused John Barleycorn a ticket 
to their banquet but they had printed on 
the program, "No alcoholic liquors will 
be served." 

Emphasis was laid on the duty of the 
state to safeguard its citizens. "The 
business of government," said Governor 
Brumbaugh, "is to make it easy for the 
people to keep strong and well." The 
governor pointed to the recently adopted 
compensation law in Pennsylvania as a 
step in that direction, a sentiment that 
was echoed by Edson S. Lott, of the 
United States Casualty Company of 
New York, when he arose to speak. 
"A compensation law," said Mr. Lott, 
"is in these days one of the tests by 
which men judge the social status of the 
state." 

The broadest possible extension of 
the safety movement was suggested by 
Mayor Blankenburg when he said: "I 
believe if you make a success of this 
movement in America it will not be 
long until we shall have an international 
safety council that shall have as its end 
the prevention of war." 

Keen interest in medical supervision 
was manifested by the large number of 
delegates who attended the meeting de- 
voted to that subject. It was evident 
from the papers read that there is a 
rapidly increasing tendency to insist on 
physical examinations of all applying 
for work, especially in states which have 
passed workmen's compensation laws. 
There was much discussion over the 
unfit who are weeded out by this pro- 
cess and it is a significant sign of the 
times that practically all of the speak- 
ers advocated state insurance against 
sickness and old age. 

Dr. Alice Hamilton pointed out that 
placing the examination in the hands of 
state or municipal health departments 
would go far toward removing the ob- 
jection that labor men now have to- 
ward physical examinations. She said 
that workingmen are suspicious of com- 
pany physicians and consider that the 
examination is only to protect the in- 
terests of the employer. They also see 
in the practice an opportunity to weed 
out union men. 

Most interesting of all the meetings 
in some respects was the final general 
discussion attended by all the delegates, 
each of whom was allowed three min- 
utes to express his views as to how to 
start a safety campaign and how to get 
managers and men alike interested in 
the question. Whether the management 
-can be convinced on humane grounds or 
whether it has to be shown cost-sheets, 
were among the questions. The pre- 
vailing opinion seemed to be that while 
the managers are as humane as any- 

fbody, it is as well to get their attention 
by showing them how money can be 
saved by taking precautionary measures 
to avoid accidents. 



PUTTING TEN MILLION DOLLARS 
TO WuRK 

If you had ten million dollars to 
give for charitable purposes, what would 
you do with it? Easy! I'd give it for 
an institution for orphan girls. 

So Robert N. Carson of Philadelphia 
thought when he left a fund which 
amounts to $3,500,000 for orphan girls, 
six to ten years of age who have lost 
both father and mother. 

So Charles E. Ellis of Philadelphia 
thought when he left a fund which 
amounts to $4,500,000 for fatherless girls 
under thirteen. 

So John Edgar Thomson thought 
when he left a fund which amounts to 
$1,800,000 for girls whose fathers were 
killed in the discharge of their duties. 

So Eliza Howard Burd thought when 
she left a fund which amounts to $700,- 
000 for orphan girls of legitimate birth, 
four to eight years old. 

These four foundations amount to 
$10,500,000. Only the Burd School has 
any buildings and they propose to 
abandon their present plant and build 
entirely new. 

Here were ten million dollars of new 
money in and around Philadelphia, to 
be used for girls, in addition to ten 
millions more invested in institutions 
already established. The question was, 
how to put this sum to work. 

The trustees of Carson College for 
Orphan Girls found themselves hedged 
in by the provisions of Mr. Carson's 
will which provided that the college 
should receive "poor white healthy 
girls," both parents dead, not under six 
or over ten years, not coming from any 
other institution, and legally surrender- 
ed by guardians, relatives or public au- 
thorities. The trustees discovered that 
it would be difficult to carry on the 
"college" under these restrictions. They, 
therefore, sought the advice of the De- 
partment of Child-helping of the Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation. 

The department brought about a con- 
sultation with the authorities of Charles 
E. Ellis College, which resulted in an 
agreement to co-ordinate and harmonize 
their work, and a call for a conference 
of vocational and educational authori- 
ties to consider their situation and ad- 
vise them. With these experts, called 
from several states, met Gov. M. G. 
Brumbaugh of Pennsylvania, and two 
representatives of the federal govern- 
ment — P. P. Claxton, commissioner of 
education, and Julia C. Lathrop, chief 
of the Children's Bureau. It was quick- 
ly and clearly brought out that the full 
orphan is a small factor in Philadel- 
phia's problem of dependent children, as 
only about 10 per cent of orphanage 
children and about 2 per cent of chil- 
dren placed out have lost both parents; 
while 29 existing institutions have terms 
of admission almost identical with the 
two proposed "colleges." 

Representatives of local institutions 



caring for girls of like classes with 
those included in the plans of the two 
new institutions described to the con- 
ference their facilities for the vocation- 
al education of girls. It was apparent 
that not more than two or three of them 
had any adequate plans or machinery 
for the vocational education of the older 
girls under their care. 

It was generally agreed that the 
problem must be largely vocational ; 
that the work of all the institutions in 
Pennsylvania which care for girls ought 
to be considered together and that an 
effort should be made to co-ordinate and 
harmonize their vocational work; that 
the classes of girls admissible should be 
enlarged so as to include not only girls 
who had lost one or both parents by 
death, but also those who were practi- 
cally orphans through the desertion, un- 
faithfulness or incompetency of their 
natural parents. J. Prentice Murphy of 
Boston and L. B. Bernstein of New 
York urged that the two colleges should 
not confine themselves to the institu- 
tional method but should find ways to 
avail themselves of foster homes. 

A committee on conclusions, consist- 
ing of Dr. John C. Frazee, Martha P. 
Falconer, Laura D. Gill, Prof. Albert 
Bushnell Hart and Bromley Wharton, 
summed up the results of the conference. 
They commended the course of the trus- 
tees in their preliminary study and 
urged its continuance, advising them to 
erect no buildings until a definite pro- 
gram had been determined. They called 
attention to the fact that there are no 
women on either board of trustees. 
They advised that the two "colleges" be 
looked upon as homes, where the girls 
will receive such teaching as cannot 
otherwise be provided. They advised 
that, so far as possible, the girls be 
linked with the outer world by being 
sent to the public schools, and later on 
to trade schools; and that they ought to 
have a basal education in literature and 
art. 

It was suggested that they be given 
the kind of domestic training they would 
get in a good home and as much free 
outdoor life as possible, with some in- 
struction in gardening and poultry-rais- 
ing. It was recommended also that each 
girl should have at least two years' vo- 
cational education specialized to the oc- 
cupation which she expects to enter. 

The conference discussed the possi- 
bility of co-ordinating the work of all 
the institutions for girls. Carson and 
Ellis institutions are to be located near 
Philadelphia. A suggestion which was 
very favorably received proposed that 
these institutions erect and maintain a 
joint industrial training plant some- 
where in the city, for the vocational in- 
struction of their older girls; and that, 
if possible, this plant be made a sort of 
industrial university, open to the older 
girls of practically all the child-caring 
institutions of Philadelphia and vicinity. 



124 



The Survey, November 6, 1915 



A 



S TO SCHOOL DESKS, SPINES 
AND EYE-STRAIN 



To the office of Dr. E. A. Rosen- 
berg, district diagnostician of the New 
York Department of Health, came a boy 
of twelve years, small for his age, and 
of poor muscular development. He had 
a distinct lateral curvature of the spine, 
and a perceptible degree of myopia 
(short-sightedness). 

Three years before, the boy had shown 
on examination no spinal curvature, and 
his vision was then normal. Meantime, 
he had been at school. Was there a 
causal relationship between that fact 
and his present condition? Dr. Rosen- 
berg's conviction is that just such a 
causal relationship did exist in this case, 
and does in many others. 

He visited certain newly built schools 
in New York and noted attentively the 
conditions of seating and lighting. These 
schools he found equipped with desks 
and chairs adjustable for height, — but 
none of the teachers questioned knew 
this fact, and no adjustment of the furni- 
ture had been made, such as to allow 
the smallest children to have the lowest 
desks in the front row. The teachers 
urged the children to "sit up straight" 
while a photograph was being taken ; 
but Dr. Rosenberg noticed that after a 
moment in a strained, stiffly-erect posi- 
tion, the children relapsed into the accus- 
tomed slouch, bending to bring the eyes 
nearer to a book, or holding the feet 
and knees sideways for room and so 
twisting the body at the waist. 

Dr. Rosenberg followed his report of 
this investigation with the recommenda- 
tions that teachers be required to make 
practical use of their knowledge regard- 
ing proper posture; that the Board of 
Education issue orders to have seats ad- 
justed at the opening of every term and 
as often thereafter as necessary; that 
medical inspectors of schools extend 
their supervision to conditions which 
must create defeat, instead of only 
remedying the defects thus created. 

The physiological facts back of such 
results Dr. Rosenberg gives as follows: 

"Congenital myopia does not occur. 
Newly born children are practically al- 
ways hypermetropic. ... It has been 
proven that acquired myopia is almost 
exclusively found in individuals who are 
compelled to over-exert their eyes by 
continual near vision. Other factors to 
be reckoned with are : 

"A. Predisposition, probably ana- 
tomic peculiarities in the structure of 
the eyeball. 

"B. Conditions which compel the 
eyes to over-accommodate and over-con- 
verge. That is, where the printed page 
or work is continuously held too close to 
the eye." 

Dr. Rosenberg's report and recom- 
mendations are endorsed by a special 
committee of the New York Academy of 
Medicine. The committee refers to an 
analysis of over 200,000 published ex- 



aminations of students' eyes, in which 
it was shown that "myopia, extremely 
rare or entirely absent before the be- 
ginning of the educational process, was 
found to advance steadily in percentage 
with the pupils' progress in school." 

In 1897, St. Petersburg pupils showed 
13.6 per cent of myopia in the first 
grade, and 42.8 in the eighth; Philadel- 
phia figures are 4.27 per cent of myopia 
at eight years of age, and 19.33 at seven- 
teen ; village schools in Germany showed 
1.4 per cent in village schools, 26.2 in 
gymnasia (high schools), and 59.5 in 
universities. 



A 



N ALL AMERICAN CHILD WEL- 
FARE CONGRESS 



B 



OY SCOUTS SAY THEY ARE 
NOT ANTI-MILITARY 



For years past officials of the 
Boy Scouts of America have defended 
themselves against charges that they 
give military training to boys and tend 
to foster a military spirit. So success- 
ful has been their defense that, in this 
war year, they have had to issue an an- 
nouncement that they are not anti- 
military. 

The question whether or not the scouts 
are anti-military came up through the 
scout executive of Brooklyn who saw 
the need of raising it, he said, 

"partly through the natural interest of 
any group of men gathered together in 
the different phases of the discussion 
now going on throughout the country, 
and partly through a statement made 
by Mr. Langstaff, who had just returned 
from Plattsburg [military encampment] 
and who said that he had found General 
Wood and other officers there of the 
opinion that the Boy Scout organization 
is either indifferent to this problem or is 
anti-military." 

Resolutions were passed at the next 
meeting of the executive board of the 
National Council of the Boy Scouts of 
America stating that it would be "inap- 
propriate to take any action with refer- 
ence to any question of policy for the 
United States government in matters 
capable of difference of opinion of a po- 
litical character," and denning the Boy 
Scout position as follows: 

"First, that the Boy Scout movement 
is not anti-military. The Boy Scout 
movement neither promotes nor discour- 
ages military training, its one concern 
being the development of character and 
personal efficiency of adolescent boys. 

"Second, that the records show that 
the logical result of the program which 
the Boy Scout movement is promoting 
is in reality as strong a factor as any 
other one agency which the country now 
has for preparedness, since it develops 
the character of hoys and assists them in 
securing a proper conception of a citi- 
zen's responsibility. 

"Third, furthermore, boys who have 
been scouts will, because of their train- 
ing under the motto 'Be Prepared.' prove 
themselves more virile and efficient in 
any emergency which calls for their ser- 
vices as citizens of the country." 



While the United States strug- 
gles with problems of child care the na- 
tions to the south of Panama do likewise. 
The health and leisure of children are 
being discussed and legislated upon in 
the plains of the Parana and along the 
watersheds of the Cordilleras. Ameri- 
can social workers are soon to have an 
opportunity to meet and hear the leaders 
from these other countries. 

Two years ago the Argentine Nation- 
al Child Welfare Congress decided to 
commemorate the one hundredth anni- 
versary of Argentine independence in 
1916 by holding a conference, to which 
would be invited the social workers of 
other countries in the western hemi- 
sphere. Accordingly the first American 
Congress on Child Welfare will meet at 
Tucuman, Argentine Republic, next 
July. The twenty-one South American 
republics and the countries of North 
America will probably be represented. 

The congress will be divided into- 
seven sections — law, industrial legisla- 
tion, aid to mothers and children, hy- 
giene, education, psychology and soci- 
ology. Organizations engaged in child 
welfare work are invited to send dele- 
gates and to exhibit charts and other 
pertinent material of interest. The ex- 
ecutive committee is composed of lead- 
ing social workers of the Argentine- 
Other South American countries have ap- 
pointed co-operating committees. Tucu- 
man, a city of 80,000, is 700 miles north 
of Buenos Aires and is situated 1,500- 
feet above sea level. 

Dr. Julietta Santeri Renshaw, presi- 
dent of the executive committee of the 
congress, has appointed Harry Erwin 
Bard, secretary of the Pan-American 
Society of the United States, a repre- 
sentative in New York to form a com- 
mission to co-operate in promoting an 
interest in the congress in this country. 

"No better opportunity could be im- 
agined," says Mr. Bard, "for those in 
the United States interested in closer 
social, intellectual and cultural relations 
or with the peoples of the other republics 
than is afforded by this congress; no- 
subject could form a better basis for 
profitable discussion than the child. I 
am particularly glad that the call for 
this congress comes from Argentina, as 
this will serve to bring to many of our 
people a better understanding of the 
progress made in improving the condi- 
tion of the child and of the methods 
employed in that splendid country. 

Additional subjects for discussion may 
be presented for consideration by the 
executive committee up to December 31. 
Copies of the program as now worked 
out can lie secured from Edward N. 
Clopper. National Child Labor Commit- 
tee. 105 East 22 street. New York city. 
The National Child Labor Committee 
will be glad to hear from all interested 
in forming a delegation. 






Common Welfare 



125 



# m £ 



4 su 15 



If the tubercle bacillus is a 
cosmopolitan of the first rank, so is 
the organized movement against it. 
The Council on Public Health of the 
China Medical Missionary Associa- 
tion, Shanghai, has put the familiar 
story into a calendar, reproduced in 
the adjoining columns, and furnishes 
the following translation of the text: 

"Two brothers have tuberculosis 
(upper middle picture). See Brother 
Lean going out of the door? He is 
going to try the new method of cur- 
ing tuberculosis about which an intel- i 
ligent friend told him. Smiling 
Brother Fat scoffs at his brother. He 
is saying, 'Go ahead and carry out 
these foolish ideas! Within a few 
years men will know who is the 
wiser of us two.' They part. 

"Brother Lean tries out the new 
method faithfully (three pictures to 
the right). But to do this, he had to 
revolutionize his way of living. This 
cost him considerable effort. His 
life depended upon the result. He 
had tried everything he had heard 
about to cure tuberculosis and failed 
to get well. From time to time he 
visited a good doctor friend of his 
who told him just what to do. Note 
the facilities for cleanliness, rest, 
good food, sunshine, fresh air and 
exercise. 

"Brother Lean got fat (numbers 3 
and 4). All his many friends mar- 
veled at the change in him. So 
Brother Lean (now fat) invited 
some of them to a feast at which he 
made a speech. He told them the 
story of the last few years, and how 
the method of living which had cured 
him was the very one by which all 
could prevent tuberculosis. They 
were all astonished when he told them 
that some one died of this disease in 
China every 37 seconds. Before his 
guests returned home, he distributed 
some copies of the anti-tuberculosis cal- 
endar story, which he had secured from 
his good doctor friend. 

"Brother Fat got thin. And no won- 
der ! Look at the way in which he lived 
(three pictures to the left) ! Note the 
suggestions of filth, bad air, stuffy bed, 
lack of sunshine, irregular and seden- 
tary habits, poor food and patent medi- 
cines. 

"Brother Fat died (number 4, left). 
And what is most deplorable is the fact 
that some of those with whom Brother 
Fat lived, and who are now seen mourn- 
ing his death, became infected with the 
tubercle bacilli which careless Brother 
Fat scattered about everywhere. It is a 
pity (-hat some of these mourners will in 
turn be mourned within a few years. 

"The brothers meet again (bottom pic- 
ture) at a newly-made family grave. 
One of them is on the inside, the other 
on the outside of the grave." 




L 



ABOR CONDITIONS NOT A BAR 
AT ELLIS ISLAND 



The United States Supreme 
Court has rendered a decision in the 
case of two Russians, Gegiow and Os- 
setes, that immigration authorities are 
not authorized to take into account in- 
dustrial conditions in the city to which 
an immigrant is destined as bearing 
upon the question of whether or not he 
is likely to become a public charge and 
therefore subject to deportation. 

The two wayfarers from the distant 
Caucasus region of Russia landed at 
Ellis Island in January, 1914. They are 
described by their counsel, Max J. 
Kohler of New York city, as "young 
men, farm laborers, of fine physique, 
having $25 and $40 respectively in cash, 
had paid their own passage money and 
had railroad tickets to Portland, Ore., 
where the one had an uncle and the 
other a friend desirous of helping them 



get employment and of aiding them 
meantime." 

They were excluded on the ground 
that they were likely to become public 
charges because, Mr. Kohler says, news- 
paper reports had it that Portland at 
that time was in the midst of an indus- 
trial depression. 

Mr. Kohler holds that the decision 
settles a controversy of long standing 
which has grown up over interpretations . 
of the likely-to-become-public-charges. 
clause in the immigration law by the- 
Ellis Island authorities. 

In the course of the Supreme Court 
decision Justice Holmes wrote: 

"It would be an amazing argument 
for immigration officials to refuse ad- 
mission to the United States because the 
labor market in the United States was 
overburdened, and yet that would be 
more reasonable than refusal to admit 
because of reported conditions in one 
city." 



126 



The Survey, November 6, 1915 



NEW HEALTH COMMISSIONER 
IN NEW YORK 

On November 1, the New York 
Department of Health will repay its 
loan to Mt. Sinai Hospital (see The 
Survey of January 31, 1914), for Dr. 
Sigismund S. Goldwater entered upon 
his work as commissioner of the city 
department only under leave of absence 
from that hospital, in which he held the 
position of superintendent and to which 
he now returns. 

During the two years of Dr. Gold- 
water's direction, the department, al- 
ready one of the most efficient of mu- 
nicipal organizations, has broadened and 
deepened its activities to a degree that 
offers stimulus and challenge to every 
other health agency in the country. He 
has materially increased the efficiency of 
the department — an achievement the 
more remarkable because it has been 
accompanied by a decrease in the bud- 
get. The budget for 1913 was $3,598,- 
383; that for the present year was $3,- 
357,943. 

Moreover, during this time, he has 
not only placed all the important super- 
visory positions in the department on a 
full-time basis, with appropriate com- 
pensation to the incumbents, but has ex- 
tended the work of the department in a 
number of important directions. 

Dr. Goldwater has organized the Di- 
vision of Industrial Hygiene, to carry 
on a much-needed intensive study of 
people in many different occupations, 
and which within six months has ex- 
amined at its clinic sometimes 175 food- 
handlers in a day. The division has won 
favorable recognition from labor unions, 
fur manufacturers, the Hotel Associa- 
tion and other organizations realizing 
the economic value of hygienic methods. 

Commissioner Goldwater has started 
a most vigorous anti-alcohol campaign. 
He has secured the co-operation of such 
private organizations as the Association 
for Labor Legislation, the Jewish Com- 
munity, the Boy Scouts of America ; pub- 
lic officials and representatives of col- 
leges and universities, of the Brewers' 
Association, Press Club, wholesale 
• grocers, and the army post at Govern- 
or's Island. 



The establishment of a Bureau of 
Public Health Education is another im- 
portant development under Dr. Gold- 
water's direction. In addition to the 
publication of the Weekly Bulletin, sent 
to all physicians, school principals, 
clergymen and others in the city of New 
York, this bureau now issues monthly a 
series of fifteen different Neighborhood 
Health Chronicles, printed in English, 
Italian, Yiddish, Polish, etc. Another 
periodical, School Health News, is sent 
to over 20,000 school teachers in the 
city. 

The Division of Statistical Research, 
recently organized, promises, as its name 
suggests, to become a center of vital 
civic and social information. Dr. Gold- 
water's influence was felt upon the sub- 
way management, both in securing the 
maintenance of the winter schedule for 
the summer season, and also in minimiz- 
ing the over-crowding of cars. The 
present ordinance prevents a car from 
carrying passengers to more than one 
and one-half times its seating capacity. 
The prevention of the discharge of sew- 
age effluent into Lake Mohansic, was 
largely due to Dr. Goldwater's influence. 

Perhaps the most widely known 
achievement of Dr. Goldwater's admin- 
istration is his vigorous fight against 
fraudulent patent medicines. The regu- 
lation, which goes into effect January 1, 
1916, that no proprietary medicine may 
be sold in Greater New York unless its 
formula is registered with the Board of 
Health, raised at the time of its first an- 
nouncement some vigorous protests 
which were, after all, their own con- 
demnation. 

Dr. Goldwater will be succeeded by 
Dr. Haven Emerson, present deputy- 
commissioner and sanitary superintend- 
ent of the department. This is the first 
occasion on which the deputy-commis- 
sioner has succeeded to the chief posi- 
tion in the department. Dr. Emerson's 
long connection with the department 
gives him not only the insight into 
its policy and methods, with which he 
has the profoundest sympathy and which 
he will continue and further, but gives 
him also a practical experience with 
local conditions enviable for an officer 
undertaking so large a task. 



HYGIENE FOR ITALY AT HOME 
AND AFIELD 

Italy is making determined 
efforts to safeguard the nation's health 
during war. Under the direction of 
Queen Helena, the entire first floor of 
the Quirinal has been made into a hos- 
pital for the soldiers, and more than two 
hundred beds now fill this space in the 
royal palace. Strict measures are be- 
ing enforced, in the army and in some 
civilian groups, to guard against im- 
ported disease. Anti-cholera vaccination 
in the army is compulsory ; and in the 
province of Naples all suspected dysen- 
tery is reportable under severe penalty. 
In Milan, an organization of Italian 
physicians is actively preparing and dis- 
tributing leaflets urging hygiene among 
soldiers and their families, for the sake 
of the individual and of the nation. 
These leaflets discuss venereal disease, 
the effects of alcohol, the prevention of 
pellagra and of tuberculosis, and also 
advocate social legislation. By way of 
illustrating the style and contents of 
these leaflets, a translation of that on 
alcohol is made by Louis H. Dublin, 
statistician of the Metropolitan Life In- 
surance Company: 

"The Injurious Effects of Alcohol and 
of the Abuse of Wine. 

"The Austrian accusation that our 
soldiers are worked up to the impetus of 
a formidable charge by alcoholic intoxi- 
cation is an infamous calumny. 

"The soldiers of Italy fight serene and 
conscious that right and justice are on 
their side. 

"Alcohol is a poison. 

"He who is wise enough to remain ab- 
stinent may be proud of offering a salu- 
tary example to those who show them- 
selves to be intemperate. 

"One lives best and in perfect health 
without drinking even a drop of wine. 

"Do not trust to your ability to bear 
the effects of wine. It is this which 
leads to the greatest and most insidious 
danger, chronic intoxication, which can 
bring one to the hospital and to the mad- 
house. 

"The excitement produced by alcohol 
lasts for a short time and leaves a 
greater weakness, diminishing the re- 
sistance to the hardships and fatigues of 
war." 






THE NURSE 

[This verse is a byproduct of an operation.] 
Herbert Cressy 

PVRT was she of the pure whiteness of the room, 
\nd extra hands for the surgeon, deft and un- 
failing. 

At times she swung with unflinching hand the 
mallet 

That drove crashing home the bone-splintering 
chisel, 

At times staunched the flowing blood with a pale 
compassion 

That did me good inside, and heartened me 

To set my teeth, and have another go at it. 




The LANTERN BEARERS 

A SERIES OF ESSAYS EXPLOR- 
ING SOME THOROUGHFARES 
OF THE PEOPLE'S LEISURE 




VI 

A Parenthetical Chapter 



Anthony Comstock— Liberal 



ANTHONY COMSTOCK is dead. 
His passing gives occasion for 
thought, and not only to those 
who would "see the world in 
a grain of sand." Comstock partly em- 
bodied and partly caricatured an epoch, 
and neither in his sound nor his un- 
sound ideals does he belong wholly to 
the past. 

The censorship point of view develop- 
ed in this series of articles is utterly at 
variance with the point of view and 
methods of Comstock. But this is partly 
because the field of problems has been a 
different one, partly because the examin- 
ation has been carried out from a per- 
spective widely different from that of 
Comstock yet not necessarily contradic- 
tory to his. Viewing the bulk of Com- 
stock's work over forty-seven years, 
there is much that every rational being 
must approve. 

Anthony Comstock became during his 
lifetime, to the sophisticated public, a 
myth, a symbol, a personified rednctio 
ad absurdum. That he was a very hu- 
man being who struggled, who believed, 
who suffered and served — above all, 
who believed — one finds it hard to 
realize. We all dread ridicule. We may 
be sure that Comstock suffered under it. 
He elaborated his creed of fanatical 
repression, and drew about him a group 
of like disposition, in order to provide 
sanction in his own mind as well as to 
publicly effect what he was emotionally 
constrained to do. There is something 
even of tragedy in his life. It is tragic 
to see one's own excess of determina- 
tion reversed by the progress of events 
until it becomes a negation of results. 

Let us roughly classify Comstock's 
work. 

He warred against the organized, com- 
mercialized promotion of obscenity 
among the young. None would defend 
the business promotion of obscenity, but 
Comstock was the first man to compel 
social attention to this evil in this coun- 
try. He remained till the end of his 



By yohn Collier 



SECRETARY COMMUNITY EXTENSION COMMITTEE, 

PEOPLE'S INSTITUTE; FOUNDER, WITH CHARLES 

SPRAGUE SMITH, OF THE NATIONAL BOARD 

OF CHNSORSHIP 

life the most important agent in this 
necessary work, leaving to those who 
come after him the less onerous task of 
preventing a relapse into the old vile- 
nesses. 

Comstock's indefatiguable work in the 
suppression of lotteries again hardly in- 
vites debate. 

From this point outward, Comstock's 
work becomes debatable as to aims, and 
less than debatable as to methods. His 
failure to discriminate between sex hy- 
giene and obscenity, between sociologi- 
cal drama and pornographic postcards, 
scarcely did harm — rather, it caused 
multitudes of people to think. One im- 
portant phase of Comstock's activity 
was, according to the writers view, radi- 
cally pernicious — namely, his indiscrim- 
inate proscription and persecution of 
venders, propagandists and publishers 
who made bold to encourage and facili- 
tate a limited birth-rate.